Text Message Reminders Increase Appointment Adherence in a Pediatric Clinic: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Background. High no-show rates can burden clinic productivity and affect patient care. Although multiple studies have shown that text messages improve appointment adherence, very little research has focused on low-income and predominantly African American populations in resident clinic settings. Objectives. To determine whether incorporating a text message reminder reduces the no-show rate at an urban, pediatric resident clinic. Methods. A randomized controlled trial was conducted at a tertiary level ambulatory pediatric practice between August 2014 and February 2015. Following a demographic survey, 170 patients were enrolled. Patients were randomized into control or intervention groups. All patients received the standard voice message appointment reminder, but the intervention group additionally received a text message reminder. The primary outcome was no-show rate. Results. 95.3% of the participants were African American, and the overall no-show rate was 30.8%. No-show rate was significantly lower in the intervention group (23.5%) than the control group (38.1%) representing a difference of 14.6% (p = 0.04). No demographic factors were found to alter the association between no-show rate and text message intervention. Conclusions. Text message reminders effectively improve show rates at a resident pediatric practice with high no-show rates, representing a promising approach to improving appointment adherence.
Critical periods of increased fetal vulnerability to a maternal high fat diet
BACKGROUND: Fetal adaptations to high fat (HF) diet in utero (IU) that may predispose to Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) in adulthood include changes in fetal hepatic gene expression. Studies were performed to determine whether maternal exposure to HF diet at different stages during pregnancy had different effects on the fetus, including hepatic gene expression. METHODS: Female wild type mice were fed either a HF or breeding chow (C) for 2 wks prior to mating. The experimental groups were composed of embryonic day (e) 18.5 fetuses obtained from WT female mice that were fed HF (HF, 35.5% fat) or breeding chow (C, 9.5% fat) for 2 wk before mating until e9.5 of pregnancy (periconception-midpregnancy). At e9.5 dams were switched to the opposite diet (C-HF or HF-C). RESULTS: Exposure to HF diet throughout pregnancy reduced maternal weight gain compared to C diet (p < 0.02 HF vs. C). HF-C dams had significantly decreased adiponectin levels and litter size when compared to C-HF (p < 0.02 HF-C vs C-HF). Independent of the timing of exposure to HF, fetal weight and length were significantly decreased when compared to C diet (HF, C-HF and HF-C vs. C p < 0.02). HF diet during the second half of pregnancy increased expression of genes in the fetal liver associated with fetal growth (C-HF vs C p < 0.001), glucose production (C-HF vs C p < 0.04), oxidative stress and inflammation (C-HF vs C p < 0.01) compared to C diet. CONCLUSIONS: This model defines that there are critical periods during gestation in which the fetus is actively shaped by the environment. Early exposure to a HF diet determines litter size while exposure to HF during the second half of pregnancy leads to dysregulation of expression of key genes responsible for fetal growth, hepatic glucose production and oxidative stress. These findings underscore the importance of future studies designed to clarify how these critical periods may influence future risk of developing MetS later in life.
Effects of genetics and in utero diet on murine pancreatic development
Intrauterine (IU) malnutrition could alter pancreatic development. In this study, we describe the effects of high-fat diet (HFD) during pregnancy on fetal growth and pancreatic morphology in an 'at risk' animal model of metabolic disease, the glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) heterozygous mouse (G4+/-). WT female mice mated with G4+/- males were fed HFD or control diet (CD) for 2 weeks before mating and throughout pregnancy. At embryonic day 18.5, fetuses were killed and pancreata isolated for analysis of morphology and expression of genes involved in insulin (INS) cell development, proliferation, apoptosis, glucose transport and function. Compared with WT CD, WT HFD fetal pancreata had a 2.4-fold increase in the number of glucagon (GLU) cells (P=0.023). HFD also increased GLU cell size by 18% in WT pancreata compared with WT CD. Compared with WT CD, G4+/- CD had an increased number of INS cells and decreased INS and GLU cell size. Compared with G4+/- CD, G4+/- HFD fetuses had increased pancreatic gene expression of Igf2, a mitogen and inhibitor of apoptosis. The expression of genes involved in proliferation, apoptosis, glucose transport, and INS secretion was not altered in WT HFD compared with G4+/- HFD pancreata. In contrast to WT HFD pancreata, HFD exposure did not alter pancreatic islet morphology in fetuses with GLUT4 haploinsufficiency; this may be mediated in part by increased Igf2 expression. Thus, interactions between IU diet and fetal genetics may play a critical role in the developmental origins of health and disease.
Shared effects of genetic and intrauterine and perinatal environment on the development of metabolic syndrome
Genetic and environmental factors, including the in utero environment, contribute to Metabolic Syndrome. Exposure to high fat diet exposure in utero and lactation increases incidence of Metabolic Syndrome in offspring. Using GLUT4 heterozygous (G4+/-) mice, genetically predisposed to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, and wild-type littermates we demonstrate genotype specific differences to high fat in utero and lactation. High fat in utero and lactation increased adiposity and impaired insulin and glucose tolerance in both genotypes. High fat wild type offspring had increased serum glucose and PAI-1 levels and decreased adiponectin at 6 wks of age compared to control wild type. High fat G4+/- offspring had increased systolic blood pressure at 13 wks of age compared to all other groups. Potential fetal origins of adult Metabolic Syndrome were investigated. Regardless of genotype, high fat in utero decreased fetal weight and crown rump length at embryonic day 18.5 compared to control. Hepatic expression of genes involved in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, oxidative stress and inflammation were increased with high fat in utero. Fetal serum glucose levels were decreased in high fat G4+/- compared to high fat wild type fetuses. High fat G4+/-, but not high fat wild type fetuses, had increased levels of serum cytokines (IFN-gamma, MCP-1, RANTES and M-CSF) compared to control. This data demonstrates that high fat during pregnancy and lactation increases Metabolic Syndrome male offspring and that heterozygous deletion of GLUT4 augments susceptibility to increased systolic blood pressure. Fetal adaptations to high fat in utero that may predispose to Metabolic Syndrome in adulthood include changes in fetal hepatic gene expression and alterations in circulating cytokines. These results suggest that the interaction between in utero-perinatal environment and genotype plays a critical role in the developmental origin of health and disease.
Determinants of pancreatic islet development in mice and men: a focus on the role of transcription factors
The development of the endocrine pancreas is regulated by several cell-matrix interactions that generate a diverse array of intracellular signals determining the progression of a multipotent progenitor to a mature endocrine cell. This process involves interactions between the epithelium, mesenchyma, and endothelial cells. Later in development, coordinated signaling contributes to the maintenance of the differentiated endocrine cell phenotype. It has been demonstrated that key factors as well as the sequence of events involved in mouse pancreatic development is conserved in humans. This review will discuss our current knowledge in mouse as well as human pancreatic development and highlights some important transcription factors associated with human disease.
Induction of mixed chimerism with MHC-mismatched but not matched bone marrow transplants results in thymic deletion of host-type autoreactive T-cells in NOD mice
OBJECTIVE: Induction of mixed or complete chimerism via hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from nonautoimmune donors could prevent or reverse type 1 diabetes (T1D). In clinical settings, HLA-matched HCT is preferred to facilitate engraftment and reduce the risk for graft versus host disease (GVHD). Yet autoimmune T1D susceptibility is associated with certain HLA types. Therefore, we tested whether induction of mixed chimerism with major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-matched donors could reverse autoimmunity in the NOD mouse model of T1D. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Prediabetic wild-type or transgenic BDC2.5 NOD mice were conditioned with a radiation-free GVHD preventative anti-CD3/CD8 conditioning regimen and transplanted with bone marrow (BM) from MHC-matched or mismatched donors to induce mixed or complete chimerism. T1D development and thymic deletion of host-type autoreactive T-cells in the chimeric recipients were evaluated. RESULTS: Induction of mixed chimerism with MHC-matched nonautoimmune donor BM transplants did not prevent T1D in wild-type NOD mice, although induction of complete chimerism did prevent the disease. However, induction of either mixed or complete chimerism with MHC-mismatched BM transplants prevented T1D in such mice. Furthermore, induction of mixed chimerism in transgenic BDC2.5-NOD mice with MHC-matched or -mismatched MHC II(-/-) BM transplants failed to induce thymic deletion of de novo developed host-type autoreactive T-cells, whereas induction of mixed chimerism with mismatched BM transplants did. CONCLUSIONS: Induction of mixed chimerism with MHC-mismatched, but not matched, donor BM transplants re-establishes thymic deletion of host-type autoreactive T-cells and prevents T1D, with donor antigen-presenting cell expression of mismatched MHC II molecules being required.
Induction of chimerism permits low-dose islet grafts in the liver or pancreas to reverse refractory autoimmune diabetes
OBJECTIVE: To test whether induction of chimerism lowers the amount of donor islets required for reversal of diabetes and renders the pancreas a suitable site for islet grafts in autoimmune diabetic mice. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The required donor islet dose for reversal of diabetes in late-stage diabetic NOD mice after transplantation into the liver or pancreas was compared under immunosuppression or after induction of chimerism. Recipient mice were monitored for blood glucose levels and measured for insulin-secretion capacity. Islet grafts were evaluated for beta-cell proliferation, beta-cell functional gene expression, and revascularization. RESULTS: With immunosuppression, transplantation of 1,000, but not 600, donor islets was able to reverse diabetes when transplanted into the liver, but transplantation of 1,000 islets was not able to reverse diabetes when transplanted into the pancreas. In contrast, after induction of chimerism, transplantation of as few as 100 donor islets was able to reverse diabetes when transplanted into either the liver or pancreas. Interestingly, when lower doses (50 or 25) of islets were transplanted, donor islets in the pancreas were much more effective in reversal of diabetes than in the liver, which was associated with higher beta-cell replication rate, better beta-cell functional gene expression, and higher vascular density of graft islets in the pancreas. CONCLUSIONS: Induction of chimerism not only provides immune tolerance to donor islets, but also markedly reduces the required amount of donor islets for reversal of diabetes. In addition, this process renders the pancreas a more superior site than the liver for donor islets in autoimmune mice.
3,3'-Diindolylmethane induces a G(1) arrest in human prostate cancer cells irrespective of androgen receptor and p53 status
3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM) is a potential chemopreventive phytochemical derived from Brassica vegetables. In this study we characterized the effect of DIM on cell cycle regulation in both androgen-dependent LNCaP and androgen receptor negative p53 mutant DU145 human prostate cancer cells. DIM had an anti-proliferative effect on both LNCaP and DU145 cells, as it significantly inhibited [3H]-thymidine incorporation. FACS analysis revealed a DIM-mediated G(1) cell cycle arrest. DIM strongly inhibited the expression of cdk2 and cdk4 protein and increased the expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p27(Kip1) protein in LNCaP and DU145 cells. Promoter deletion studies with p27(Kip1) reporter gene constructs showed that this DIM-mediated increase in p27(Kip1) was dependent on the Sp1 transcription factor. Moreover, using a dominant negative inhibitor of p38 MAPK, we showed that the induction of p27(Kip1) and subsequent G(1) arrest by DIM involve activation of the p38 MAPK pathway in the DU145 cells. Taken together, our results indicate that DIM is able to stop the cell cycle progression of human prostate cancer cells regardless of their androgen-dependence and p53 status, by differentially modulating cell cycle regulatory pathways. The Sp1 and p38 MAPK pathways mediate the DIM cell cycle regulatory effect in DU145 cells.
Anti-CD3 preconditioning separates GVL from GVHD via modulating host dendritic cell and donor T-cell migration in recipients conditioned with TBI
Host dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in initiating graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and graft-versus-leukemia (GVL), and separation of GVL from GVHD remains a major challenge in the treatment of hematologic malignancies by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Here, we show that preconditioning with anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody before conditioning with total body irradiation (TBI) prevents GVHD but retains GVL in a HCT model of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched C57BL/6 donor to BALB/c host. Prevention of GVHD is associated with inhibition of donor T-cell expression of homing and chemokine receptors, and inhibition of GVHD target tissue expression of chemokines. Furthermore, inhibition of donor T-cell expression of gut homing alpha4beta7 and chemokine receptor (CCR)9 by anti-CD3 preconditioning results from a reduction of CD103(+) DCs in draining mesenteric lymph nodes (LNs), which is associated with down-regulation of DC expression of CCR7, a receptor required for tissue DC migration to draining LNs. These results indicate that anti-CD3 preconditioning reduces not only tissue release of chemokines but also prevents tissue DC migration to draining LNs and subsequently reduces the capacity of DCs of draining LNs to imprint donor T-cell tissue tropism. Therefore, modulation of host DCs by anti-CD3 preconditioning before HCT represents a new approach for separating GVL from GVHD.
Absence of donor Th17 leads to augmented Th1 differentiation and exacerbated acute graft-versus-host disease
Th17 is a newly identified T-cell lineage that secretes proinflammatory cytokine IL-17. Th17 cells have been shown to play a critical role in mediating autoimmune diseases such as EAE, colitis, and arthritis, but their role in the pathogenesis of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is still unknown. Here we showed that, in an acute GVHD model of C57BL/6 (H-2(b)) donor to BALB/c (H-2(d)) recipient, IL-17(-/-) donor T cells manifested an augmented Th1 differentiation and IFN-gamma production and induced exacerbated acute GVHD. Severe tissue damage mediated by IL-17(-/-) donor T cells was associated with increased Th1 infiltration, up-regulation of chemokine receptors by donor T cells, and enhanced tissue expression of inflammatory chemokines. Administration of recombinant IL-17 and neutralizing IFN-gamma in the recipients given IL-17(-/-) donor cells ameliorated the acute GVHD. Furthermore, the regulation of Th1 differentiation by IL-17 or Th17 may be through its influence on host DCs. Our results indicate that donor Th17 cells can down-regulate Th1 differentiation and ameliorate acute GVHD in allogeneic recipients, and that treatments neutralizing proinflammatory cytokine IL-17 may augment acute GVHD as well as other inflammatory autoimmune diseases.