Robotic deep inferior epigastric perforator flap harvest in breast reconstruction
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Reducing donor site morbidity after deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flap harvest relies mainly upon maintaining integrity of the anterior rectus sheath fascia. The purpose of this study is to describe our minimally-invasive technique for robotic DIEP flap harvest. METHODS:), respectively. Average follow-up was 6.31â€‰months (range: 5.73-7.27â€‰months). Robotic flap harvest was performed with intramuscular perforator dissection in standard fashion, followed by the transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) approach to DIEP pedicle harvest using the da Vinci Xi robot. Data was collected on demographic information, perioperative characteristics. Primary outcomes included successful flap harvest as well as donor site morbidity (e.g., abdominal bulge, hernia, bowel obstruction, etc.). RESULTS:All four patients underwent bilateral abdominally-based free flap reconstruction. Three patients received bilateral robotic DIEP flaps, and one patient underwent unilateral robotic DIEP flap reconstruction. The da Vinci Xi robot was used in all cases. Average flap weight and pedicle length were 522â€‰g (range: 110-809â€‰g) and 11.2Â cm (range: 10-12â€‰cm), respectively. There were no flap failures, and no patient experienced abdominal wall donor site morbidity on physical exam. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:While further studies are needed to validate its use, this report represents the largest series of robotic DIEP flap harvests to date and is a valuable addition to the literature.
Salvage Superficial Temporal Artery to Middle Cerebral Artery Direct Bypass Using an Interposition Graft for Failed Encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis in Moyamoya Disease
BACKGROUND:Moyamoya disease may present with either hemorrhagic or ischemic strokes. Surgical bypass has previously demonstrated superiority when compared to natural history and medical treatment alone. The best bypass option (direct vs. indirect), however, remains controversial in regard to adult ischemic symptomatic moyamoya disease. Multiple studies have demonstrated clinical as well as angiographic effectiveness of direct bypass in adult hemorrhagic moyamoya disease. In particular, there are limited data regarding strategies in the setting of failed indirect bypass with recurrent hemorrhagic strokes. Here, we describe a salvage procedure. METHODS:We describe a case of a 52-year-old man who presented with hemorrhagic moyamoya disease and failed previous bilateral encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS) procedures at an outside institution. On a 3-year follow-up diagnostic cerebral angiogram, no synangiosis was noted on the right side and only minimal synangiosis was present on the left. The left hemisphere was significant for a left parietal hypoperfusion state. We performed a salvage left proximal superficial temporal artery to distal parietal M4 middle cerebral artery bypass using the descending branch of the lateral circumflex artery as an interposition graft with preservation of the existing EDAS sites. RESULTS:The patient underwent the procedure successfully and recovered well with resolution of headaches and no further strokes or hemorrhages on the 1-year follow-up magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. CONCLUSIONS:This case presents the use of a salvage direct bypass technique for recurrent symptomatic hemorrhagic moyamoya disease after failed EDAS. The strategy, approach, and technical nuances of this unique case have implications for revascularization options.
Osteoradionecrosis following radiation to reconstructedÂ mandibleÂ with titanium plate and osseointegrated dental implants
Breast reconstruction during the COVID-19 pandemic: Single institution experience from the pandemic's epicenter in the United States
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic dramatically changed the delivery of breast cancer care. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of the pandemic on breast cancer screening, treatment, and reconstruction at a single institution in New York City. METHODS:A retrospective chart review was conducted to determine the number of mammograms, lumpectomies, mastectomies, and breast reconstruction operations performed between January 1, 2019 and June 30, 2021. Outcomes analyzed included changes in mammography, oncologic surgery, and breast reconstruction surgery volume before, during and after the start of the pandemic. RESULTS:Mammography volume declined by 11% in March-May of 2020. Oncologic breast surgeries and reconstructive surgeries similarly declined by 6.8% and 11%, respectively, in 2020 compared with 2019, reaching their lowest levels in April 2020. The volume of all procedures increased during the summer of 2020. Mammography volumes in June and July 2020 were found to be at pre-COVID levels, and in October-December 2020 were 15% higher than in 2019. Oncologic breast surgeries saw a similar rebound in May 2020, with 24.6% more cases performed compared with May 2019. Breast reconstruction volumes increased, though changes in the types of reconstruction were noted. Oncoplastic closures were more common during the pandemic, while two-stage implant reconstruction and immediate autologous reconstruction decreased by 27% and 43%, respectively. All procedures are on track to increase in volume in 2021 compared to that in 2020. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The COVID-19 pandemic reduced the volume of breast cancer surveillance, surgical treatment, and reconstruction procedures. While it is reassuring that volumes have rebounded in 2021, efforts must be made to emphasize screening and treatment procedures in the face of subsequent surges, such as that recently attributable to the Delta and Omicron variants.
Wound Closure Following Intervention for Closed Orthopedic Trauma
The method of skin closure and post-operative wound management has always been important in orthopedic surgery and plays an even larger role now that surgical site infection (SSI) is a national healthcare metric for both surgeons and hospitals. Wound related issues remain some of the most feared complications following orthopedic trauma procedures and are associated with significant morbidity. In order to minimize the risk of surgical site complications, surgeons must be familiar with the physiology of wound healing as well as the patient and surgical factors affecting healing potential. The goal of all skin closure techniques is to promote rapid healing with acceptable cosmesis, all while minimizing risk of infection and dehiscence. Knowledge of the types of closure material, techniques of wound closure, surgical dressings, negative pressure wound therapy, and other local modalities is important to optimize wound healing. There is no consensus in the literature as to which closure method is superior but the available data can be used to make informed choices. Although often left to less experienced members of the surgical team, the process of wound closure and dressing the wound should not be an afterthought, and instead must be part of the surgical plan. Wounds that are in direct communication with bony fractures are particularly at risk due to local tissue trauma, resultant swelling, hematoma formation, and injured vasculature.
Robotic-Assisted Testicular Autotransplantation
Silber and Kelly first described the successful autotransplantation of an intra-abdominal testis in 1976. Subsequent authors incorporated laparoscopy and demonstrated the viability of transplanted testes based on serial postoperative exams. We sought to extend this experience with use of the da Vinci surgical robot, thereby demonstrating a novel robotic technique for the management of cryptorchidism. The procedure was performed for an 18-year-old male with a solitary left intra-abdominal testis. Following establishment of pneumoperitoneum, the robot is docked with four trocars oriented towards the left lower quadrant. Testicular dissection is carried out as shown. The gonadal and inferior epigastric vessels are isolated and mobilized; once adequate length is achieved, the former is clipped and transected, and the testicle and inferior epigastric vessels are delivered out of the body. The robot is then undocked and exchanged for the operating microscope. Arterial and venous anastomoses are completed with interrupted and running 9-0 Nylon, respectively, and satisfactory re-anastomosis is confirmed visually and with Doppler. The transplanted testicle is then fixed inferiorly and laterally within the left hemiscrotum, and all incisions are closed. We note that intraoperative testicular biopsy was not performed, for three reasons: (1) to avoid further risk to an already tenuous, solitary organ, (2) because our primary aim was to preserve testicular endocrine function, and (3) because the presence of ITGCN would neither prompt orchiectomy nor obviate the need for ongoing surveillance via periodic self-examination and ultrasonography. The patient is maintained on bed rest for two days and discharged on postoperative day seven in good condition. Over one year since autotransplantation, his now intra-scrotal testicle remains palpable and stable in size. Serum testosterone is unchanged from preoperative measurements. Robotic-assisted testicular autotransplantation is a feasible and efficacious management option for the solitary intra-abdominal testis.
Early-onset osteoradionecrosis following adjuvant volumetric-modulated arc therapy to an osteocutaneous free fibula flap with customized titanium plate [Case Report]
BACKGROUND:Computerized surgical planning (CSP) in osseous reconstruction of head and neck cancer defects has become a mainstay of treatment. However, the consequences of CSP-designed titanium plating systems on planning adjuvant radiation remains unclear. METHODS:Two patients underwent head and neck cancer resection and maxillomandibular free fibula flap reconstruction with CSP-designed plates and immediate placement of osseointegrated dental implants. Surgical treatment was followed by adjuvant intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). RESULTS:Both patients developed osteoradionecrosis (ORN), and one patient had local recurrence. The locations of disease occurred at the areas of highest titanium plate burden, possibly attributed to IMRT dosing inaccuracy caused by the CSP-designed plating system. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Despite proven benefits of CSP-designed plates in osseous free flap reconstruction, there may be an underreported risk to adjuvant IMRT treatment planning leading to ORN and/or local recurrence. Future study should investigate alternative plating methods and materials to mitigate this debilitating outcome.
Comparing Incision Choices in Immediate Microvascular Breast Reconstruction after Nipple-Sparing Mastectomy: Unique Considerations to Optimize Outcomes
BACKGROUND:Incision planning is a critical factor in nipple-sparing mastectomy outcomes. Evidence on optimal incision patterns in patients undergoing nipple-sparing mastectomy and immediate microvascular breast reconstruction is lacking in the literature. METHODS:A single-institution retrospective review was performed of consecutive patients undergoing nipple-sparing mastectomy and immediate microvascular autologous reconstruction from 2007 to 2019. Outcomes-including major mastectomy flap necrosis, full nipple-areola complex necrosis, and any major ischemic complication of the skin envelope-were compared among incision types. Multivariable logistic regression identified factors associated with major ischemic complication. RESULTS:Two hundred seventy-nine reconstructions (163 patients) were identified, primarily using internal mammary recipient vessels (98.9 percent). Vertical incisions were used in 139 cases; inframammary, in 53; lateral radial, in 51; and inverted-T, in 35. Thirty-two cases (11.5 percent) had major mastectomy flap necrosis, 11 (3.9 percent) had full nipple-areola complex necrosis, and 38 (13.6 percent) had any major ischemic complication. Inframammary incisions had higher rates of major ischemic complication (25 percent) than vertical (5.8 percent; p < 0.001) and lateral radial (7.8 percent; p = 0.032) incisions. Inverted-T incisions also had higher rates of major ischemic complication (36.1 percent) than both vertical (p < 0.001) and lateral radial (p = 0.002) incisions. Inframammary incisions (OR, 4.382; p = 0.002), inverted-T incisions (OR, 3.952; p = 0.011), and mastectomy weight (OR, 1.003; p < 0.001) were independently associated with an increased risk of major ischemic complication. Inframammary incisions with major ischemic complication demonstrated significantly higher body mass index, mastectomy weight, and flap weight compared to those without. CONCLUSIONS:Inframammary and inverted-T incisions are associated with a higher risk of major ischemic skin envelope complications after nipple-sparing mastectomy and immediate microvascular breast reconstruction. Radial incisions can be considered to optimize recipient vessel exposure without compromising perfusion. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Therapeutic, III.
Double-Barrel Versus Single-Barrel Fibula Flaps for Mandibular Reconstruction: Safety and Outcomes
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVE:Fibula flaps are routinely used for osseous reconstruction of head and neck defects. However, single-barrel fibula flaps may result in a height discrepancy between native mandible and grafted bone, limiting outcomes from both an aesthetic and dental standpoint. The double-barrel fibula flap aims to resolve this. We present our institution's outcomes comparing both flap designs. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective cohort study. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective review of all patients undergoing free fibula flap mandibular reconstruction at our institution between October 2008 and October 2020. Patients were grouped based on whether they underwent single-barrel or double-barrel reconstruction. Postoperative outcomes data were collected and compared between groups. Differences in categorical and continuous variables were assessed using a Chi-square test or Student's t-test, respectively. RESULTS:Out of 168 patients, 126 underwent single-barrel and 42 underwent double-barrel reconstruction. There was no significant difference in postoperative morbidity between approaches, including total complications (PÂ =Â .37), flap-related complications (PÂ =Â .62), takeback to the operating room (PÂ =Â .75), flap salvage (PÂ =Â .66), flap failure (PÂ =Â .45), and mortality (PÂ =Â .19). In addition, there was no significant difference in operative time (PÂ =Â .86) or duration of hospital stay (PÂ =Â .17). After adjusting for confounders, primary dental implantation was significantly higher in the double-barrel group (odds ratio, 3.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-7.6; PÂ =Â .019). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Double-barrel fibula flap mandibular reconstruction can be performed safely without increased postoperative morbidity or duration of hospital stay relative to single-barrel reconstruction. Moreover, the double-barrel approach is associated with higher odds of primary dental implantation and may warrant further consideration as part of an expanded toolkit for achieving early dental rehabilitation. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:III Laryngoscope, 2021.
A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Microvascular Stacked and Conjoined-Flap Breast Reconstruction
BACKGROUND:â€ƒStacked and conjoined (SC) flaps are a useful means of increasing flap volume in autologous breast reconstruction. The majority of studies, however, have been limited to smaller, single-center series. METHODS:â€ƒA systematic literature review was performed to identify outcomes-based studies on microvascular SC-flap breast reconstruction. Pooled rates of flap and operative characteristics were analyzed. Meta-analytic effect size estimates were calculated for reconstructive complication rates and outcomes of studies comparing SC flaps to non-SC flaps. Meta-regression analysis identified risk factors for flap complications. RESULTS:â€‰=â€‰0.00%), though rates of any flap and donor-site complication were similar. Age, body mass index, flap weight, and flap donor site and recipient vessels were not associated with increased risk of any flap complication. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:â€ƒA global appraisal of the current evidence demonstrated the safety of SC-flap breast reconstruction with low complication rates, regardless of donor site, and lower rates of fat necrosis compared with non-SC flaps.