Free Fibula Flap for the Treatment of Agnathia in a 10-Year-Old With Severe Agnathia-Otocephaly Complex
Agnathia-otocephaly complex (AOC), a first branchial arch defect, is characterized by mandibular hypoplasia or aplasia, ear abnormalities, microstomia, and macroglossia and is a rare and often fatal diagnosis. Herein, the technical considerations and details of mandibular reconstruction using virtual surgical planning (VSP) and a vascularized free fibula flap for further mandibular reconstruction in a 10-year-old boy are presented. The patient's preoperative examination was consistent with agnathia (absence of mandibular symphysis, bilateral mandibular bodies, condyles, coronoids, rami, and temporomandibular joint), severe microstomia, and a Tessier # 30 cleft (maintained to allow oral access until later in treatment). Virtual surgical planning was utilized to plan a 3-segment fibula for the reconstruction of the mandibular symphysis and bilateral body segments, and bilateral costochondral grafts were planned for the rami. To the authors' knowledge, this represents the first application of virtual surgical planning for mandibular reconstruction with a vascularized free fibula flap in a pediatric patient with severe agnathia-otocephaly complex.
Early-onset osteoradionecrosis following adjuvant volumetric-modulated arc therapy to an osteocutaneous free fibula flap with customized titanium plate [Case Report]
BACKGROUND:Computerized surgical planning (CSP) in osseous reconstruction of head and neck cancer defects has become a mainstay of treatment. However, the consequences of CSP-designed titanium plating systems on planning adjuvant radiation remains unclear. METHODS:Two patients underwent head and neck cancer resection and maxillomandibular free fibula flap reconstruction with CSP-designed plates and immediate placement of osseointegrated dental implants. Surgical treatment was followed by adjuvant intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). RESULTS:Both patients developed osteoradionecrosis (ORN), and one patient had local recurrence. The locations of disease occurred at the areas of highest titanium plate burden, possibly attributed to IMRT dosing inaccuracy caused by the CSP-designed plating system. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Despite proven benefits of CSP-designed plates in osseous free flap reconstruction, there may be an underreported risk to adjuvant IMRT treatment planning leading to ORN and/or local recurrence. Future study should investigate alternative plating methods and materials to mitigate this debilitating outcome.
Retro Jugular, Retro Sternocleidomastoid Approach for Subclavian Artery to Common Carotid Artery Bypass Using a Radial Artery Interposition Graft: 2-Dimensional Operative Video
The First Successful Combined Full Face and Bilateral Hand Transplant
BACKGROUND:Vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) has redefined the frontiers of plastic and reconstructive surgery. At the cutting edge of this evolving paradigm, we present the first successful combined full face and bilateral hand transplant (FT-BHT). METHODS:A 21-year-old man with sequelae of an 80% total body surface area burn injury sustained following a motor vehicle accident presented for evaluation. The injury included full face and bilateral upper extremity composite tissue defects, resulting in reduced quality of life and loss of independence. Multidisciplinary evaluation confirmed eligibility for combined FT-BHT. The operative approach was validated through 11 cadaveric rehearsals utilizing computerized surgical planning. Institutional review board and organ procurement organization approvals were obtained. The recipient, his caregiver, and the donor family consented to the procedure. RESULTS:Combined full face (eyelids, ears, nose, lips, and skeletal subunits) and bilateral hand transplantation (forearm level) was performed over 23 hours on August 12-13th, 2020. Triple induction and maintenance immunosuppressive therapy and infection prophylaxis were administered. Plasmapheresis was necessary postoperatively. Minor revisions were performed over seven subsequent operations, including five left upper extremity, seven right upper extremity, and seven facial secondary procedures. At eight months, the patient is approaching functional independence and remains free of acute rejection. He has significantly improved range of motion, motor power, and sensation of the face and hand allografts. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Combined FT-BHT is feasible. This is the most comprehensive VCA procedure successfully performed to date, marking a new milestone in plastic and reconstructive surgery for patients with otherwise irremediable injuries.
Double-Barrel Versus Single-Barrel Fibula Flaps for Mandibular Reconstruction: Safety and Outcomes
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVE:Fibula flaps are routinely used for osseous reconstruction of head and neck defects. However, single-barrel fibula flaps may result in a height discrepancy between native mandible and grafted bone, limiting outcomes from both an aesthetic and dental standpoint. The double-barrel fibula flap aims to resolve this. We present our institution's outcomes comparing both flap designs. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective cohort study. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective review of all patients undergoing free fibula flap mandibular reconstruction at our institution between October 2008 and October 2020. Patients were grouped based on whether they underwent single-barrel or double-barrel reconstruction. Postoperative outcomes data were collected and compared between groups. Differences in categorical and continuous variables were assessed using a Chi-square test or Student's t-test, respectively. RESULTS:Out of 168 patients, 126 underwent single-barrel and 42 underwent double-barrel reconstruction. There was no significant difference in postoperative morbidity between approaches, including total complications (PÂ =Â .37), flap-related complications (PÂ =Â .62), takeback to the operating room (PÂ =Â .75), flap salvage (PÂ =Â .66), flap failure (PÂ =Â .45), and mortality (PÂ =Â .19). In addition, there was no significant difference in operative time (PÂ =Â .86) or duration of hospital stay (PÂ =Â .17). After adjusting for confounders, primary dental implantation was significantly higher in the double-barrel group (odds ratio, 3.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-7.6; PÂ =Â .019). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Double-barrel fibula flap mandibular reconstruction can be performed safely without increased postoperative morbidity or duration of hospital stay relative to single-barrel reconstruction. Moreover, the double-barrel approach is associated with higher odds of primary dental implantation and may warrant further consideration as part of an expanded toolkit for achieving early dental rehabilitation. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:III Laryngoscope, 2021.
Breast reconstruction during the COVID-19 pandemic: Single institution experience from the pandemic's epicenter in the United States
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic dramatically changed the delivery of breast cancer care. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of the pandemic on breast cancer screening, treatment, and reconstruction at a single institution in New York City. METHODS:A retrospective chart review was conducted to determine the number of mammograms, lumpectomies, mastectomies, and breast reconstruction operations performed between January 1, 2019 and June 30, 2021. Outcomes analyzed included changes in mammography, oncologic surgery, and breast reconstruction surgery volume before, during and after the start of the pandemic. RESULTS:Mammography volume declined by 11% in March-May of 2020. Oncologic breast surgeries and reconstructive surgeries similarly declined by 6.8% and 11%, respectively, in 2020 compared with 2019, reaching their lowest levels in April 2020. The volume of all procedures increased during the summer of 2020. Mammography volumes in June and July 2020 were found to be at pre-COVID levels, and in October-December 2020 were 15% higher than in 2019. Oncologic breast surgeries saw a similar rebound in May 2020, with 24.6% more cases performed compared with May 2019. Breast reconstruction volumes increased, though changes in the types of reconstruction were noted. Oncoplastic closures were more common during the pandemic, while two-stage implant reconstruction and immediate autologous reconstruction decreased by 27% and 43%, respectively. All procedures are on track to increase in volume in 2021 compared to that in 2020. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The COVID-19 pandemic reduced the volume of breast cancer surveillance, surgical treatment, and reconstruction procedures. While it is reassuring that volumes have rebounded in 2021, efforts must be made to emphasize screening and treatment procedures in the face of subsequent surges, such as that recently attributable to the Delta and Omicron variants.
Gender-affirming Phalloplasty: A Postoperative Protocol for Success
Increased access to care and insurance coverage has led to an increase in gender-affirming surgeries performed in the United States. Gender-affirming phalloplasty has a variety of donor sites and surgical techniques including both pedicled and free flaps. Although surgical techniques and patient outcomes are well-described, no reports in the literature specifically discuss postoperative management, which plays a crucial role in the success of these operations. Here, we present a postoperative protocol based on our institution's experience with gender-affirming phalloplasty with the hope it will serve as a standardized, reproducible reference for centers looking to offer these procedures.
Single Versus Double Venous Anastomosis Microvascular Free Flaps for Head and Neck Reconstruction
ABSTRACT/UNASSIGNED:Venous congestion accounts for most microvascular free tissue flaps failures. Given the lack of consensus on the use of single versus dual venous outflow, the authors present our institutional experience with 1 versus 2 vein anastomoses in microvascular free flap for head and neck reconstruction. A retrospective chart review was performed on all patients undergoing free flaps for head and neck reconstruction at our institution between 2008 and 2020. The authors included patients who underwent anterolateral thigh, radial forearm free flap, or fibula free flaps. The authors classified patients based on the number of venous anastomoses used and compared complication rates. A total of 279 patients with a mean age of 55.11â€Šyears (standard deviation 19.31) were included. One hundred sixty-eight patients (60.2%) underwent fibula free flaps, 59 (21.1%) anterolateral thigh, and 52 (18.6%) radial forearm free flap. The majority of patients were American Society of Anesthesiologists classification III or higher (Nâ€Š=â€Š158, 56.6%) and had history of radiation (Nâ€Š=â€Š156, 55.9%). Most flaps were performed using a single venous anastomosis (83.8%). Univariate analysis of postoperative outcomes demonstrated no significant differences in overall complications (Pâ€Š=â€Š0.788), flap failure (Pâ€Š=â€Š1.0), return to the Operating Room (OR) (Pâ€Š=â€Š1.0), hematoma (Pâ€Š=â€Š0.225), length of hospital stay (Pâ€Š=â€Š0.725), or venous congestion (Pâ€Š=â€Š0.479). In our cohort, the rate of venous congestion was not statistically different between flaps with 1 and 2 venous anastomoses. Decision to perform a second venous anastomoses should be guided by anatomical location, vessel lie, flap size, and intraoperative visual assessment.
Robotic deep inferior epigastric perforator flap harvest in breast reconstruction
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Reducing donor site morbidity after deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flap harvest relies mainly upon maintaining integrity of the anterior rectus sheath fascia. The purpose of this study is to describe our minimally-invasive technique for robotic DIEP flap harvest. METHODS:), respectively. Average follow-up was 6.31â€‰months (range: 5.73-7.27â€‰months). Robotic flap harvest was performed with intramuscular perforator dissection in standard fashion, followed by the transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) approach to DIEP pedicle harvest using the da Vinci Xi robot. Data was collected on demographic information, perioperative characteristics. Primary outcomes included successful flap harvest as well as donor site morbidity (e.g., abdominal bulge, hernia, bowel obstruction, etc.). RESULTS:All four patients underwent bilateral abdominally-based free flap reconstruction. Three patients received bilateral robotic DIEP flaps, and one patient underwent unilateral robotic DIEP flap reconstruction. The da Vinci Xi robot was used in all cases. Average flap weight and pedicle length were 522â€‰g (range: 110-809â€‰g) and 11.2Â cm (range: 10-12â€‰cm), respectively. There were no flap failures, and no patient experienced abdominal wall donor site morbidity on physical exam. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:While further studies are needed to validate its use, this report represents the largest series of robotic DIEP flap harvests to date and is a valuable addition to the literature.
Salvage Superficial Temporal Artery to Middle Cerebral Artery Direct Bypass Using an Interposition Graft for Failed Encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis in Moyamoya Disease
BACKGROUND:Moyamoya disease may present with either hemorrhagic or ischemic strokes. Surgical bypass has previously demonstrated superiority when compared to natural history and medical treatment alone. The best bypass option (direct vs. indirect), however, remains controversial in regard to adult ischemic symptomatic moyamoya disease. Multiple studies have demonstrated clinical as well as angiographic effectiveness of direct bypass in adult hemorrhagic moyamoya disease. In particular, there are limited data regarding strategies in the setting of failed indirect bypass with recurrent hemorrhagic strokes. Here, we describe a salvage procedure. METHODS:We describe a case of a 52-year-old man who presented with hemorrhagic moyamoya disease and failed previous bilateral encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS) procedures at an outside institution. On a 3-year follow-up diagnostic cerebral angiogram, no synangiosis was noted on the right side and only minimal synangiosis was present on the left. The left hemisphere was significant for a left parietal hypoperfusion state. We performed a salvage left proximal superficial temporal artery to distal parietal M4 middle cerebral artery bypass using the descending branch of the lateral circumflex artery as an interposition graft with preservation of the existing EDAS sites. RESULTS:The patient underwent the procedure successfully and recovered well with resolution of headaches and no further strokes or hemorrhages on the 1-year follow-up magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. CONCLUSIONS:This case presents the use of a salvage direct bypass technique for recurrent symptomatic hemorrhagic moyamoya disease after failed EDAS. The strategy, approach, and technical nuances of this unique case have implications for revascularization options.