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Development of a computer-aided text message platform for user engagement with a digital Diabetes Prevention Program: a case study

Rodriguez, Danissa V; Lawrence, Katharine; Luu, Son; Yu, Jonathan L; Feldthouse, Dawn M; Gonzalez, Javier; Mann, Devin
Digital Diabetes Prevention Programs (dDPP) are novel mHealth applications that leverage digital features such as tracking and messaging to support behavior change for diabetes prevention. Despite their clinical effectiveness, long-term engagement to these programs remains a challenge, creating barriers to adherence and meaningful health outcomes. We partnered with a dDPP vendor to develop a personalized automatic message system (PAMS) to promote user engagement to the dDPP platform by sending messages on behalf of their primary care provider. PAMS innovates by integrating into clinical workflows. User-centered design (UCD) methodologies in the form of iterative cycles of focus groups, user interviews, design workshops, and other core UCD activities were utilized to defined PAMS requirements. PAMS uses computational tools to deliver theory-based, automated, tailored messages, and content to support patient use of dDPP. In this article, we discuss the design and development of our system, including key requirements and features, the technical architecture and build, and preliminary user testing.
PMID: 34664647
ISSN: 1527-974x
CID: 5043192

Preferences and patterns of response to public health advice during the COVID-19 pandemic

Nov, Oded; Dove, Graham; Balestra, Martina; Lawrence, Katharine; Mann, Devin; Wiesenfeld, Batia
With recurring waves of the Covid-19 pandemic, a dilemma facing public health leadership is whether to provide public advice that is medically optimal (e.g., most protective against infection if followed), but unlikely to be adhered to, or advice that is less protective but is more likely to be followed. To provide insight about this dilemma, we examined and quantified public perceptions about the tradeoff between (a) the stand-alone value of health behavior advice, and (b) the advice's adherence likelihood. In a series of studies about preference for public health leadership advice, we asked 1061 participants to choose between (5) strict advice that is medically optimal if adhered to but which is less likely to be broadly followed, and (2) relaxed advice, which is less medically effective but more likely to gain adherence-given varying infection expectancies. Participants' preference was consistent with risk aversion. Offering an informed choice alternative that shifts volition to advice recipients only strengthened risk aversion, but also demonstrated that informed choice was preferred as much or more than the risk-averse strict advice.
PMID: 34737373
ISSN: 2045-2322
CID: 5038432

Effectiveness of an Integrated Engagement Support System to Facilitate Patient Use of Digital Diabetes Prevention Programs: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

Lawrence, Katharine; Rodriguez, Danissa V; Feldthouse, Dawn M; Shelley, Donna; Yu, Jonathan L; Belli, Hayley M; Gonzalez, Javier; Tasneem, Sumaiya; Fontaine, Jerlisa; Groom, Lisa L; Luu, Son; Wu, Yinxiang; McTigue, Kathleen M; Rockette-Wagner, Bonny; Mann, Devin M
BACKGROUND:Digital diabetes prevention programs (dDPPs) are effective behavior change tools to prevent disease progression in patients at risk for diabetes. At present, these programs are poorly integrated into existing health information technology infrastructure and clinical workflows, resulting in barriers to provider-level knowledge of, interaction with, and support of patients who use dDPPs. Tools that can facilitate patient-provider interaction around dDPPs may contribute to improved patient engagement and adherence to these programs and improved health outcomes. OBJECTIVE:This study aims to use a rigorous, user-centered design (UCD) methodology to develop a theory-driven system that supports patient engagement with dDPPs and their primary care providers with their care. METHODS:at 6 and 12 months. Secondary outcomes will be patient engagement (use and activity) in the dDPP. The mediator variables (self-efficacy, digital health literacy, and patient-provider relationship) will be measured. RESULTS:The project was initiated in 2018 and funded in September 2019. Enrollment and data collection for phase 1 began in September 2019 under an Institutional Review Board quality improvement waiver granted in July 2019. As of December 2020, 27 patients have been enrolled and first results are expected to be submitted for publication in early 2021. The study received Institutional Review Board approval for phases 2 and 3 in December 2020, and phase 2 enrollment is expected to begin in early 2021. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings will provide guidance for the design and development of technology to integrate dDPP platforms into existing clinical workflows. This will facilitate patient engagement in digital behavior change interventions and provider engagement in patients' use of dDPPs. Integrated clinical tools that can facilitate patient-provider interaction around dDPPs may contribute to improved patient adherence to these programs and improved health outcomes by addressing barriers faced by both patients and providers. Further evaluation with pilot testing and a clinical trial will assess the effectiveness and implementation of these tools. TRIAL REGISTRATION/ NCT04049500; INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID)/UNASSIGNED:DERR1-10.2196/26750.
PMID: 33560240
ISSN: 1929-0748
CID: 4779582

Telemedicine and Healthcare Disparities: A cohort study in a large healthcare system in New York City during COVID-19

Chunara, Rumi; Zhao, Yuan; Chen, Ji; Lawrence, Katharine; Testa, Paul A; Nov, Oded; Mann, Devin M
OBJECTIVE:Through the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, telemedicine became a necessary entry point into the process of diagnosis, triage and treatment. Racial and ethnic disparities in health care have been well documented in COVID-19 with respect to risk of infection and in-hospital outcomes once admitted, and here we assess disparities in those who access healthcare via telemedicine for COVID-19 . MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:Electronic health record data of patients at New York University Langone Health between March 19th and April 30, 2020 were used to conduct descriptive and multilevel regression analyses with respect to visit type (telemedicine or in-person), suspected COVID diagnosis and COVID test results. RESULTS:Controlling for individual and community-level attributes, Black patients had 0.6 times the adjusted odds (95%CI:0.58-0.63) of accessing care through telemedicine compared to white patients, though they are increasingly accessing telemedicine for urgent care, driven by a younger and female population. COVID diagnoses were significantly more likely for Black versus white telemedicine patients. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:There are disparities for Black patients accessing telemedicine, however increased uptake by young, female Black patients. Mean income and decreased mean household size of Zip code were also significantly related to telemedicine use. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Telemedicine access disparities reflect those in in-person healthcare access. Roots of disparate use are complex and reflect individual, community, and structural factors, including their intersection; many of which are due to systemic racism. Evidence regarding disparities that manifest through telemedicine can be used to inform tool design and systemic efforts to promote digital health equity.
PMID: 32866264
ISSN: 1527-974x
CID: 4596042

A user-centered design approach to building telemedicine training tools for residents [Meeting Abstract]

Lawrence, K; Cho, J; Torres, C; Arias, V A
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM OR QUESTION (ONE SENTENCE): Can user-centered design (UCD) facilitate the development of novel and effective training tools for the virtual ambulatory learning environment LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1: To identify the needs, preferences, and concerns of resident trainees and attending preceptors regarding the current virtual ambulatory care learning environment. LEARNING OBJECTIVES 2: To apply user-centered design (UCD) strategies to the development of effective tools to enhance the virtual learning experience of trainees and preceptors. DESCRIPTION OF PROGRAM/INTERVENTION, INCLUDING ORGANIZATIONAL CONTEXT (E.G. INPATIENT VS. OUTPATIENT, PRACTICE OR COMMUNITY CHARACTERISTICS): The COVID-19 pandemic spurred a rapid transition to virtual learning environments, the design of which may impact learning experiences and competency development for trainees. User-centered design (UCD) offers a framework to iteratively and collaboratively incorporate needs, preferences, and concerns of users (e.g. trainees and preceptors) in the development of acceptable and effective educational tools. This study applied UCD strategies of empathize, define, ideate, prototype, and test among Internal Medicine residents and outpatient attending preceptors to develop innovations for the virtual ambulatory care learning environment. MEASURES OF SUCCESS (DISCUSS QUALITATIVE AND/OR QUANTITATIVEMETRICSWHICHWILL BEUSEDTOEVALUATE PROGRAM/INTERVENTION): Using the UCD framework, we identified: 1) needs, preferences, and concerns of residents and preceptors in current virtual precepting practices (empathize) 2) key problem areas and pain points (define) 3) potential solutions (ideate) 4) specific products to develop (prototype), deploy, and evaluate (test) in practice FINDINGS TO DATE (IT IS NOT SUFFICIENT TO STATE FINDINGS WILL BE DISCUSSED): Qualitative needs-assessment interviews were conducted among 8 residents and 10 preceptors, which identified key areas of learner need: technical and workflow competency; the virtual precepting experience; patient rapport-building and communication; and documentation requirements. Subsequently, a Design Thinking Workshop focusing on virtual precepting was developed, and 3 workshops were conducted with 12 participants (residents and attendings). Using a three-phase interactive sequence of explore, ideate, and create, participants were divided into 2-or 3-person virtual breakout groups and asked to 1) identify a key problem in current virtual precepting, 2) brainstorm possible solutions, and 3) design and present a low-fidelity prototype of one solution. Key problems identified included: management of technical issues, goal setting for precepting sessions, clinic-specific information dissemination practices, and the loss of shared learning space with colleagues. Potential solutions included: a digital shared-learning plan for residents, a real-time virtual clinical bulletin board, an integrated virtual team huddle, and just-in-time digital chalk talks. Two prototypes are being developed for testing in the live precepting environment. KEY LESSONS FOR DISSEMINATION (WHAT CAN OTHERS TAKE AWAY FOR IMPLEMENTATION TO THEIR PRACTICE OR COMMUNITY): User-centered design can be deployed as an effective strategy to engage learners and preceptors in the design and development of educational innovations for the virtual training environment. We recommend collaborating with residents, preceptors, and other stakeholders in the iterative design of virtual learning tools
ISSN: 1525-1497
CID: 4986532

Using human-centered design to optimize shared multi-use clinical work spaces for clinicians [Meeting Abstract]

Arias, V A; Robinson, S; Luu, S; Lawrence, K; Mann, D
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM OR QUESTION (ONE SENTENCE): In the transition away from traditional doctors' offices, how can we optimize shared multi-use clinical spaces to serve clinicians' needs LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1: Identify ways in which a practice that relies upon shared clinical spaces can remain familiar and effective for clinical work. LEARNING OBJECTIVES 2: Determine how might technology help clinicians develop a sense of belonging, professional pride, and patient rapport in multi-use spaces by allowing them to display personal information and patient education materials related to their practice. DESCRIPTION OF PROGRAM/INTERVENTION, INCLUDING ORGANIZATIONAL CONTEXT (E.G. INPATIENT VS. OUTPATIENT, PRACTICE OR COMMUNITY CHARACTERISTICS): The traditional doctor's office is being rapidly replaced by multi-use clinical environments that combine exam rooms with shared touchdown spaces, promoting efficient use of space & team-based care approach while utilizing network technologies. While potentially efficient & lower-cost, there's a need to assess the impact of these configurations on clinician workflows, professional identity & explore opportunities to improve their build and aesthetics. We conducted need assessment interviews with 9 clinicians, health technologists, 2 operational leaders, shadowed 3 clinicians & conducted 4 site visits across various clinical practices. We then issued a 10-question survey and conducted 2 HCD workshops with 12 clinicians to understand the new conditions of clinical work, their impact on clinicians' professional & personal identity, practice habits, to identify areas for potential optimization to improve clinical workflow & experience. Workshops were divided in three phases: explore, ideate and create. MEASURES OF SUCCESS (DISCUSS QUALITATIVE AND/OR QUANTITATIVEMETRICSWHICHWILL BE USEDTOEVALUATE PROGRAM/INTERVENTION): We report qualitative success metrics used to evaluate the results of the HCD workshops: 1. Understanding of what shared multi-use work spaces mean to participating clinicians. 2. Identified needs, potential concerns and pain points of clinicians and stakeholders. 3. Group generation of potential solutions without bias towards feasibility. 4. Described solutions using quick prototyping tools. FINDINGS TO DATE (IT IS NOT SUFFICIENT TO STATE FINDINGS WILL BE DISCUSSED): Clinicians identified the lack of customization and capability for sharing information about their areas of expertise and tailored patient education materials as the most significant problem, and had privacy concerns about sharing personal information on a digital display. Potential solutions include customizable content display controlled by patients that fosters engagement, exploring education materials, patient testimonials, information about the care team and wait time as well as patient-specific information, such as labs and imaging. KEY LESSONS FOR DISSEMINATION (WHAT CAN OTHERS TAKE AWAY FOR IMPLEMENTATION TO THEIR PRACTICE OR COMMUNITY): The use of the HCD principles helped us better understand the challenges of multi-use spaces for clinicians, and identify potential technology solutions for data sharing, patient education, personalization, and efficiencies. It is crucial to design these spaces and choose appropriate technology solutions that will help reduce patients' anxiety by ensuring privacy, comfort, thorough understanding of care plans and boost collaborative care decision making between clinicians and patients
ISSN: 1525-1497
CID: 4986562

Evaluating underpinning, complexity and implications of ethical situations in humanitarian operations: qualitative study through the lens of career humanitarian workers

Asgary, Ramin; Lawrence, Katharine
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Data regarding underpinning and implications of ethical challenges faced by humanitarian workers and their organisations in humanitarian operations are limited. METHODS:We conducted comprehensive, semistructured interviews with 44 experienced humanitarian aid workers, from the field to headquarters, to evaluate and describe ethical conditions in humanitarian situations. RESULTS:61% were female; average age was 41.8 years; 500 collective years of humanitarian experience (11.8 average) working with diverse major international non-governmental organisations. Important themes included; allocation schemes and integrity of the humanitarian industry, including resource allocation and fair access to and use of services; staff or organisational competencies and aid quality; humanitarian process and unintended consequences; corruption, diversion, complicity and competing interests, and intentions versus outcomes; professionalism and interpersonal and institutional responses; and exposure to extreme inequities and emotional and moral distress. Related concepts included broader industry context and allocations; decision-making, values, roles and sustainability; resource misuse at programme, government and international agency levels; aid effectiveness and utility versus futility, and negative consequences. Multiple contributing, confounding and contradictory factors were identified, including context complexity and multiple decision-making levels; limited input from beneficiaries of aid; different or competing social constructs, values or sociocultural differences; and shortcomings, impracticality, or competing philosophical theories or ethical frameworks. CONCLUSIONS:Ethical situations are overarching and often present themselves outside the exclusive scope of moral reasoning, philosophical views, professional codes, ethical or legal frameworks, humanitarian principles or social constructivism. This study helped identify a common instinct to uphold fairness and justice as an underlying drive to maintain humanity through proximity, solidarity, transparency and accountability.
PMID: 32938603
ISSN: 2044-6055
CID: 4606782

Building Telemedicine Capacity for Trainees During the Novel Coronavirus Outbreak: a Case Study and Lessons Learned

Lawrence, Katharine; Hanley, Kathleen; Adams, Jennifer; Sartori, Daniel J; Greene, Richard; Zabar, Sondra
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Hospital and ambulatory care systems are rapidly building their virtual care capacity in response to the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. The use of resident trainees in telemedicine is one area of potential development and expansion. To date, however, training opportunities in this field have been limited, and residents may not be adequately prepared to provide high-quality telemedicine care. AIM/OBJECTIVE:This study evaluates the impact of an adapted telemedicine Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) on telemedicine-specific training competencies of residents. SETTING/METHODS:Primary Care Internal Medicine residents at a large urban academic hospital. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION/METHODS:In March 2020, the New York University Grossman School of Medicine Primary Care program adapted its annual comprehensive OSCE to a telemedicine-based platform, to comply with distance learning and social distancing policies during the COVID-19 pandemic. A previously deployed in-person OSCE on the subject of a medical error was adapted to a telemedicine environment and deployed to 23 primary care residents. Both case-specific and core learning competencies were assessed, and additional observations were conducted on the impact of the telemedicine context on the encounter. PROGRAM EVALUATION/RESULTS:Three areas of telemedicine competency need were identified in the OSCE case: technical proficiency; virtual information gathering, including history, collateral information collection, and physical exam; and interpersonal communication skills, both verbal and nonverbal. Residents expressed enthusiasm for telemedicine training, but had concerns about their preparedness for telemedicine practice and the need for further competency and curricular development. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:Programs interested in building capacity among residents to perform telemedicine, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic, can make significant impact in their trainees' comfort and preparedness by addressing key issues in technical proficiency, history and exam skills, and communication. Further research and curricular development in digital professionalism and digital empathy for trainees may also be beneficial.
PMID: 32642929
ISSN: 1525-1497
CID: 4518942

Scaling virtual health at the epicentre of coronavirus disease 2019: A case study from NYU Langone Health

Sherwin, Jason; Lawrence, Katharine; Gragnano, Veronica; Testa, Paul A
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has accelerated the drive of health-care delivery towards virtual-care platforms. While the potential of virtual care is significant, there are challenges to the implementation and scalability of virtual care as a platform, and health-care organisations are at risk of building and deploying non-strategic, costly or unsustainable virtual-health systems. In this article, we share the NYU Langone Health enterprise approach to building and scaling an integrated virtual-health platform prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic, and offer lessons learned and recommendations for health systems that need to undertake or are currently undertaking the transition to virtual-care delivery.
PMID: 32686555
ISSN: 1758-1109
CID: 4542622

Moral distress among physician trainees: Drivers, contexts, and adaptive strategies [Meeting Abstract]

McLaughlin, S E; Fisher, H; Lawrence, K; Hanley, K
BACKGROUND: Moral distress is defined as a situation in which an individual believes they know the ethically appropriate action to take but are unable to take that action. The concept of moral distress is increasingly recognized as an important mediator of occupational stress and burnout in medicine, particularly in the nursing profession. However, there is a dearth of literature on moral distress among physician trainees, with the majority focused on dilemmas in end-of-life care. This study explores the phenomenon of moral distress among internal medicine trainees, with particular focus on drivers, situational contexts, and adaptive strategies such as coping mechanisms.
METHOD(S): We report qualitative data from a mixed methods prospective observational cohort study of internal medicine (IM) residents and associated faculty at a large, urban, academic medical institution. Five focus groups were conducted with 15 internal medicine residents (PGY1- 3), between January and October 2019. In each focus group trained facilitators conducted semi-structured interviews using prompts which focused on definitions of, experiences with, and consequences of moral distress. Transcripts were independently coded by investigators, and analyzed by major themes and sub-themes. Discrepant themes and codes were reviewed by the full research team to establish clarity and consensus. Data were analyzed using Dedoose software.
RESULT(S): Focus group participants were equally distributed by gender (7 women, 8 men) and across training year (30% PGY1, 20% PGY2 40% PGY3). Experience with moral distress was universal among participants, and was identified across four major domains: personal values and morals, professional competency and training challenges, interpersonal relationships and conflicts, and systems/structural issues. Participants identified unique, place-based moral distress across different clinical environments, including intensive care units, wards, and outpatient environments, as well as between private, public, and government- run hospital facilities. Participants described a number of adaptive mechanisms for managing moral distress, including social support and connectivity, humor, and disassociation.
CONCLUSION(S): Physician trainees experience considerable moral distress across multiple domains during the course of their training. They also develop unique adaptive strategies and copingmechanisms tomanage and learn from distressing experiences. This improved understanding ofmoral distress among physician trainees, particularly drivers and protective factors, has important implications for the training of physicians, and may have a role in promoting wellness and resilience among physicians across the training and professional pipeline
ISSN: 1525-1497
CID: 4803322