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Relationship between number of debridements and clinical outcomes in open tibia fractures requiring free flap coverage: A retrospective cohort study

Sacks, Hayley; Hu, Jesse; Devendra, Agraharam; Huang, Shengnan; Levine, Jamie; Sabapathy, S. Raja; Venkatramani, Hari; Brogan, David; Boyer, Martin; Hacquebord, Jacques
Introduction: Open fractures with degloving injuries are commonly managed by serial debridements prior to definitive flap coverage in the United States (US). Some international institutions minimize the number of debridements prior to coverage. The purpose of this study was to compare clinical outcomes in patients with open tibia fractures requiring free flap coverage from institutions with differing debridement philosophies. Methods: This was a multi-site retrospective cohort study of patients treated at two US tertiary care facilities (serial debridement cohort) and one in India (early total debridement cohort) with Type IIIB or IIIC open tibia fractures requiring free tissue transfer. The number of debridements prior to flap coverage were recorded and primary outcomes were rates of infection, non-union, and flap failure. Fischer's exact tests were used to compare outcomes between the cohorts. Results: 80 patients were included, 44 from India and 36 from the US. Patients in the serial debridement cohort underwent more debridements prior to flap coverage (mean 3.64 vs 1.84, p < 0.001) and had significantly higher rates of infection and non-union compared to patients in the early total debridement cohort (p < 0.05). There were no differences in rates of flap failure between the cohorts. Conclusions: Patients with open tibia fractures treated at institutions favoring serial debridements underwent more debridements and had higher rates of infection and non-union compared to patients treated at a center favoring early total debridement. Serial debridements may not be necessary prior to flap coverage for open tibia fractures and the current practice should be further investigated.
ISSN: 2666-769x
CID: 5620982

Updates in Traumatic Lower Extremity Free Flap Reconstruction

Lee, Z-Hye; Daar, David A; Yu, Jason W; Kaoutzanis, Christodoulos; Saadeh, Pierre B; Thanik, Vishal; Levine, Jamie P
Lower extremity reconstruction, particularly in the setting of trauma, remains one of the most challenging tasks for the plastic surgeon. Advances in wound management and microsurgical techniques in conjunction with long-term outcomes studies have expanded possibilities for limb salvage, but many aspects of management have continued to rely on principles set forth by Gustilo and Godina in the 1980s. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive update on the various management aspects of traumatic lower extremity microvascular reconstruction based on the latest evidence, with an examination of recent publications.
PMID: 36917749
ISSN: 1529-4242
CID: 5609022

Double-Barrel Vascularized Free Fibula Flap for Reconstruction of Sternal Nonunion with Bone Defect: A Case Report [Case Report]

Perez-Otero, Sofía; Bekisz, Jonathan M; Sánchez-Navarro, Gerardo; Chang, Stephanie H; Levine, Jamie P
CASE/METHODS:Given the rare incidence of sternal nonunion after traumatic injury, literature describing the management of posttraumatic sternal reconstruction is limited. We present a case of a 54-year-old man with a history of traumatic chest wall injury with multiple unsuccessful attempts at sternal repair who presented with chronic sternal nonunion and persistent bone defect. Sternal reconstruction using a vascularized double-barrel free fibula flap with rigid fixation in multiple planes was performed, with confirmed bony union at 6 months. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:This novel approach to sternal nonunion management allowed effective bridging of posttraumatic sternal bone defects while facilitating osseous integration and long-term stabilization.
PMID: 38134292
ISSN: 2160-3251
CID: 5611872

Anterolateral Thigh Phalloplasty With Staged Skin Graft Urethroplasty: Technique and Outcomes

Robinson, Isabel; Chao, Brian W; Blasdel, Gaines; Levine, Jamie P; Bluebond-Langner, Rachel; Zhao, Lee C
OBJECTIVE:1) To describe the authors' technique of anterolateral thigh (ALT) phalloplasty with staged skin graft urethroplasty and 2) to report the surgical outcomes and complications of this technique in a preliminary patient cohort. METHODS:Following IRB (Institutional Review Board) approval, retrospective chart review identified all patients undergoing primary three-stage ALT phalloplasty by the senior authors. Stage I involves single tube, pedicled ALT transfer. Stage II involves vaginectomy, pars fixa urethroplasty, scrotoplasty, and opening the ALT ventrally and construction of a urethral plate with split-thickness skin graft. Stage III involves tubularization of the urethral plate to create the penile urethra. Data collected included patient demographics, intraoperative details, postoperative courses, and complications. RESULTS:Twenty-four patients were identified. Twenty-two patients (91.7%) underwent ALT phalloplasty prior to vaginectomy. All patients underwent staged split-thickness skin grafting for the penile urethra reconstruction. Twenty-one patients (87.5%) achieved standing micturition at the time of data collection. Eleven patients (44.0%) experienced at least 1 urologic complication requiring additional operative intervention, most commonly urethrocutaneous fistulae (8 patients, 33.3%), and urethral strictures (5 patients, 20.8%). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:ALT phalloplasty with split-thickness skin grafting for urethral lengthening is an alternative technique to achieve standing micturition with an acceptable complication rate in gender-affirming phalloplasty.
PMID: 37054922
ISSN: 1527-9995
CID: 5502792

Utilizing augmented reality for Deep Inferior Epigastric Artery Perforator (DIEP) flap perforator selection [Letter]

Nolan, Ian T; Vranis, Neil M; Levine, Jamie P
PMID: 36734625
ISSN: 1098-2752
CID: 5426762

Free Fibula Flap for the Treatment of Agnathia in a 10-Year-Old With Severe Agnathia-Otocephaly Complex

Cohen, Oriana; Morrison, Kerry A; Jacobson, Adam; Levine, Jamie; Staffenberg, David A
Agnathia-otocephaly complex (AOC), a first branchial arch defect, is characterized by mandibular hypoplasia or aplasia, ear abnormalities, microstomia, and macroglossia and is a rare and often fatal diagnosis. Herein, the technical considerations and details of mandibular reconstruction using virtual surgical planning (VSP) and a vascularized free fibula flap for further mandibular reconstruction in a 10-year-old boy are presented. The patient's preoperative examination was consistent with agnathia (absence of mandibular symphysis, bilateral mandibular bodies, condyles, coronoids, rami, and temporomandibular joint), severe microstomia, and a Tessier # 30 cleft (maintained to allow oral access until later in treatment). Virtual surgical planning was utilized to plan a 3-segment fibula for the reconstruction of the mandibular symphysis and bilateral body segments, and bilateral costochondral grafts were planned for the rami. To the authors' knowledge, this represents the first application of virtual surgical planning for mandibular reconstruction with a vascularized free fibula flap in a pediatric patient with severe agnathia-otocephaly complex.
PMID: 36217223
ISSN: 1536-3732
CID: 5360872

Early-onset osteoradionecrosis following adjuvant volumetric-modulated arc therapy to an osteocutaneous free fibula flap with customized titanium plate [Case Report]

Daar, David A; Byun, David J; Spuhler, Karl; Anzai, Lavinia; Witek, Lukasz; Barbee, David; Hu, Kenneth S; Levine, Jamie P; Jacobson, Adam S
BACKGROUND:Computerized surgical planning (CSP) in osseous reconstruction of head and neck cancer defects has become a mainstay of treatment. However, the consequences of CSP-designed titanium plating systems on planning adjuvant radiation remains unclear. METHODS:Two patients underwent head and neck cancer resection and maxillomandibular free fibula flap reconstruction with CSP-designed plates and immediate placement of osseointegrated dental implants. Surgical treatment was followed by adjuvant intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). RESULTS:Both patients developed osteoradionecrosis (ORN), and one patient had local recurrence. The locations of disease occurred at the areas of highest titanium plate burden, possibly attributed to IMRT dosing inaccuracy caused by the CSP-designed plating system. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Despite proven benefits of CSP-designed plates in osseous free flap reconstruction, there may be an underreported risk to adjuvant IMRT treatment planning leading to ORN and/or local recurrence. Future study should investigate alternative plating methods and materials to mitigate this debilitating outcome.
PMID: 34906727
ISSN: 2468-7855
CID: 5109702

Retro Jugular, Retro Sternocleidomastoid Approach for Subclavian Artery to Common Carotid Artery Bypass Using a Radial Artery Interposition Graft: 2-Dimensional Operative Video

Haynes, Joseph; Sadek, Mikel; Raz, Eytan; Levine, Jamie; Shapiro, Maksim; Delavari, Nader; Riina, Howard A; Nelson, Peter Kim; Favate, Albert; Nossek, Erez
PMID: 35972106
ISSN: 2332-4260
CID: 5299872

The First Successful Combined Full Face and Bilateral Hand Transplant

Ramly, Elie P; Alfonso, Allyson R; Berman, Zoe P; Diep, Gustave K; Bass, Jonathan L; Catalano, Louis W; Ceradini, Daniel J; Choi, Mihye; Cohen, Oriana D; Flores, Roberto L; Golas, Alyssa R; Hacquebord, Jacques H; Levine, Jamie P; Saadeh, Pierre B; Sharma, Sheel; Staffenberg, David A; Thanik, Vishal D; Rojas, Allison; Bernstein, G Leslie; Gelb, Bruce E; Rodriguez, Eduardo D
BACKGROUND:Vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) has redefined the frontiers of plastic and reconstructive surgery. At the cutting edge of this evolving paradigm, we present the first successful combined full face and bilateral hand transplant (FT-BHT). METHODS:A 21-year-old man with sequelae of an 80% total body surface area burn injury sustained following a motor vehicle accident presented for evaluation. The injury included full face and bilateral upper extremity composite tissue defects, resulting in reduced quality of life and loss of independence. Multidisciplinary evaluation confirmed eligibility for combined FT-BHT. The operative approach was validated through 11 cadaveric rehearsals utilizing computerized surgical planning. Institutional review board and organ procurement organization approvals were obtained. The recipient, his caregiver, and the donor family consented to the procedure. RESULTS:Combined full face (eyelids, ears, nose, lips, and skeletal subunits) and bilateral hand transplantation (forearm level) was performed over 23 hours on August 12-13th, 2020. Triple induction and maintenance immunosuppressive therapy and infection prophylaxis were administered. Plasmapheresis was necessary postoperatively. Minor revisions were performed over seven subsequent operations, including five left upper extremity, seven right upper extremity, and seven facial secondary procedures. At eight months, the patient is approaching functional independence and remains free of acute rejection. He has significantly improved range of motion, motor power, and sensation of the face and hand allografts. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Combined FT-BHT is feasible. This is the most comprehensive VCA procedure successfully performed to date, marking a new milestone in plastic and reconstructive surgery for patients with otherwise irremediable injuries.
PMID: 35674521
ISSN: 1529-4242
CID: 5248392

Double-Barrel Versus Single-Barrel Fibula Flaps for Mandibular Reconstruction: Safety and Outcomes

Trilles, Jorge; Chaya, Bachar F; Daar, David A; Anzai, Lavinia; Boczar, Daniel; Rodriguez Colon, Ricardo; Hirsch, David L; Jacobson, Adam S; Levine, Jamie P
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVE:Fibula flaps are routinely used for osseous reconstruction of head and neck defects. However, single-barrel fibula flaps may result in a height discrepancy between native mandible and grafted bone, limiting outcomes from both an aesthetic and dental standpoint. The double-barrel fibula flap aims to resolve this. We present our institution's outcomes comparing both flap designs. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective cohort study. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective review of all patients undergoing free fibula flap mandibular reconstruction at our institution between October 2008 and October 2020. Patients were grouped based on whether they underwent single-barrel or double-barrel reconstruction. Postoperative outcomes data were collected and compared between groups. Differences in categorical and continuous variables were assessed using a Chi-square test or Student's t-test, respectively. RESULTS:Out of 168 patients, 126 underwent single-barrel and 42 underwent double-barrel reconstruction. There was no significant difference in postoperative morbidity between approaches, including total complications (P = .37), flap-related complications (P = .62), takeback to the operating room (P = .75), flap salvage (P = .66), flap failure (P = .45), and mortality (P = .19). In addition, there was no significant difference in operative time (P = .86) or duration of hospital stay (P = .17). After adjusting for confounders, primary dental implantation was significantly higher in the double-barrel group (odds ratio, 3.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-7.6; P = .019). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Double-barrel fibula flap mandibular reconstruction can be performed safely without increased postoperative morbidity or duration of hospital stay relative to single-barrel reconstruction. Moreover, the double-barrel approach is associated with higher odds of primary dental implantation and may warrant further consideration as part of an expanded toolkit for achieving early dental rehabilitation. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:III Laryngoscope, 2021.
PMID: 34837398
ISSN: 1531-4995
CID: 5063962