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Mesial temporal resection following long-term ambulatory intracranial EEG monitoring with a direct brain-responsive neurostimulation system

Hirsch, Lawrence J; Mirro, Emily A; Salanova, Vicenta; Witt, Thomas C; Drees, Cornelia N; Brown, Mesha-Gay; Lee, Ricky W; Sadler, Toni L; Felton, Elizabeth A; Rutecki, Paul; Shin, Hae Won; Hadar, Eldad; Hegde, Manu; Rao, Vikram R; Mnatsakanyan, Lilit; Madhavan, Deepak S; Zakaria, Tarek J; Liu, Anli A; Heck, Christianne N; Greenwood, Janet E; Bigelow, Jeffrey K; Nair, Dileep R; Alexopoulos, Andreas V; Mackow, Michael; Edwards, Jonathan C; Sotudeh, Nadia; Kuzniecky, Ruben I; Gwinn, Ryder P; Doherty, Michael J; Geller, Eric B; Morrell, Martha J
OBJECTIVE:To describe seizure outcomes in patients with medically refractory epilepsy who had evidence of bilateral mesial temporal lobe (MTL) seizure onsets and underwent MTL resection based on chronic ambulatory intracranial EEG (ICEEG) data from a direct brain-responsive neurostimulator (RNS) system. METHODS:We retrospectively identified all patients at 17 epilepsy centers with MTL epilepsy who were treated with the RNS System using bilateral MTL leads, and in whom an MTL resection was subsequently performed. Presumed lateralization based on routine presurgical approaches was compared to lateralization determined by RNS System chronic ambulatory ICEEG recordings. The primary outcome was frequency of disabling seizures at last 3-month follow-up after MTL resection compared to seizure frequency 3 months before MTL resection. RESULTS:We identified 157 patients treated with the RNS System with bilateral MTL leads due to presumed bitemporal epilepsy. Twenty-five patients (16%) subsequently had an MTL resection informed by chronic ambulatory ICEEG (mean = 42 months ICEEG); follow-up was available for 24 patients. After MTL resection, the median reduction in disabling seizures at last follow-up was 100% (mean: 94%; range: 50%-100%). Nine patients (38%) had exclusively unilateral electrographic seizures recorded by chronic ambulatory ICEEG and all were seizure-free at last follow-up after MTL resection; eight of nine continued RNS System treatment. Fifteen patients (62%) had bilateral MTL electrographic seizures, had an MTL resection on the more active side, continued RNS System treatment, and achieved a median clinical seizure reduction of 100% (mean: 90%; range: 50%-100%) at last follow-up, with eight of fifteen seizure-free. For those with more than 1 year of follow-up (N = 21), 15 patients (71%) were seizure-free during the most recent year, including all eight patients with unilateral onsets and 7 of 13 patients (54%) with bilateral onsets. SIGNIFICANCE/CONCLUSIONS:Chronic ambulatory ICEEG data provide information about lateralization of MTL seizures and can identify additional patients who may benefit from MTL resection.
PMID: 32072621
ISSN: 1528-1167
CID: 4312282

Sleep spindles promote the restructuring of memory representations in ventromedial prefrontal cortex through enhanced hippocampal-cortical functional connectivity

Cowan, Emily; Liu, Anli; Henin, Simon; Kothare, Sanjeev; Devinsky, Orrin; Davachi, Lila
Memory consolidation is hypothesized to involve the distribution and restructuring of memory representations across hippocampal and cortical regions. Theories suggest that, through extended hippocampal-cortical interactions, cortical ensembles come to represent more integrated, or overlapping, memory traces that prioritize commonalities across related memories. Sleep processes, particularly fast sleep spindles, are thought to support consolidation, but evidence for this relationship has been mostly limited to memory retention benefits. Whether fast spindles provide a mechanism for neural changes hypothesized to support consolidation, including the strengthening of hippocampal-cortical networks and integration across memory representations, remains unclear, as does the specificity of regions involved. Using functional connectivity analyses of human fMRI data (both sexes), we show that fast spindle density during overnight sleep is related to enhanced hippocampal-cortical functional connectivity the next day, when re-studying information learned before sleep. Spindle density modulated connectivity in distinct hippocampal-cortical networks depending on the category of the consolidated stimuli. Specifically, spindle density correlated with functional connectivity between anterior hippocampus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) for object-word pairs, and posterior hippocampus and posteromedial cortex (PMC) for scene-word pairs. Using multivariate pattern analyses, we also show fast spindle density during post-learning sleep is associated with greater pattern similarity, or representational overlap, across individual object-word memories in vmPFC the next day. Further, the relationship between fast spindle density and representational overlap in vmPFC was mediated by the degree of anterior hippocampal-vmPFC functional connectivity. Together, these results suggest fast spindles support the network distribution of memory traces, potentially restructuring memory representations in vmPFC.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTHow new experiences are transformed into long-term memories remains a fundamental question for neuroscience research. Theories suggest that memories are stabilized as they are reorganized in the brain, a process thought to be supported by sleep oscillations, particularly sleep spindles. Although sleep spindles have been associated with benefits in memory retention, it is not well understood how spindles modify neural memory traces. This study found that spindles during overnight sleep correlate with changes in neural memory traces, including enhanced functional connectivity in distinct hippocampal-cortical networks and increased pattern similarity amongst memories in the cortex. The results provide critical evidence that spindles during overnight sleep may act as a physiological mechanism for the restructuring of neural memory traces.
PMID: 31959699
ISSN: 1529-2401
CID: 4272792

Forced conceptual thought induced by electrical stimulation of the left prefrontal gyrus involves widespread neural networks

Liu, Anli; Friedman, Daniel; Barron, Daniel S; Wang, Xiuyuan; Thesen, Thomas; Dugan, Patricia
BACKGROUND:Early accounts of forced thought were reported at the onset of a focal seizure, and characterized as vague, repetitive, and involuntary intellectual auras distinct from perceptual or psychic hallucinations or illusions. Here, we examine the neural underpinnings involved in conceptual thought by presenting a series of 3 patients with epilepsy reporting intrusive thoughts during electrical stimulation of the left lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) during invasive surgical evaluation. We illustrate the widespread networks involved through two independent brain imaging modalities: resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (rs-fMRI) and task-based meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM). METHODS:We report the clinical and stimulation characteristics of three patients with left hemispheric language dominance who demonstrate forced thought with functional mapping. To examine the brain networks underlying this phenomenon, we used the regions of interest (ROI) centered at the active electrode pairs. We modeled functional networks using two approaches: (1) rs-fMRI functional connectivity analysis, representing 81 healthy controls and (2) meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM), representing 8260 healthy subjects. We also determined the overlapping regions between these three subjects' rs-fMRI and MACM networks through a conjunction analysis. RESULTS:We identified that left PFC was associated with a large-scale functional network including frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, a network that has been associated with multiple cognitive functions including semantics, speech, attention, working memory, and explicit memory. CONCLUSIONS:We illustrate the neural networks involved in conceptual thought through a unique patient population and argue that PFC supports this function through activation of a widespread network.
PMID: 31951969
ISSN: 1525-5069
CID: 4264032

Temporal lobe surgery and memory: Lessons, risks, and opportunities

Bauman, Kristie; Devinsky, Orrin; Liu, Anli A
Careful study of the clinical outcomes of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) surgery has greatly advanced our knowledge of the neuroanatomy of human memory. After early cases resulted in profound amnesia, the critical role of the hippocampus and associated medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures to declarative memory became evident. Surgical approaches quickly changed to become unilateral and later, to be more precise, potentially reducing cognitive morbidity. Neuropsychological studies following unilateral temporal lobe resection (TLR) have challenged early models, which simplified the lateralization of verbal and visual memory function. Diagnostic tests, including intracarotid sodium amobarbital procedure (WADA), structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and functional neuroimaging (functional MRI (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)), can more accurately lateralize and localize epileptogenic cortex and predict memory outcomes from surgery. Longitudinal studies have shown that memory may even improve in seizure-free patients. From 70 years of experience with epilepsy surgery, we now have a richer understanding of the clinical, neuroimaging, and surgical predictors of memory decline-and improvement-after TLR. "Special Issue: Epilepsy & Behavior's 20th Anniversary".
PMID: 31711868
ISSN: 1525-5069
CID: 4185072

Tracking Changes in Brain Network Connectivity under Transcranial Current Stimulation

Jami, Apoorva Sagarwal; Guo, Xinling; Kulkarni, Prathamesh; Henin, Simon E; Liu, Anli; Chen, Zhe
Noninvasive transcranial brain stimulation has been widely used in experimental and clinical applications to perturb the brain activity, aiming at promoting synaptic plasticity or enhancing functional connectivity within targeted brain regions. However, there are different types of neurostimulations and various choices of stimulation parameters; how these choices influence the intermediate neurophysiological effects and brain connectivity remain incompletely understood. We propose several quantitative methods to investigate the brain connectivity of an epileptic patient before and after transcranial alternating/direct current stimulation (tACS/tDCS). The neuro-feedback derived from our analyses may provide useful cues for the effectiveness of neurostimulation.
PMID: 31947314
ISSN: 1557-170x
CID: 4271622

Cortical gray-white matter blurring and declarative memory impairment in MRI-negative temporal lobe epilepsy

Blackmon, Karen; Barr, William B; Morrison, Chris; MacAllister, William; Kruse, Michelle; Pressl, Christina; Wang, Xiuyuan; Dugan, Patricia; Liu, Anli A; Halgren, Eric; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-negative temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) may be a distinct syndrome from TLE with mesial temporal sclerosis (TLE-MTS). Imaging and neuropsychological features of TLE-MTS are well-known; yet, these features are only beginning to be described in MRI-negative TLE. This study examined whether a quantitative measure of cortical gray and white matter blurring (GWB) was elevated in the temporal lobes ipsilateral to the seizure onset zone of individuals with MRI-negative TLE relative to TLE-MTS and healthy controls (HCs) and whether GWB elevations were associated with neuropsychological comorbidity. Gray-white matter blurring from 34 cortical regions and hippocampal volumes were quantified and compared across 28 people with MRI-negative TLE, 15 people with TLE-MTS, and 51 HCs. Declarative memory was assessed with standard neuropsychological tests and the intracarotid amobarbital procedure (IAP). In the group with MRI-negative TLE (left and right onsets combined), hippocampal volumes were within normal range but GWB was elevated, relative to HCs, across several mesial and lateral temporal lobe regions ipsilateral to the seizure onset zone. Gray-white matter blurring did not differ between the groups with TLE-MTS and HC or between the groups with TLE-MTS and MRI-negative TLE. The group with MRI-negative TLE could not be distinguished from the group with TLE-MTS on any of the standard neuropsychological tests; however, ipsilateral hippocampal volumes and IAP memory scores were lower in the group with TLE-MTS than in the group with MRI-negative TLE. The group with left MRI-negative TLE had lower general cognitive abilities and verbal fluency relative to the HC group, which adds to the characterization of neuropsychological comorbidities in left MRI-negative TLE. In addition, ipsilateral IAP memory performance was reduced relative to contralateral memory performance in MRI-negative TLE, indicating some degree of ipsilateral memory dysfunction. There was no relationship between hippocampal volume and IAP memory scores in MRI-negative TLE; however, decreased ipsilateral IAP memory scores were correlated with elevated GWB in the ipsilateral superior temporal sulcus of people with left MRI-negative TLE. In sum, GWB elevations in the ipsilateral temporal lobe of people with MRI-negative TLE suggest that GWB may serve as a marker for reduced structural integrity in regions in or near the seizure onset zone. Although mesial temporal abnormalities might be the major driver of memory dysfunction in TLE-MTS, a loss of structural integrity in lateral temporal lobe regions may contribute to IAP memory dysfunction in MRI-negative TLE.
PMID: 31181427
ISSN: 1525-5069
CID: 3927662

A deep learning approach for real-time detection of sleep spindles

Kulkarni, Prathamesh M; Xiao, Zhengdong; Robinson, Eric J; Sagarwa Jami, Apoorva; Zhang, Jianping; Zhou, Haocheng; Henin, Simon E; Liu, Anli A; Osorio, Ricardo S; Wang, Jing; Chen, Zhe Sage
OBJECTIVE:Sleep spindles have been implicated in memory consolidation and synaptic plasticity during NREM sleep. Detection accuracy and latency in automatic spindle detection are critical for real-time applications. APPROACH/METHODS:Here we propose a novel deep learning strategy (SpindleNet) to detect sleep spindles based on a single EEG channel. While the majority of spindle detection methods are used for off-line applications, our method is well suited for online applications. MAIN RESULTS/RESULTS:Compared with other spindle detection methods, SpindleNet achieves superior detection accuracy and speed, as demonstrated in two publicly available expert-validated EEG sleep spindle datasets. Our real-time detection of spindle onset achieves detection latencies of 150-350 ms (~2-3 spindle cycles) and retains excellent performance under low EEG sampling frequencies and low signal-to-noise ratios. SpindleNet has good generalization across different sleep datasets from various subject groups of different ages and species. SIGNIFICANCE/CONCLUSIONS:SpindleNet is ultra-fast and scalable to multichannel EEG recordings, with an accuracy level comparable to human experts, making it appealing for long-term sleep monitoring and closed-loop neuroscience experiments. &#13.
PMID: 30790769
ISSN: 1741-2552
CID: 3687552

Hippocampal gamma predicts associative memory performance as measured by acute and chronic intracranial EEG

Henin, Simon; Shankar, Anita; Hasulak, Nicholas; Friedman, Daniel; Dugan, Patricia; Melloni, Lucia; Flinker, Adeen; Sarac, Cansu; Fang, May; Doyle, Werner; Tcheng, Thomas; Devinsky, Orrin; Davachi, Lila; Liu, Anli
Direct recordings from the human brain have historically involved epilepsy patients undergoing invasive electroencephalography (iEEG) for surgery. However, these measurements are temporally limited and affected by clinical variables. The RNS System (NeuroPace, Inc.) is a chronic, closed-loop electrographic seizure detection and stimulation system. When adapted by investigators for research, it facilitates cognitive testing in a controlled ambulatory setting, with measurements collected over months to years. We utilized an associative learning paradigm in 5 patients with traditional iEEG and 3 patients with chronic iEEG, and found increased hippocampal gamma (60-100 Hz) sustained at 1.3-1.5 seconds during encoding in successful versus failed trials in surgical patients, with similar results in our RNS System patients (1.4-1.6 seconds). Our findings replicate other studies demonstrating that sustained hippocampal gamma supports encoding. Importantly, we have validated the RNS System to make sensitive measurements of hippocampal dynamics during cognitive tasks in a chronic ambulatory research setting.
PMID: 30679734
ISSN: 2045-2322
CID: 3610122

Closed-loop acoustic stimulation enhances sleep oscillations but not memory performance

Henin, Simon; Borges, Helen; Shankar, Anita; Sarac, Cansu; Melloni, Lucia; Friedman, Daniel; Flinker, Adeen; Parra, Lucas C; Buzsaki, Gyorgy; Devinsky, Orrin; Liu, Anli
Slow-oscillations and spindle activity during non-REM sleep have been implicated in memory consolidation. Closed-loop acoustic stimulation has previously been shown to enhance slow oscillations and spindle activity during sleep and improve verbal associative memory. We assessed the effect of closed-loop acoustic stimulation during a daytime nap on a virtual reality spatial navigation task in 12 healthy human subjects in a randomized within-subject crossover design. We show robust enhancement of slow-spindle activity during sleep. However, no effects on behavioral performance were observed when comparing real versus sham stimulation. To explore whether memory enhancement effects were task-specific and dependent on nocturnal sleep, in a second experiment with 19 healthy subjects, we aimed to replicate a previous study which used closed-loop acoustic stimulation to enhance memory for word pairs. Methods were as close as possible to the original study, except we used a double-blind protocol, in which both subject and experimenter were unaware of the test condition. Again, we successfully enhanced slow-spindle power, but again did not strengthen associative memory performance with stimulation. We conclude that enhancement of slow-spindle oscillations may be insufficient to enhance memory performance in spatial navigation or verbal association tasks, and provide possible explanations for lack of behavioral replication.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Prior studies have demonstrated that a closed-loop acoustic pulse paradigm during sleep can enhance verbal memory performance. This technique has widespread scientific and clinical appeal due to its non-invasive nature and ease of application. We tested with a rigorous double-blind design whether this technique could enhance key sleep rhythms associated sleep-dependent memory performance. We discovered that we could reliably enhance slow and spindle rhythms, but did not improve memory performance in the stimulation condition compared to sham condition. Our findings suggest that enhancing slow-spindle rhythms is insufficient to enhance sleep-dependent learning.
PMID: 31604814
ISSN: 2373-2822
CID: 4130772

Immediate neurophysiological effects of transcranial electrical stimulation

Liu, Anli; Voroslakos, Mihaly; Kronberg, Greg; Henin, Simon; Krause, Matthew R; Huang, Yu; Opitz, Alexander; Mehta, Ashesh; Pack, Christopher C; Krekelberg, Bart; Berenyi, Antal; Parra, Lucas C; Melloni, Lucia; Devinsky, Orrin; Buzsaki, Gyorgy
Noninvasive brain stimulation techniques are used in experimental and clinical fields for their potential effects on brain network dynamics and behavior. Transcranial electrical stimulation (TES), including transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), has gained popularity because of its convenience and potential as a chronic therapy. However, a mechanistic understanding of TES has lagged behind its widespread adoption. Here, we review data and modelling on the immediate neurophysiological effects of TES in vitro as well as in vivo in both humans and other animals. While it remains unclear how typical TES protocols affect neural activity, we propose that validated models of current flow should inform study design and artifacts should be carefully excluded during signal recording and analysis. Potential indirect effects of TES (e.g., peripheral stimulation) should be investigated in more detail and further explored in experimental designs. We also consider how novel technologies may stimulate the next generation of TES experiments and devices, thus enhancing validity, specificity, and reproducibility.
PMID: 30504921
ISSN: 2041-1723
CID: 3609212