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Survival and outcomes in patients with ≥ 25 cumulative brain metastases treated with stereotactic radiosurgery

Benjamin, Carolina Gesteira; Gurewitz, Jason; Kavi, Ami; Bernstein, Kenneth; Silverman, Joshua; Mureb, Monica; Donahue, Bernadine; Kondziolka, Douglas
OBJECTIVE:In the era in which more patients with greater numbers of brain metastases (BMs) are being treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) alone, it is critical to understand how patient, tumor, and treatment factors affect functional status and overall survival (OS). The authors examined the survival outcomes and dosimetry to critical structures in patients treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for ≥ 25 metastases in a single session or cumulatively over the course of their disease. METHODS:A retrospective analysis was conducted at a single institution. The institution's prospective Gamma Knife (GK) SRS registry was queried to identify patients treated with GKRS for ≥ 25 cumulative BMs between June 2013 and April 2020. Ninety-five patients were identified, and their data were used for analysis. Treatment plans for dosimetric analysis were available for 89 patients. Patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics were identified, and outcomes and OS were evaluated. RESULTS:The authors identified 1132 patients with BMs in their institutional registry. Ninety-five patients were treated for ≥ 25 cumulative metastases, resulting in a total of 3596 tumors treated during 373 separate treatment sessions. The median number of SRS sessions per patient was 3 (range 1-12 SRS sessions), with nearly all patients (n = 93, 98%) having > 1 session. On univariate analysis, factors affecting OS in a statistically significant manner included histology, tumor volume, tumor number, diagnosis-specific graded prognostic assessment (DS-GPA), brain metastasis velocity (BMV), and need for subsequent whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT). The median of the mean WB dose was 4.07 Gy (range 1.39-10.15 Gy). In the top quartile for both the highest cumulative number and highest cumulative volume of treated metastases, the median of the mean WB dose was 6.14 Gy (range 4.02-10.15 Gy). Seventy-nine patients (83%) had all treated tumors controlled at last follow-up, reflecting the high and durable control rate. Corticosteroids for tumor- or treatment-related effects were prescribed in just over one-quarter of the patients. Of the patients with radiographically proven adverse radiation effects (AREs; 15%), 4 were symptomatic. Four patients required subsequent craniotomy for hemorrhage, progression, or AREs. CONCLUSIONS:In selected patients with a large number of cumulative BMs, multiple courses of SRS are feasible and safe. Together with new systemic therapies, the study results demonstrate that the achieved survival rates compare favorably to those of larger contemporary cohorts, while avoiding WBRT in the majority of patients. Therefore, along with the findings of other series, this study supports SRS as a standard practice in selected patients with larger numbers of BMs.
PMID: 34952524
ISSN: 1933-0693
CID: 5109192

The incidence and predictors of new brain metastases in patients with non-small cell lung cancer following discontinuation of systemic therapy

London, Dennis; Patel, Dev N; Donahue, Bernadine; Navarro, Ralph E; Gurewitz, Jason; Silverman, Joshua S; Sulman, Erik; Bernstein, Kenneth; Palermo, Amy; Golfinos, John G; Sabari, Joshua K; Shum, Elaine; Velcheti, Vamsidhar; Chachoua, Abraham; Kondziolka, Douglas
OBJECTIVE:Patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) metastatic to the brain are living longer. The risk of new brain metastases when these patients stop systemic therapy is unknown. The authors hypothesized that the risk of new brain metastases remains constant for as long as patients are off systemic therapy. METHODS:A prospectively collected registry of patients undergoing radiosurgery for brain metastases was analyzed. Of 606 patients with NSCLC, 63 met the inclusion criteria of discontinuing systemic therapy for at least 90 days and undergoing active surveillance. The risk factors for the development of new tumors were determined using Cox proportional hazards and recurrent events models. RESULTS:The median duration to new brain metastases off systemic therapy was 16.0 months. The probability of developing an additional new tumor at 6, 12, and 18 months was 26%, 40%, and 53%, respectively. There were no additional new tumors 22 months after stopping therapy. Patients who discontinued therapy due to intolerance or progression of the disease and those with mutations in RAS or receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) pathways (e.g., KRAS, EGFR) were more likely to develop new tumors (hazard ratio [HR] 2.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.33-3.81, p = 2.5 × 10-3; HR 2.51, 95% CI 1.45-4.34, p = 9.8 × 10-4, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:The rate of new brain metastases from NSCLC in patients off systemic therapy decreases over time and is uncommon 2 years after cessation of cancer therapy. Patients who stop therapy due to toxicity or who have RAS or RTK pathway mutations have a higher rate of new metastases and should be followed more closely.
PMID: 34891140
ISSN: 1933-0693
CID: 5110502

Stereotactic radiosurgery for IDH wild type glioblastoma: an international, multicenter study

Bunevicius, Adomas; Pikis, Stylianos; Kondziolka, Douglas; Patel, Dev N; Bernstein, Kenneth; Sulman, Erik P; Lee, Cheng-Chia; Yang, Huai-Che; Delabar, Violaine; Mathieu, David; Cifarelli, Christopher P; Arsanious, David E; Dahshan, Basem A; Weir, Joshua S; Speckter, Herwin; Mota, Angel; Tripathi, Manjul; Kumar, Narendra; Warnick, Ronald E; Peker, Selcuk; Samanci, Yavuz; Barnett, Gene; Hefnawi, Farid El; Al Sideiri, Ghusn; Sheehan, Jason
OBJECTIVE:Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation status is recommended used for diagnosis and prognostication of glioblastoma patients. We studied efficacy and safety of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for patients with recurrent IDH-wt glioblastoma. METHODS:Consecutive patients treated with SRS for IDH-wt glioblastoma were pooled for this retrospective observational international multi-institutional study from institutions participating in the International Radiosurgery Research Foundation. RESULTS:) for IDH-wt glioblastoma. All patients had histories of surgery and chemotherapy with temozolomide, and 98% underwent fractionated radiation therapy. MGMT status was available for 42 patients, of which half of patients had MGMT mutant glioblastomas. During median post-SRS imaging follow-up of 6 months, 52% of patients experienced tumor progression. Median post-SRS progression free survival was 4 months. SRS prescription dose of > 14 Gy predicted longer progression free survival [HR 0.357 95% (0.164-0.777) p = 0.009]. Fifty-percent of patients died during post-SRS clinical follow-up that ranged from 1 to 33 months. SRS treatment volume of > 5 cc emerged as an independent predictor of shorter post-SRS overall survival [HR 2.802 95% CI (1.219-6.444) p = 0.02]. Adverse radiation events (ARE) suggestive of radiation necrosis were diagnosed in 6/55 (10%) patients and were managed conservatively in the majority of patients. CONCLUSIONS:SRS prescription dose of > 14 Gy is associated with longer progression free survival while tumor volume of > 5 cc is associated with shorter overall survival after SRS for IDH-wt glioblastomas. AREs are rare and are typically managed conservatively.
PMID: 34797526
ISSN: 1573-7373
CID: 5049702

Stereotactic radiosurgery for glioblastoma considering tumor genetic profiles: an international multicenter study

Bunevicius, Adomas; Pikis, Stylianos; Kondziolka, Douglas; Patel, Dev N; Bernstein, Kenneth; Sulman, Erik P; Lee, Cheng-Chia; Yang, Huai-Che; Delabar, Violaine; Mathieu, David; Cifarelli, Christopher P; Arsanious, David E; Dahshan, Basem A; Weir, Joshua S; Speckter, Herwin; Mota, Angel; Tripathi, Manjul; Kumar, Narendra; Warnick, Ronald E; Sheehan, Jason P
OBJECTIVE:Molecular profiles, such as isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation and O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) methylation status, have important prognostic roles for glioblastoma patients. The authors studied the efficacy and safety of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for glioblastoma patients with consideration of molecular tumor profiles. METHODS:For this retrospective observational multiinstitutional study, the authors pooled consecutive patients who were treated using SRS for glioblastoma at eight institutions participating in the International Radiosurgery Research Foundation. They evaluated predictors of overall and progression-free survival with consideration of IDH mutation and MGMT methylation status. RESULTS:Ninety-six patients (median age 56 years) underwent SRS (median dose 15 Gy and median treatment volume 5.53 cm3) at 147 tumor sites (range 1 to 7). The majority of patients underwent prior fractionated radiation therapy (92%) and temozolomide chemotherapy (98%). Most patients were treated at recurrence (85%), and boost SRS was used for 12% of patients. The majority of patients harbored IDH wild-type (82%) and MGMT-methylated (62%) tumors. Molecular data were unavailable for 33 patients. Median survival durations after SRS were similar between patients harboring IDH wild-type tumors and those with IDH mutant tumors (9.0 months vs 11 months, respectively), as well as between those with MGMT-methylated tumors and those with MGMT-unmethylated tumors (9.8 vs. 9.0 months, respectively). Prescription dose > 15 Gy (OR 0.367, 95% CI 0.190-0.709, p = 0.003) and treatment volume > 5 cm3 (OR 1.036, 95% CI 1.007-1.065, p = 0.014) predicted overall survival after controlling for age and IDH status. Treatment volume > 5 cm3 (OR 2.215, 95% CI 1.159-4.234, p = 0.02) and absence of gross-total resection (OR 0.403, 95% CI 0.208-0.781, p = 0.007) were associated with inferior local control of SRS-treated lesions in multivariate models. Nine patients experienced adverse radiation events after SRS, and 7 patients developed radiation necrosis at 59 to 395 days after SRS. CONCLUSIONS:Post-SRS survival was similar as a function of IDH mutation and MGMT promoter methylation status, suggesting that molecular profiles of glioblastoma should be considered when selecting candidates for SRS. SRS prescription dose > 15 Gy and treatment volume ≤ 5 cm3 were associated with longer survival, independent of age and IDH status. Prior gross-total resection and smaller treatment volume were associated with superior local control.
PMID: 34740186
ISSN: 1933-0693
CID: 5038522

Survival in Patients with >=5 Brain Metastases From Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Upfront Stereotactic Radiosurgery

Gurewitz, J; Patel, D; Benjamin, C; Donahue, B R; Silverman, J; Mureb, M; Bernstein, K; Kondziolka, D
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE(S): Multiple brain metastases (BM) from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) historically has a dismal prognosis. Advances in systemic therapy for NSCLC have significantly improved survival, but the effect on prognosis in patients with NSCLC and BM is poorly understood. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) may result in local control even with higher numbers of BM. We report survival outcomes of upfront SRS for >=5 BM from metastatic NSCLC. MATERIALS/METHODS: Review of our registry identified 177 patients treated for >=5 BM from NSCLC between 2012 and 2020, and did not undergo prior intracranial radiation or resection.
RESULT(S): Adenocarcinoma was found in 129 patients (73%). EGFR/ALK mutations were identified in 54 patients (31%). The median number of tumors at initial SRS were 8 (range 5-35). 121 patients (68%) were treated for 5-10 BM, 31 patients (18%) for 11-15 BM, and 25 patients (14%) for > 15 BM. The median overall survival (OS) from initial SRS for all patients was 15.1 months (95% CI 11.5-18.7). Survival at 1, 2, and 3 years was 57%, 39%, and 28% respectively. Adenocarcinoma was associated with improved survival compared to non-adenocarcinoma (P < 0.001), median OS 17.1 months (95% CI 11.4-22.9) and median OS 5.7 months (95% CI 2.8-8.6), respectively. Patients with EGFR/ALK mutations had a significantly greater survival time compared to those without (P=0.008), and median OS of 26.3 months (95% CI 19.1-33.6) versus 10.4 months (95% 6.2-14.6). Treatment of 5-10, 11-15, or > 15 tumors at initial GK were not associated with differences in survival (P=0.48). On multivariate analysis, survival benefit remained significant in patients with adenocarcinoma (HR 0.42, 95% CI 0.24-0.72, P=0.002), and patients with EGFR/ALK mutations (HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.37-0.91, P=0.02).
CONCLUSION(S): Patients treated with initial SRS for multiple BM from NSCLC in the modern era demonstrate longer survival as compared with historical reports. Adenocarcinoma subtype, particularly in the setting of EGFR/ALK mutation is associated with improved prognosis, even in patients with higher number of metastases. AUTHOR DISCLOSURE: J. Gurewitz: None. D. Patel: None. C. Benjamin: None. B.R. Donahue: None. J. Silverman: None. M. Mureb: None. K. Bernstein: None. D. Kondziolka: None.
Copyright
EMBASE:636625732
ISSN: 1879-355x
CID: 5082202

Concurrent vs. Sequential Stereotactic Radiosurgery and Immune Checkpoint Inhibition in Melanoma Brain Metastases: An International Cooperative Group Study

Lehrer, E J; Gurewitz, J; Malouff, T D; Bernstein, K; Kondziolka, D; Bonney, P; Patel, S I; Palmer, J D; Fakhoury, K; Rusthoven, C G; Mathieu, D; Deibert, C; Picozzi, P; Jones, B; Lee, C C; Sharma, S; Niranjan, A; Sheehan, J P; Ahluwalia, M; Trifiletti, D M
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE(S): Multiple single institution retrospective studies have suggested that managing melanoma brain metastases (MBM) with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) is associated with improved overall survival (OS) when administered concurrently (within 4 weeks) rather than sequentially (ICI and SRS administered more than 4 weeks apart). However, there is a paucity of data quantifying the risk of developing radiation necrosis (RN) in this setting. MATERIALS/METHODS: The International Radiosurgery Research Foundation approved the analysis. The Kaplan Meier method and log-rank test were used to compare OS and local control (LC) at 1- and 2-years post SRS. Factors associated with the development of RN and OS were further analyzed using logistic and Cox proportional hazards regression models. The null hypothesis was rejected for P < 0.05.
RESULT(S): There were 254 patients with 1,322 MBM treated across 10 international institutions. The median follow-up was 12.9 months, median age was 63 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 51-73 years), BRAF mutation was present in 46.6% of patients, active extracranial disease was present in 70% of patients, and the median Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) was 90. SRS/ICI was administered concurrently in 46.5% of patients. All patients were treated on the stereotactic radiosurgery platform. The median margin dose was 20 Gy (IQR: 18-21 Gy), median number of fractions was 1 (range: 1-4), mean total brain metastasis volume was 3.4 cc and the mean V12 Gy was 8.7 cc. Radiation necrosis occurred in 14.2% of patients (5.9% Grade 1; 5.1% Grade 2; 2.8% Grade 3; 0.4% Grade 4). Overall survival at 1-year was 77.4% vs. 72.1%, and at 2-years was 63.1% vs. 46.1% (P=0.048) for concurrent and sequential therapy, respectively. Local control at 1-year was 91.5% vs. 84.6%, and at 2-years was 84.9% vs. 75.6% (P=0.12) for concurrent and sequential therapy, respectively. On multivariate logistic regression total treated brain metastasis volume (odds radio [OR]: 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.20; P=0.008) was associated with a higher risk of development of RN; however, sequential therapy (OR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.46-2.06; P=0.94), and V12 (OR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.95-1.01; P=0.22) were not statistically significant. On multivariate cox regression, sequential therapy (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.05-2.42; P=0.03) and KPS (HR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.94-0.98; P < 0.001) were prognostic factors for OS, while the presence of extracranial disease (HR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.66-1.59; P=0.90) and age (HR: 1.01; 95% CI: 1.00-1.02; P=0.25) were not prognostic.
CONCLUSION(S): In appropriately selected patients with MBM, concurrent administration of SRS/ICI may be associated with improved OS without an increased risk of RN when compared to sequential therapy. The risk of RN appears to increase with irradiated brain volume; therefore, hypofractionated SRS may be considered in patients with high volume disease. Prospective data are needed to further evaluate these findings. AUTHOR DISCLOSURE: E.J. Lehrer: None. J. Gurewitz: None. T.D. Malouff: ASTRO Bylaws Committee. K. Bernstein: None. D. Kondziolka: None. P. Bonney: None. S.I. Patel: Independent Contractor; Alberta Health Services. Research Grant; Alberta Cancer Foundation. Travel Expenses; University Hospital Foundation. Chair; Alberta Health Services. Co-Director; Alberta Health Services. Manage and screen wish applications; Make-A-Wish Foundation (Northern Alberta Chapter). J.D. Palmer: Research Grant; Varian Medical Systems, The Kroger Company. Consultant; Huron Consulting. Speaker's Bureau; Varian Medical Systems, Depuy Synthes. Advisory Board; Novocure. Member of panel; NCCN.K. Fakhoury: None. C.G. Rusthoven: Employee; SURVIVEiT (nonprofit cancer patient advocacy). Research Grant; Takeda. Advise regarding patient-facing medical content; SURVIVEiT.D. Mathieu: None. C. Deibert: None. P. Picozzi: None. B. Jones: None. C. Lee: None. S. Sharma: None. A. Niranjan: None. J.P. Sheehan: Neuropoint Alliance. M. Ahluwalia: None. D.M. Trifiletti: None.
Copyright
EMBASE:636625577
ISSN: 1879-355x
CID: 5082222

Stereotactic radiosurgery for prostate cancer cerebral metastases: an international multicenter study

Pikis, Stylianos; Bunevicius, Adomas; Lee, Cheng-Chia; Yang, Huai-Che; Zacharia, Brad E; Liščák, Roman; Simonova, Gabriela; Tripathi, Manjul; Kumar, Narendra; Mathieu, David; Perron, Rémi; Peker, Selcuk; Samanci, Yavuz; Gurewitz, Jason; Bernstein, Kenneth; Kondziolka, Douglas; Niranjan, Ajay; Lunsford, L Dade; Mantziaris, Nikolaos; Sheehan, Jason P
OBJECTIVE:As novel therapies improve survival for men with prostate cancer, intracranial metastatic disease has become more common. The purpose of this multicenter study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in the management of intracranial prostate cancer metastases. METHODS:Demographic data, primary tumor characteristics, SRS treatment parameters, and clinical and imaging follow-up data of patients from nine institutions treated with SRS from July 2005 to June 2020 for cerebral metastases from prostate carcinoma were collected and analyzed. RESULTS:Forty-six patients were treated in 51 SRS procedures for 120 prostate cancer intracranial metastases. At SRS, the mean patient age was 68.04 ± 9.05 years, the mean time interval from prostate cancer diagnosis to SRS was 4.82 ± 4.89 years, and extracranial dissemination was noted in 34 (73.9%) patients. The median patient Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score at SRS was 80, and neurological symptoms attributed to intracranial involvement were present prior to 39 (76%) SRS procedures. Single-fraction SRS was used in 49 procedures. Stereotactic radiotherapy using 6 Gy in five sessions was utilized in 2 procedures. The median margin dose was 18 (range 6-28) Gy, and the median tumor volume was 2.45 (range 0.04-45) ml. At a median radiological follow-up of 6 (range 0-156) months, local progression was seen with 14 lesions. The median survival following SRS was 15.18 months, and the 1-year overall intracranial progression-free survival was 44%. The KPS score at SRS was noted to be associated with improved overall (p = 0.02) and progression-free survival (p = 0.03). Age ≥ 65 years at SRS was associated with decreased overall survival (p = 0.04). There were no serious grade 3-5 toxicities noted. CONCLUSIONS:SRS appears to be a safe, well-tolerated, and effective management option for patients with prostate cancer intracranial metastases.
PMID: 34598139
ISSN: 1933-0693
CID: 5178492

Dose to neuroanatomical structures surrounding pituitary adenomas and the effect of stereotactic radiosurgery on neuroendocrine function: an international multicenter study

Pomeraniec, I Jonathan; Xu, Zhiyuan; Lee, Cheng-Chia; Yang, Huai-Che; Chytka, Tomas; Liscak, Roman; Martinez-Alvarez, Roberto; Martinez-Moreno, Nuria; Attuati, Luca; Picozzi, Piero; Kondziolka, Douglas; Mureb, Monica; Bernstein, Kenneth; Mathieu, David; Maillet, Michel; Ogino, Akiyoshi; Long, Hao; Kano, Hideyuki; Lunsford, L Dade; Zacharia, Brad E; Mau, Christine; Tuanquin, Leonard C; Cifarelli, Christopher; Arsanious, David; Hack, Joshua; Warnick, Ronald E; Strickland, Ben A; Zada, Gabriel; Chang, Eric L; Speckter, Herwin; Patel, Samir; Ding, Dale; Sheehan, Darrah; Sheehan, Kimball; Kvint, Svetlana; Buch, Love Y; Haber, Alexander R; Shteinhart, Jacob; Vance, Mary Lee; Sheehan, Jason P
OBJECTIVE:Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) provides a safe and effective therapeutic modality for patients with pituitary adenomas. The mechanism of delayed endocrine deficits based on targeted radiation to the hypothalamic-pituitary axis remains unclear. Radiation to normal neuroendocrine structures likely plays a role in delayed hypopituitarism after SRS. In this multicenter study by the International Radiosurgery Research Foundation (IRRF), the authors aimed to evaluate radiation tolerance of structures surrounding pituitary adenomas and identify predictors of delayed hypopituitarism after SRS for these tumors. METHODS:This is a retrospective review of patients with pituitary adenomas who underwent single-fraction SRS from 1997 to 2019 at 16 institutions within the IRRF. Dosimetric point measurements of 14 predefined neuroanatomical structures along the hypothalamus, pituitary stalk, and normal pituitary gland were made. Statistical analyses were performed to determine the impact of doses to critical structures on clinical, radiographic, and endocrine outcomes. RESULTS:The study cohort comprised 521 pituitary adenomas treated with SRS. Tumor control was achieved in 93.9% of patients over a median follow-up period of 60.1 months, and 22.5% of patients developed new loss of pituitary function with a median treatment volume of 3.2 cm3. Median maximal radiosurgical doses to the hypothalamus, pituitary stalk, and normal pituitary gland were 1.4, 7.2, and 11.3 Gy, respectively. Nonfunctioning adenoma status, younger age, higher margin dose, and higher doses to the pituitary stalk and normal pituitary gland were independent predictors of new or worsening hypopituitarism. Neither the dose to the hypothalamus nor the ratio between doses to the pituitary stalk and gland were significant predictors. The threshold of the median dose to the pituitary stalk for new endocrinopathy was 10.7 Gy in a single fraction (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.17-2.68, p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS:SRS for the treatment of pituitary adenomas affords a high tumor control rate with an acceptable risk of new or worsening endocrinopathy. This evaluation of point dosimetry to adjacent neuroanatomical structures revealed that doses to the pituitary stalk, with a threshold of 10.7 Gy, and doses to the normal gland significantly increased the risk of post-SRS hypopituitarism. In patients with preserved pre-SRS neuroendocrine function, limiting the dose to the pituitary stalk and gland while still delivering an optimal dose to the tumor appears prudent.
PMID: 34560630
ISSN: 1933-0693
CID: 5178412

Commentary: Does Variceal Drainage Affect Arteriovenous Malformation Obliteration and Hemorrhage Rates After Stereotactic Radiosurgery? A Case-Matched Analysis [Comment]

Kondziolka, Douglas
PMID: 34293170
ISSN: 1524-4040
CID: 5039662

Effect of Prior Embolization on Outcomes After Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Pediatric Brain Arteriovenous Malformations: An International Multicenter Study

Burke, Rebecca M; Chen, Ching-Jen; Ding, Dale; Buell, Thomas J; Sokolowski, Jennifer; Sheehan, Kimball A; Lee, Cheng-Chia; Sheehan, Darrah E; Kano, Hideyuki; Kearns, Kathryn N; Tzeng, Shih-Wei; Yang, Huai-Che; Huang, Paul P; Kondziolka, Douglas; Ironside, Natasha; Mathieu, David; Iorio-Morin, Christian; Grills, Inga S; Feliciano, Caleb; Barnett, Gene; Starke, Robert M; Lunsford, L Dade; Sheehan, Jason P
BACKGROUND:Pediatric brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are a significant cause of morbidity but the role of multimodal therapy in the treatment of these lesions is not well understood. OBJECTIVE:To compare the outcomes of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) with and without prior embolization for pediatric AVMs. METHODS:We retrospectively evaluated the International Radiosurgery Research Foundation pediatric AVM database. AVMs were categorized, based on use of pre-embolization (E + SRS) or lack thereof (SRS-only). Outcomes were compared in unadjusted and inverse probability weight (IPW)-adjusted models. Favorable outcome was defined as obliteration without post-SRS hemorrhage or permanent radiation-induced changes (RIC). RESULTS:The E + SRS and SRS-only cohorts comprised 91 and 448 patients, respectively. In unadjusted models, the SRS-only cohort had higher rates of obliteration (68.5% vs 43.3%,  < .001) and favorable outcome (61.2% vs 36.3%, P < .001) but a lower rate of symptomatic RIC (9.0% vs 16.7%, P = .031). The IPW-adjusted rates of every outcome were similar between the 2 cohorts. However, cumulative obliteration rates at 3, 5, 8, and 10 yr remained higher in the absence of prior embolization (46.3%, 64.6%, 72.6%, and 77.4% for SRS-only vs 24.4%, 37.2%, 44.1%, and 48.7% for E + SRS cohorts, respectively; SHR = 0.449 [0.238-0.846], P = .013). CONCLUSION:Embolization appears to decrease cumulative obliteration rates after SRS for pediatric AVMs without affecting the risk of post-treatment hemorrhage or adverse radiation effects arguing against the routine use of pre-SRS embolization. While endovascular therapy can be considered for occlusion of high-risk angioarchitectural features prior to SRS, future studies are necessary to clarify its role.
PMID: 34333653
ISSN: 1524-4040
CID: 5026552