A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Microvascular Stacked and Conjoined-Flap Breast Reconstruction
BACKGROUND:â€ƒStacked and conjoined (SC) flaps are a useful means of increasing flap volume in autologous breast reconstruction. The majority of studies, however, have been limited to smaller, single-center series. METHODS:â€ƒA systematic literature review was performed to identify outcomes-based studies on microvascular SC-flap breast reconstruction. Pooled rates of flap and operative characteristics were analyzed. Meta-analytic effect size estimates were calculated for reconstructive complication rates and outcomes of studies comparing SC flaps to non-SC flaps. Meta-regression analysis identified risk factors for flap complications. RESULTS:â€‰=â€‰0.00%), though rates of any flap and donor-site complication were similar. Age, body mass index, flap weight, and flap donor site and recipient vessels were not associated with increased risk of any flap complication. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:â€ƒA global appraisal of the current evidence demonstrated the safety of SC-flap breast reconstruction with low complication rates, regardless of donor site, and lower rates of fat necrosis compared with non-SC flaps.
Robotic-Assisted Vaginectomy during Staged Gender-Affirming Penile Reconstruction Surgery: Technique and Outcomes
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To report our novel technique and mid-term follow up for robotic-assisted laparoscopic vaginectomy (RALV), a component procedure of staged gender-affirming penile reconstructive surgery (GAPRS). METHODS:The records of patients seeking GAPRS who underwent RALV, performed by a single surgeon at our institution, between May 2016 and January 2020 were reviewed retrospectively for demographic and perioperative data. Patients were included irrespective of history of previous phalloplasty. A subset of these patients elected to have urethral lengthening during second stage phalloplasty for which an anterior vaginal mucosa flap urethroplasty was performed. Postoperative complications and outcomes and most recent follow-up were obtained. RESULTS:A total of 42 patients were reviewed, of whom 19 (45%) patients ultimately had radial forearm free flap, 15 (41%) had anterolateral thigh flap, 5 (12%) had metoidioplasty, and 1 (2.4%) had abdominal phalloplasty. A vaginal mucosa and gracilis flap was used in all of 36 (86%) patients in whom a pars fixa was created. Average operative time was 299 minutes (range 153-506). Median estimated blood loss was 200 ml (range 100-400). Median length of stay was 3 days (range 1-7). Complications within 30 days from surgery occurred in 15 patients (36%), of whom 12/15 were Clavien-Dindo grade 1 or 2, and 11/15 had complications unrelated to vaginectomy. Of the 4 patients who had vaginectomy-related complications, all resolved with conservative management. Median overall follow-up was 15.8 months. CONCLUSIONS:RALV offers a safe and efficient approach during staged gender-affirming penile reconstruction and may mitigate the subsequent risk of urethral complications.
Dangle protocols in lower extremity reconstruction
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Dangling protocols are known to vary by surgeon and center, and their specific regimen is often largely based on single surgeon or institutional experience. A systematic review was conducted to derive evidence-based recommendations for dangling protocols according to patient-specific and flap-specific considerations. METHODS:A systematic review was performed using PubMed, Embase-OVID and Cochrane-CENTRAL. Study design, patient and flap characteristics, protocol details, dangling-related complications, and flap success rate were recorded. Studies were graded using the Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine Levels of Evidence Scale. Data heterogeneity precluded quantitative analysis. RESULTS:Eleven articles were included (level of evidence (range):IIb-IV; N (range):8-150; age (range):6-89). Dangling initiation, time, and frequency varied considerably. Flap success rate ranged from 94 to 100%. Active smoking, diabetes, and hypertension are associated with characteristic physiologic changes that require vigilance and potential protocol modification. Early dangling appears to be safe across a variety of free flap locations, sizes, and indications. Axial fasciocutaneous flaps may tolerate more aggressive protocols than muscular flaps. While flaps with single venous anastomosis tolerate dangling, double venous or flow-through anastomoses may provide additional benefit. Major limitations included small sample sizes, uncontrolled study designs, and heterogeneous patient selection, dangling practices, monitoring methods, and outcome measures. CONCLUSIONS:Significant heterogeneity persists in postoperative dangling protocols after lower extremity microvascular reconstruction. Patient comorbidities and flap characteristics appear to affect tolerance to dangling. We propose two different standardized pathways based on risk factors. Clinical vigilance should be exercised in tailoring lower extremity protocols to patients' individual characteristics and postoperative course.
The Optimal Timing of Traumatic Lower Extremity Reconstruction: Current Consensus
Marko Godina in his landmark paper in 1986 established the principle of early flap coverage for reconstruction of traumatic lower extremity injuries to minimize edema, fibrosis, and infection while optimizing outcomes. However, with the evolution of microsurgery and wound management, there is emerging evidence that timing of reconstruction is not as critical as once believed. Multidisciplinary care with a combined orthopedic and reconstructive approach is more critical for timely and appropriate definite treatment for severe lower extremity injuries.
Management of Gustilo Type IIIC Injuries in the Lower Extremity
Gustilo IIIC injuries of the lower extremity pose a significant challenge to the reconstructive surgeon. Key principles include early vascular repair and serial debridement followed by definitive coverage within 10Â days. Primary reconstructive options following vascular repair include the anterolateral thigh flap or the latissimus dorsi muscle flap. Complications include elevated rates of microvascular thrombosis requiring return to the operating room, partial and complete flap loss, and infection. There is also an elevated rate of secondary amputation. However, in spite of higher complication rates, when approached thoughtfully and with an experienced multidisciplinary team, patients can achieve reasonable functional outcomes.
Comparing outcomes between stacked/conjoined and non-stacked/conjoined abdominal microvascular unilateral breast reconstruction
BACKGROUND:Stacked and conjoined free flaps are increasingly utilized in autologous breast reconstruction to augment tissue transfer volume. However, there is a paucity of comparative data on abdominally-based stacked/conjoined versus non-stacked/conjoined flaps. The purpose of this study was to compare ability to match native breast size, complications, recovery, and symmetrizing procedures between these two cohorts in unilateral breast reconstruction. METHODS:A retrospective review of all stacked (two separate hemiabdominal)/conjoined (bipedicled full abdominal) flaps and non-stacked/conjoined (unipedicled hemiabdominal) flaps in unilateral abdominally-based autologous breast reconstructions was performed from 2011 to 2018. Variables including demographics, operative characteristics, complications, and revisions were compared in 36 stacked/conjoined patients versus 146 non-stacked/conjoined patients. RESULTS:The stacked/conjoined cohort had more DIEP flaps (91.7 vs. 65.1%) and the non-stacked/conjoined group more MS-TRAMs (34.2 vs. 6.9%, p = .000). Additionally, non-stacked/conjoined flaps had greater utilization of combined medial and lateral row perforators (p = .000). Mean flap weight was significantly higher than mastectomy weight in stacked/conjoined flaps (+110.7 g) when compared to non-stacked/conjoined flaps (-40.2) (p = .023). Average follow-up was 54.7â€‰Â±â€‰27.5 and 54.6â€‰Â±â€‰29.3 months, respectively. Stacked/conjoined flaps had lower fat necrosis rates (8.3 vs. 25.4%, p = .039) and had a decreased risk of fat necrosis on multivariable regression analysis (OR 0.278, p = 0.045). There were otherwise no differences in flap, breast, or donor-site complications. Stacked/conjoined flaps also had a lower rate of contralateral breast reduction (p = .041). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Stacked/conjoined flaps were associated with a lower risk of fat necrosis compared with non-stacked/conjoined flaps and had a lower rate of contralateral symmetrizing reductions in patients undergoing unilateral abdominally-based breast reconstruction.
Breaking Down Silos: Collaboration in Head and Neck Reconstruction Research
BACKGROUND:â€ƒCollaboration has been shown to be beneficial when we have complex problems and highly specialized groups, such as in head and neck reconstruction. Otolaryngology, plastic surgery, and oral maxillofacial surgeons perform head and neck reconstruction research. While the specialties represent unique backgrounds, the degree of interdisciplinary collaboration and subtopic focus is unknown. We sought to describe the frequency of interinstitutional interdisciplinary collaboration and examine the association of specialty with research subtopics. METHODS:â€ƒOral presentations from 2014 to 2018 focused on head and neck reconstruction or associated principles at the main reconstructive academic meetings in otolaryngology (American Head and Neck Society), plastic surgery (American Society for Reconstructive Microsurgery), and oral maxillofacial surgery (American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons) were reviewed. Author specialty and institution data were recorded. All abstracts were assigned a research subtopic, chosen based on identified themes. Subtopic frequencies among the specialties were compared. RESULTS:â€ƒThirteen of 88 (15%) US institutions participate in interdisciplinary collaboration in head and neck reconstruction research. Of the remaining institutions, 23 (31%) have researchers performing parallel work and not collaborating. Certain research subtopics were more often presented by each specialty, representing differing interests. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:â€ƒCollaboration among head and neck reconstruction research at the US institutions is low compared with the potential. Specialties focus on different research subtopics, and therefore can benefit from working together.
Propeller Flap Perineal Urethrostomy Revision
OBJECTIVE:To describe a technique for perineal urethrostomy (PU) revision using a posterior thigh propeller flap for a complex repair at high risk for stenosis. METHODS:Our technique utilizes the consistent posterior thigh perforators for a local flap with ideal length and thickness for repair. The stenotic PU is incised. Potential flaps are marked around a perforator blood supply closest to the defect. The flap is then elevated and rotated on its pedicle with its apex placed directly in the defect. Absorbable sutures partially tubularize the flap apex at the level of the urethrotomy which is calibrated to 30 Fr. We subsequently monitored the patient's clinical progress. RESULTS:With 17 months of follow-up the patient is voiding well without complaint, reports improved quality of life with a patent PU. Post void residuals have been less than 100cc. The patient, who has had a long history of urinary tract infections requiring hospitalization, has only reported one infection during follow up which was treated as an out-patient. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:For challenging PU revisions a distant local propeller flap of healthy tissue outside the zone of injury is the ideal choice for length, thickness, and minimal morbidity resulting in excellent clinical results for our patient.
Massive, Extended Pedicled Anterolateral Thigh Flap for Abdominal Wall Reconstruction
Hepatic Artery Microvascular Anastomosis in Liver Transplantation: A Systematic Review of the Literature
BACKGROUND:The operating microscope is used in many centers for microvascular hepatic arterial reconstruction in living as well as deceased donor liver transplantation in adult and pediatric recipients. To date, a systematic review of the literature examining this topic is lacking. METHODS:This systematic review of the literature was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Three different electronic databases (PubMed, Embase OVID, and Cochrane CENTRAL) were queried. RESULTS:A total of 34 studies were included. The rate of hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT) in noncomparative studies (28) ranged from 0% to 10%, with 8 studies reporting patient deaths resulting from HAT. Within comparative studies, the rate of HAT in patients who underwent arterial reconstruction using the operating microscope ranged from 0% to 5.3%, whereas the rate of HAT in patients who underwent arterial reconstruction using loupe magnification ranged from 0% up to 28.6%, and 2 studies reported patient deaths resulting from HAT. Two comparative studies did not find statistically significant differences between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS:Our comprehensive systematic review of the literature seems to suggest that overall, rates of HAT may be lower when the operating microscope is used for hepatic arterial reconstruction in liver transplantation. However, matched comparisons are lacking and surgical teams need to be mindful of the learning curve associated with the use of the operating microscope as compared with loupe magnification, as well as the logistical and time constraints associated with setup of the operating microscope.