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Looking at the Environmental Mutagenesis and Genomics Society Through the Lens of Bibliometric Data Analysis: Identifying Relationships and Areas for Growth [Meeting Abstract]

Weston, EH; Mantooth, SN; Knight, EN; Klein, CB; Ward, JB; Banda, M; Nicolette, JJ; Smith-Roe, SL
ISSN: 1098-2280
CID: 2696122

Frontal Cortex Transcriptome Analysis of Mice Exposed to Electronic Cigarettes During Early Life Stages

Lauterstein, Dana E; Tijerina, Pamella B; Corbett, Kevin; Akgol Oksuz, Betul; Shen, Steven S; Gordon, Terry; Klein, Catherine B; Zelikoff, Judith T
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), battery-powered devices containing nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, flavorings, and other substances, are increasing in popularity. They pose a potential threat to the developing brain, as nicotine is a known neurotoxicant. We hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes during early life stages induce changes in central nervous system (CNS) transcriptome associated with adverse neurobiological outcomes and long-term disease states. To test the hypothesis, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed daily (via whole body inhalation) throughout gestation (3 h/day; 5 days/week) to aerosols produced from e-cigarettes either with nicotine (13-16 mg/mL) or without nicotine; following birth, pups and dams were exposed together to e-cigarette aerosols throughout lactation beginning at postnatal day (PND) 4-6 and using the same exposure conditions employed during gestational exposure. Following exposure, frontal cortex recovered from ~one-month-old male and female offspring were excised and analyzed for gene expression by RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq). Comparisons between the treatment groups revealed that e-cigarette constituents other than nicotine might be partly responsible for the observed biological effects. Transcriptome alterations in both offspring sexes and treatment groups were all significantly associated with downstream adverse neurobiological outcomes. Results from this study demonstrate that e-cigarette exposure during early life alters CNS development potentially leading to chronic neuropathology.
PMID: 27077873
ISSN: 1660-4601
CID: 2078432

Dysregulation of DNA methylation induced by past arsenic treatment causes persistent genomic instability in mammalian cells

Mauro, Maurizio; Caradonna, Fabio; Klein, Catherine B
The mechanisms by which arsenic-induced genomic instability is initiated and maintained are poorly understood. To investigate potential epigenetic mechanisms, in this study we evaluated global DNA methylation levels in V79 cells and human HaCaT keratinocytes at several time points during expanded growth of cell cultures following removal of arsenite exposures. We have found altered genomic methylation patterns that persisted up to 40 cell generations in HaCaT cells after the treatments were withdrawn. Moreover, mRNA expression levels were evaluated by RT-PCR for DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, HMLH1, and HMSH2 genes, demonstrating that the down regulation of DNMT3A and DNMT3B genes, but not DNMT1, occurred in an arsenic dose-dependent manner, and persisted for many cell generations following removal of the arsenite, offering a plausible mechanism of persistently genotoxic arsenic action. Analyses of promoter methylation status of the DNA mismatch repair genes HMLH1 and HMSH2 show that HMSH2, but not HMLH1, was epigenetically regulated by promoter hypermethylation changes following arsenic treatment. The results reported here demonstrate that arsenic exposure promptly induces genome-wide global DNA hypomethylation, and some specific gene promoter methylation changes, that persist for many cell generations following withdrawal of arsenite, supporting the hypothesis that the cells undergo epigenetic reprogramming at both the gene and genome level that is durable over many cell generations in the absence of further arsenic treatment. These DNA methylation changes, in concert with other known epigenome alterations, are likely contributing to long-lasting arsenic-induced genomic instability that manifests in several ways, including aberrant chromosomal effects. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2015. (c) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
PMID: 26581878
ISSN: 1098-2280
CID: 1848602

E-Cigarette Aerosols Induce Neurobiological and Neurobehavioral Alterations in Mice Exposed during Early Life [Meeting Abstract]

Lauterstein, D. E.; Tijerina, P. B.; Corbett, K.; Gordon, T.; Aschner, M.; Parmalee, N.; Conrad, K.; Allen, J.; Cory-Slechta, D.; Zelikoff, J. T.; Klein, C. B.
ISSN: 0893-6692
CID: 2307642

Epigenetic assays: Updates, benefits, and limitations [Meeting Abstract]

Klein, C B
The burgeoning field of environmental epigenetics relies on a multitude of assays (in vitro, in silico) and in vivo, to assess a variety of epigenetic endpoints following exposures to toxicants and environmental agents. Epigenetic assessments of DNA methylation and histone modification status can be made on a genome-wide basis, or on a genespecific basis, often with differing outcomes depending in part on the dose, the duration of exposure, the cell type and the snapshot of time at which the assessments were made. An update on epigenetic assays, benefits and limitations will be presented, with an emphasis on assays that are cell based and informative using human-exposure relevant doses of several recognized epigenome modifiers, including carcinogenic metals, arsenic, and other examples
ISSN: 0893-6692
CID: 1291792

Current and future prospectives for jobs in science [Meeting Abstract]

Klein, C B
In an economic climate in which federal funding of research continues to decline and the costs of doing science have risen dramatically, the competition for grants and jobs, and especially academic positions in science careers is at an all-time high. EMGS members face ongoing challenges on all fronts. This session will focus on current and future job trends in environmental health sciences, with an emphasis on the types of jobs and the level of education that is required for various job descriptions in basic and applied sciences in environmental health, environmental toxicology, environmental exposures risk assessment and other related job descriptions. It will address the diversity of employment arenas-academia, government and private industry-that are relevant to the EMGS membership. This session will open up discussions that will be of interest to EMGS students, postdocs, early career researchers, and sunset career scientists, as well
ISSN: 0893-6692
CID: 1291802


Chapter by: Klein, Catherine; Costa, Max
in: Handbook on the toxicology of metals by Nordberg, Gunnar; Fowler, Bruce A; Nordberg, Monica [Eds]
Amsterdam : Academic Press, 2014
pp. 1091-1111
ISBN: 9780444594532
CID: 2061012

Building on the past, shaping the future: The environmental mutagenesis and genomics society

Wilson, Thomas E; Demarini, David M; Dertinger, Stephen D; Engelward, Bevin P; Hanawalt, Philip C; Macgregor, James T; Smith-Roe, Stephanie L; Witt, Kristine L; Yauk, Carole L; Ljungman, Mats; Schwartz, Jeffrey L; Klein, Catherine B
In late 2012, the members of the Environmental Mutagen Society voted to change its name to the Environmental Mutagenesis and Genomics Society. Here, we describe the thought process that led to adoption of the new name, which both respects the rich history of a Society founded in 1969 and reflects the many advances in our understanding of the nature and breadth of gene-environment interactions during the intervening 43 years. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 54:153-157, 2013. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
PMID: 23444128
ISSN: 0893-6692
CID: 255582

Harnessing genomics to identify environmental determinants of heritable disease

Yauk, Carole Lyn; Lucas Argueso, J; Auerbach, Scott S; Awadalla, Philip; Davis, Sean R; Demarini, David M; Douglas, George R; Dubrova, Yuri E; Elespuru, Rosalie K; Glover, Thomas W; Hales, Barbara F; Hurles, Matthew E; Klein, Catherine B; Lupski, James R; Manchester, David K; Marchetti, Francesco; Montpetit, Alexandre; Mulvihill, John J; Robaire, Bernard; Robbins, Wendie A; Rouleau, Guy A; Shaughnessy, Daniel T; Somers, Christopher M; Taylor, James G 6th; Trasler, Jacquetta; Waters, Michael D; Wilson, Thomas E; Witt, Kristine L; Bishop, Jack B
Next-generation sequencing technologies can now be used to directly measure heritable de novo DNA sequence mutations in humans. However, these techniques have not been used to examine environmental factors that induce such mutations and their associated diseases. To address this issue, a working group on environmentally induced germline mutation analysis (ENIGMA) met in October 2011 to propose the necessary foundational studies, which include sequencing of parent-offspring trios from highly exposed human populations, and controlled dose-response experiments in animals. These studies will establish background levels of variability in germline mutation rates and identify environmental agents that influence these rates and heritable disease. Guidance for the types of exposures to examine come from rodent studies that have identified agents such as cancer chemotherapeutic drugs, ionizing radiation, cigarette smoke, and air pollution as germ-cell mutagens. Research is urgently needed to establish the health consequences of parental exposures on subsequent generations.
PMID: 22935230
ISSN: 0027-5107
CID: 218222

Impairment of antioxidant defenses as a contributor to arsenite-induced cell transformation

Wu, Jing; Sowinska, Anna; Huang, Xi; Klein, Catherine B; Pelle, Edward; Frenkel, Krystyna
Arsenite (As) causes transformation of human osteogenic sarcoma cells (HOS) when applied continuously at low doses (0.1-0.5 muM) during 8-weeks of exposure. However, the mechanisms by which As transforms human cells are not known. We investigated whether alterations occurred in gene expression and protein levels of antioxidant defense proteins, such as superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and ferritin. In comparison to control HOS cells, 0.1 muM As induced greater cell proliferation and decreased anti-oxidant defenses. The tumor suppressor protein p53 was also decreased at both mRNA and protein levels. Further, pig3 (p53-induced-gene 3), a homolog of NQO1 (NADPH quinone oxidoreductase 1), was also down-regulated after 8 weeks of As challenge. The treatment of HOS cells with dicumarol, a NQO1 inhibitor, caused a dose-dependent decline in p53 protein levels, proving the effect of an antioxidant enzyme on p53 expression and, potentially, down-stream processes. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester, an antioxidant, prevented the As-induced decreases in SOD1, p53, and ferritin mRNA and protein levels. SOD1, p53 and ferritin levels were inversely related to As-induced cell proliferation. Cumulatively, these results strongly suggest that impairment in antioxidant defenses contributes to As-induced human cell transformation and that the p53 pathway is involved in the process.
PMID: 22692362
ISSN: 0966-0844
CID: 177140