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Spatiotemporal dynamics between interictal epileptiform discharges and ripples during associative memory processing

Henin, Simon; Shankar, Anita; Borges, Helen; Flinker, Adeen; Doyle, Werner; Friedman, Daniel; Devinsky, Orrin; Buzsáki, György; Liu, Anli
We describe the spatiotemporal course of cortical high-gamma activity, hippocampal ripple activity and interictal epileptiform discharges during an associative memory task in 15 epilepsy patients undergoing invasive EEG. Successful encoding trials manifested significantly greater high-gamma activity in hippocampus and frontal regions. Successful cued recall trials manifested sustained high-gamma activity in hippocampus compared to failed responses. Hippocampal ripple rates were greater during successful encoding and retrieval trials. Interictal epileptiform discharges during encoding were associated with 15% decreased odds of remembering in hippocampus (95% confidence interval 6-23%). Hippocampal interictal epileptiform discharges during retrieval predicted 25% decreased odds of remembering (15-33%). Odds of remembering were reduced by 25-52% if interictal epileptiform discharges occurred during the 500-2000-ms window of encoding or by 41% during retrieval. During encoding and retrieval, hippocampal interictal epileptiform discharges were followed by a transient decrease in ripple rate. We hypothesize that interictal epileptiform discharges impair associative memory in a regionally and temporally specific manner by decreasing physiological hippocampal ripples necessary for effective encoding and recall. Because dynamic memory impairment arises from pathological interictal epileptiform discharge events competing with physiological ripples, interictal epileptiform discharges represent a promising therapeutic target for memory remediation in patients with epilepsy.
PMID: 33889945
ISSN: 1460-2156
CID: 4847522

Learning hierarchical sequence representations across human cortex and hippocampus

Henin, Simon; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B; Friedman, Daniel; Liu, Anli; Dugan, Patricia; Flinker, Adeen; Doyle, Werner; Devinsky, Orrin; Melloni, Lucia
Sensory input arrives in continuous sequences that humans experience as segmented units, e.g., words and events. The brain's ability to discover regularities is called statistical learning. Structure can be represented at multiple levels, including transitional probabilities, ordinal position, and identity of units. To investigate sequence encoding in cortex and hippocampus, we recorded from intracranial electrodes in human subjects as they were exposed to auditory and visual sequences containing temporal regularities. We find neural tracking of regularities within minutes, with characteristic profiles across brain areas. Early processing tracked lower-level features (e.g., syllables) and learned units (e.g., words), while later processing tracked only learned units. Learning rapidly shaped neural representations, with a gradient of complexity from early brain areas encoding transitional probability, to associative regions and hippocampus encoding ordinal position and identity of units. These findings indicate the existence of multiple, parallel computational systems for sequence learning across hierarchically organized cortico-hippocampal circuits.
PMID: 33608265
ISSN: 2375-2548
CID: 4793972

Sleep spindles promote the restructuring of memory representations in ventromedial prefrontal cortex through enhanced hippocampal-cortical functional connectivity

Cowan, Emily; Liu, Anli; Henin, Simon; Kothare, Sanjeev; Devinsky, Orrin; Davachi, Lila
Memory consolidation is hypothesized to involve the distribution and restructuring of memory representations across hippocampal and cortical regions. Theories suggest that, through extended hippocampal-cortical interactions, cortical ensembles come to represent more integrated, or overlapping, memory traces that prioritize commonalities across related memories. Sleep processes, particularly fast sleep spindles, are thought to support consolidation, but evidence for this relationship has been mostly limited to memory retention benefits. Whether fast spindles provide a mechanism for neural changes hypothesized to support consolidation, including the strengthening of hippocampal-cortical networks and integration across memory representations, remains unclear, as does the specificity of regions involved. Using functional connectivity analyses of human fMRI data (both sexes), we show that fast spindle density during overnight sleep is related to enhanced hippocampal-cortical functional connectivity the next day, when re-studying information learned before sleep. Spindle density modulated connectivity in distinct hippocampal-cortical networks depending on the category of the consolidated stimuli. Specifically, spindle density correlated with functional connectivity between anterior hippocampus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) for object-word pairs, and posterior hippocampus and posteromedial cortex (PMC) for scene-word pairs. Using multivariate pattern analyses, we also show fast spindle density during post-learning sleep is associated with greater pattern similarity, or representational overlap, across individual object-word memories in vmPFC the next day. Further, the relationship between fast spindle density and representational overlap in vmPFC was mediated by the degree of anterior hippocampal-vmPFC functional connectivity. Together, these results suggest fast spindles support the network distribution of memory traces, potentially restructuring memory representations in vmPFC.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTHow new experiences are transformed into long-term memories remains a fundamental question for neuroscience research. Theories suggest that memories are stabilized as they are reorganized in the brain, a process thought to be supported by sleep oscillations, particularly sleep spindles. Although sleep spindles have been associated with benefits in memory retention, it is not well understood how spindles modify neural memory traces. This study found that spindles during overnight sleep correlate with changes in neural memory traces, including enhanced functional connectivity in distinct hippocampal-cortical networks and increased pattern similarity amongst memories in the cortex. The results provide critical evidence that spindles during overnight sleep may act as a physiological mechanism for the restructuring of neural memory traces.
PMID: 31959699
ISSN: 1529-2401
CID: 4272792

Is formal scoring better than just looking? A comparison of subjective and objective scoring methods of the Rey Complex Figure Test for lateralizing temporal lobe epilepsy

LeMonda, Brittany C; MacAllister, William; Morrison, Chris; Vaurio, Linnea; Blackmon, Karen; Maiman, Moshe; Liu, Anli; Liberta, Taylor; Bar, William B
OBJECTIVE/UNASSIGNED:Findings highlight concerns regarding the usefulness of the RCFT in TLE lateralization, regardless of scoring approach.
PMID: 33356888
ISSN: 1744-4144
CID: 4954292

Sounds of seizures

Shum, Jennifer; Fogarty, Adam; Dugan, Patricia; Holmes, Manisha G; Leeman-Markowski, Beth A; Liu, Anli A; Fisher, Robert S; Friedman, Daniel
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:A phase I feasibility study to determine the accuracy of identifying seizures based on audio recordings. METHODS:We systematically generated 166 audio clips of 30 s duration from 83 patients admitted to an epilepsy monitoring unit between 1/2015 and 12/2016, with one clip during a seizure period and one clip during a non-seizure control period for each patient. Five epileptologists performed a blinded review of the audio clips and rated whether a seizure occurred or not, and indicated the confidence level (low or high) of their rating. The accuracy of individual and consensus ratings were calculated. RESULTS:The overall performance of the consensus rating between the five epileptologists showed a positive predictive value (PPV) of 0.91 and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 0.66. The performance improved when confidence was high (PPV of 0.96, NPV of 0.70). The agreement between the epileptologists was moderate with a kappa of 0.584. Hyperkinetic (PPV 0.92, NPV 0.86) and tonic-clonic (PPV and NPV 1.00) seizures were most accurately identified. Seizures with automatisms only and non-motor seizures could not be accurately identified. Specific seizure-related sounds associated with accurate identification included disordered breathing (PPV and NPV 1.00), rhythmic sounds (PPV 0.93, NPV 0.80), and ictal vocalizations (PPV 1.00, NPV 0.97). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:This phase I feasibility study shows that epileptologists are able to accurately identify certain seizure types from audio recordings when the seizures produce sounds. This provides guidance for the development of audio-based seizure detection devices and demonstrate which seizure types could potentially be detected.
PMID: 32276233
ISSN: 1532-2688
CID: 4374322

Mesial temporal resection following long-term ambulatory intracranial EEG monitoring with a direct brain-responsive neurostimulation system

Hirsch, Lawrence J; Mirro, Emily A; Salanova, Vicenta; Witt, Thomas C; Drees, Cornelia N; Brown, Mesha-Gay; Lee, Ricky W; Sadler, Toni L; Felton, Elizabeth A; Rutecki, Paul; Shin, Hae Won; Hadar, Eldad; Hegde, Manu; Rao, Vikram R; Mnatsakanyan, Lilit; Madhavan, Deepak S; Zakaria, Tarek J; Liu, Anli A; Heck, Christianne N; Greenwood, Janet E; Bigelow, Jeffrey K; Nair, Dileep R; Alexopoulos, Andreas V; Mackow, Michael; Edwards, Jonathan C; Sotudeh, Nadia; Kuzniecky, Ruben I; Gwinn, Ryder P; Doherty, Michael J; Geller, Eric B; Morrell, Martha J
OBJECTIVE:To describe seizure outcomes in patients with medically refractory epilepsy who had evidence of bilateral mesial temporal lobe (MTL) seizure onsets and underwent MTL resection based on chronic ambulatory intracranial EEG (ICEEG) data from a direct brain-responsive neurostimulator (RNS) system. METHODS:We retrospectively identified all patients at 17 epilepsy centers with MTL epilepsy who were treated with the RNS System using bilateral MTL leads, and in whom an MTL resection was subsequently performed. Presumed lateralization based on routine presurgical approaches was compared to lateralization determined by RNS System chronic ambulatory ICEEG recordings. The primary outcome was frequency of disabling seizures at last 3-month follow-up after MTL resection compared to seizure frequency 3 months before MTL resection. RESULTS:We identified 157 patients treated with the RNS System with bilateral MTL leads due to presumed bitemporal epilepsy. Twenty-five patients (16%) subsequently had an MTL resection informed by chronic ambulatory ICEEG (mean = 42 months ICEEG); follow-up was available for 24 patients. After MTL resection, the median reduction in disabling seizures at last follow-up was 100% (mean: 94%; range: 50%-100%). Nine patients (38%) had exclusively unilateral electrographic seizures recorded by chronic ambulatory ICEEG and all were seizure-free at last follow-up after MTL resection; eight of nine continued RNS System treatment. Fifteen patients (62%) had bilateral MTL electrographic seizures, had an MTL resection on the more active side, continued RNS System treatment, and achieved a median clinical seizure reduction of 100% (mean: 90%; range: 50%-100%) at last follow-up, with eight of fifteen seizure-free. For those with more than 1 year of follow-up (N = 21), 15 patients (71%) were seizure-free during the most recent year, including all eight patients with unilateral onsets and 7 of 13 patients (54%) with bilateral onsets. SIGNIFICANCE/CONCLUSIONS:Chronic ambulatory ICEEG data provide information about lateralization of MTL seizures and can identify additional patients who may benefit from MTL resection.
PMID: 32072621
ISSN: 1528-1167
CID: 4312282

Forced conceptual thought induced by electrical stimulation of the left prefrontal gyrus involves widespread neural networks

Liu, Anli; Friedman, Daniel; Barron, Daniel S; Wang, Xiuyuan; Thesen, Thomas; Dugan, Patricia
BACKGROUND:Early accounts of forced thought were reported at the onset of a focal seizure, and characterized as vague, repetitive, and involuntary intellectual auras distinct from perceptual or psychic hallucinations or illusions. Here, we examine the neural underpinnings involved in conceptual thought by presenting a series of 3 patients with epilepsy reporting intrusive thoughts during electrical stimulation of the left lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) during invasive surgical evaluation. We illustrate the widespread networks involved through two independent brain imaging modalities: resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (rs-fMRI) and task-based meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM). METHODS:We report the clinical and stimulation characteristics of three patients with left hemispheric language dominance who demonstrate forced thought with functional mapping. To examine the brain networks underlying this phenomenon, we used the regions of interest (ROI) centered at the active electrode pairs. We modeled functional networks using two approaches: (1) rs-fMRI functional connectivity analysis, representing 81 healthy controls and (2) meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM), representing 8260 healthy subjects. We also determined the overlapping regions between these three subjects' rs-fMRI and MACM networks through a conjunction analysis. RESULTS:We identified that left PFC was associated with a large-scale functional network including frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, a network that has been associated with multiple cognitive functions including semantics, speech, attention, working memory, and explicit memory. CONCLUSIONS:We illustrate the neural networks involved in conceptual thought through a unique patient population and argue that PFC supports this function through activation of a widespread network.
PMID: 31951969
ISSN: 1525-5069
CID: 4264032

Is formal scoring better than just looking? A comparison of subjective and objective scoring methods of the Rey Complex Figure Test for lateralizing temporal lobe epilepsy

LeMonda, Brittany C.; MacAllister, William; Morrison, Chris; Vaurio, Linnea; Blackmon, Karen; Maiman, Moshe; Liu, Anli; Liberta, Taylor; Bar, William B.
ISSN: 1385-4046
CID: 4764222

Temporal lobe surgery and memory: Lessons, risks, and opportunities

Bauman, Kristie; Devinsky, Orrin; Liu, Anli A
Careful study of the clinical outcomes of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) surgery has greatly advanced our knowledge of the neuroanatomy of human memory. After early cases resulted in profound amnesia, the critical role of the hippocampus and associated medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures to declarative memory became evident. Surgical approaches quickly changed to become unilateral and later, to be more precise, potentially reducing cognitive morbidity. Neuropsychological studies following unilateral temporal lobe resection (TLR) have challenged early models, which simplified the lateralization of verbal and visual memory function. Diagnostic tests, including intracarotid sodium amobarbital procedure (WADA), structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and functional neuroimaging (functional MRI (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)), can more accurately lateralize and localize epileptogenic cortex and predict memory outcomes from surgery. Longitudinal studies have shown that memory may even improve in seizure-free patients. From 70 years of experience with epilepsy surgery, we now have a richer understanding of the clinical, neuroimaging, and surgical predictors of memory decline-and improvement-after TLR. "Special Issue: Epilepsy & Behavior's 20th Anniversary".
PMID: 31711868
ISSN: 1525-5069
CID: 4185072

Closed-loop acoustic stimulation enhances sleep oscillations but not memory performance

Henin, Simon; Borges, Helen; Shankar, Anita; Sarac, Cansu; Melloni, Lucia; Friedman, Daniel; Flinker, Adeen; Parra, Lucas C; Buzsaki, Gyorgy; Devinsky, Orrin; Liu, Anli
Slow-oscillations and spindle activity during non-REM sleep have been implicated in memory consolidation. Closed-loop acoustic stimulation has previously been shown to enhance slow oscillations and spindle activity during sleep and improve verbal associative memory. We assessed the effect of closed-loop acoustic stimulation during a daytime nap on a virtual reality spatial navigation task in 12 healthy human subjects in a randomized within-subject crossover design. We show robust enhancement of slow-spindle activity during sleep. However, no effects on behavioral performance were observed when comparing real versus sham stimulation. To explore whether memory enhancement effects were task-specific and dependent on nocturnal sleep, in a second experiment with 19 healthy subjects, we aimed to replicate a previous study which used closed-loop acoustic stimulation to enhance memory for word pairs. Methods were as close as possible to the original study, except we used a double-blind protocol, in which both subject and experimenter were unaware of the test condition. Again, we successfully enhanced slow-spindle power, but again did not strengthen associative memory performance with stimulation. We conclude that enhancement of slow-spindle oscillations may be insufficient to enhance memory performance in spatial navigation or verbal association tasks, and provide possible explanations for lack of behavioral replication.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Prior studies have demonstrated that a closed-loop acoustic pulse paradigm during sleep can enhance verbal memory performance. This technique has widespread scientific and clinical appeal due to its non-invasive nature and ease of application. We tested with a rigorous double-blind design whether this technique could enhance key sleep rhythms associated sleep-dependent memory performance. We discovered that we could reliably enhance slow and spindle rhythms, but did not improve memory performance in the stimulation condition compared to sham condition. Our findings suggest that enhancing slow-spindle rhythms is insufficient to enhance sleep-dependent learning.
PMID: 31604814
ISSN: 2373-2822
CID: 4130772