Endoscopic Transcanal and Transmastoid Laser-Assisted Resection of Middle Ear Capillary Hemangioma
OBJECTIVE:To present a rare case of a middle ear capillary hemangioma in an adult. PATIENT/METHODS:A 31-year-old woman with a 6-month history of left ear fullness, pressure, tinnitus, and progressive hearing loss. INTERVENTION/METHODS:Endoscopic laser-assisted resection. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES/METHODS:Clinical, radiographic, and histopathological findings of a capillary hemangioma. RESULTS:Otoscopy revealed an erythematous and slightly pulsating multilobulated middle ear retrotympanic mass. Her audiogram demonstrated a left-sided mixed hearing loss with air-conduction thresholds in the severe-to-profound range. Computed tomography (CT) imaging was significant for total opacification of the left middle ear and mastoid air cells. She underwent a combined endoscopic transcanal and transmastoid excision of the mass with ossicular chain reconstruction. A KTP laser was used to ablate and shrink down the periphery of the lesion. Pathology of the specimen was consistent with a capillary hemangioma. The patient's pulsatile tinnitus and spontaneous vertigo resolved postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS:Capillary hemangiomas are an uncommon cause of vascular middle ear lesions in adults and typically present with symptoms of aural fullness, pulsatile tinnitus, conductive hearing loss, otalgia, and vertigo. Surgery resection provides definitive treatment and the use of laser ablation techniques can allow for hemostasis and excellent visualization.
Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma of the cervical lymph node diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology [Case Report]
Follicular dendritic cell sarcomas (FDCS) are rare tumours of lymph nodes and extranodal tissues which are grouped with the histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms. The diagnosis is usually made after thorough clinical and pathological examination with immunohistochemical analysis. Difficulties persist in diagnosing FDCS on cytological preparations. We report herein a case of a 57-year-old female who presented with a right neck mass of 5Â months duration. Computed Tomography (CT) imaging of the neck reported a necrotic right level IIb lymph node and asymmetric fullness of the right palatine tonsil. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy revealed numerous spindle, oval and stellate neoplastic cells, arranged singly and in syncytia with moderate nuclear pleomorphism, vesicular chromatin pattern, and prominent nucleoli, sprinkled with small lymphocytes. The tumour cells were strongly diffusely positive for CD21, CD23, and D2-40 immunostaining on cell bock sections, but were negative for CD1a and CD34, supporting the diagnosis of FDCS. Follow-up surgical pathology on the resection showed histopathological features and an immunohistochemical profile consistent with FDCS.
Myopericytoma of the Parotid and Molecular Profiling: Report of a Rare Case and Review of the Literature
Myopericytomas are uncommon tumors defined by their round to spindle shaped cells often arranged in a concentric pattern of perivascular growth. They are typically well-circumscribed, nodular, slow-growing lesions that occur in the soft tissue of the extremities. Here, we present a 30-year-old female with a 2.4â€…cm myopericytoma occurring in the deep lobe of the parotid gland. The diagnosis was made with detailed histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings and positive identification of the specific mutation for PDGFRÎ² p.Asp666Lys by next generation sequencing (NGS). This is the first case report of a parotid myopericytoma with a genetic testing that shows a particular mutation that has been linked to myopericytomatosis.
Cathepsin S Evokes PAR2-Dependent Pain in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients and Preclinical Mouse Models
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) pain is more prevalent and severe than pain generated by any other form of cancer. We previously showed that protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) contributes to oral SCC pain. Cathepsin S is a lysosomal cysteine protease released during injury and disease that can activate PAR2. We report here a role for cathepsin S in PAR2-dependent cancer pain. We report that cathepsin S was more active in human oral SCC than matched normal tissue, and in an orthotopic xenograft tongue cancer model than normal tongue. The multiplex immunolocalization of cathepsin S in human oral cancers suggests that carcinoma and macrophages generate cathepsin S in the oral cancer microenvironment. After cheek or paw injection, cathepsin S evoked nociception in wild-type mice but not in mice lacking PAR2 in Nav1.8-positive neurons (Par2Nav1.8), nor in mice treated with LY3000328 or an endogenous cathepsin S inhibitor (cystatin C). The human oral SCC cell line (HSC-3) with homozygous deletion of the gene for cathepsin S (CTSS) with CRISPR/Cas9 provoked significantly less mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, as did those treated with LY3000328, compared to the control cancer mice. Our results indicate that cathepsin S is activated in oral SCC, and that cathepsin S contributes to cancer pain through PAR2 on neurons.
IDH2 R172 Mutations Across Poorly Differentiated Sinonasal Tract Malignancies: Forty Molecularly Homogenous and Histologically Variable Cases With Favorable Outcome
IDH2 R172 mutations occur in sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC), large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), sinonasal adenocarcinomas, and olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB). We performed a clinical, pathologic, and genetic/epigenetic analysis of a large IDH2-mutated sinonasal tumor cohort to explore their distinct features. A total 165 sinonasal/skull base tumors included 40 IDH2 mutants studied by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and genome-wide DNA methylation, and 125 IDH2 wild-type tumors used for comparison. Methylation profiles were analyzed by unsupervised hierarchical clustering, t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding dimensionality reduction and assessed for copy number alterations (CNA). Thirty-nine histologically assessable cases included 25 (64.1%) SNUC, 8 (20.5%) LCNEC, 2 (5.1%) poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas, 1 (2.7%) ONB, and 3 (7.7%) IDH2-mutated tumors with ONB features. All cases were high-grade showing necrosis (82.4%), prominent nucleoli (88.9%), and median 21 mitoses/10â€‰HPFs. AE1/AE3 and/or CAM 5.2 were positive in all and insulinoma-associated protein 1 (INSM1) in 80% cases. All IDH2 mutants formed one distinct group by t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding dimensionality reduction separating from all IDH2 wild-type tumors. There was no correlation between methylation clusters and histopathologic diagnoses. Recurrent CNA included 1q gain (79.3%), 17p loss (75.9%), and 17q gain (58.6%). No CNA differences were observed between SNUC and LCNEC. IDH2 mutants showed better disease-specific survival than SMARCB1-deficient (P=0.027) and IDH2 wild-type carcinomas overall (P=0.042). IDH2-mutated sinonasal tumors are remarkably homogeneous at the molecular level and distinct from IDH2 wild-type sinonasal malignancies. Biology of IDH2-mutated sinonasal tumors might be primarily defined by their unique molecular fingerprint rather than by their respective histopathologic diagnoses.
Evidence for continuity of interstitial spaces across tissue and organ boundaries in humans
Bodies have continuous reticular networks, comprising collagens, elastin, glycosaminoglycans, and other extracellular matrix components, through all tissues and organs. Fibrous coverings of nerves and blood vessels create structural continuity beyond organ boundaries. We recently validated fluid flow through human fibrous tissues, though whether these interstitial spaces are continuous through the body or discontinuous, confined within individual organs, remains unclear. Here we show evidence for continuity of interstitial spaces using two approaches. Non-biological particles (tattoo pigment, colloidal silver) were tracked within colon and skin interstitial spaces and into adjacent fascia. Hyaluronic acid, a macromolecular component of interstitial spaces, was also visualized. Both techniques demonstrate interstitial continuity within and between organs including within perineurium and vascular adventitia traversing organs and the spaces between them. We suggest that there is a body-wide network of fluid-filled interstitial spaces that has significant implications for molecular signaling, cell trafficking, and the spread of malignant and infectious disease.
Paired comparison of molecular tests for cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules [Meeting Abstract]
Background: Thyroseq next-generation sequencing assay and Afirma gene expression classifier (GEC) are used to risk-stratify thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology: Bethesda III (atypia of undetermined significance, AUS/FLUS) and IV (suspicious for follicular neoplasm, SFN). In this study, we performed a paired comparison of both tests on the same group of indeterminate thyroid nodules with surgical followup.
Design(s): Of 645 AUS/FLUS/SFN cases with both molecular testing and surgical resection in 2014-2017, 40 cases had both Thyroseq (v2) and Afirma GEC performed on the same specimen. Cross-tabulations and ROC curves were created. McNemar tests were done to compare the performance of Thyroseq versus Afirma. The diagnostic performance of combined results were also examined: the combined result was called positive only if both Thyroseq and Afirma were positive/suspicious. Non-invasive follicular thyroid with papillary like nuclear features (NIFTP) on surgical resections was defined as ?positive.? Results: 20/40 (50%) cases were ?positive? on surgical pathology: 8 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), 11 NIFTP, and 1 follicular carcinoma. Thyroseq and Afirma both showed high sensitivity and low specificity in diagnosing malignancy in indeterminate thyroid nodules. Next, the results of both tests were combined. The overall accuracy of combined testing was higher than either test alone (Figure 1). Compared to Afirma alone, the combined test had significantly higher specificity (30% vs 70%, p<0.05, Table 1), while the sensitivity declined from 90% to 75% (p=0.25, Table 1). Compared to Thyroseq alone, there was no significant difference in specificity (45% vs 70% p=0.06) or sensitivity (80% vs 75%, p=1.00, Table 1). Positive predictive value (PPV) improved compared to either test alone. Negative predictive value (NPV) improved compared to Thyroseq alone, and declined only slightly compared to Afirma alone.
Conclusion(s): Molecular testing of cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules helps determine the extent of surgery. Low diagnostic performance metrics may limit the utility of molecular studies in distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid lesions. Our results show that the combined results of Thyroseq and Afirma improved the specificity and overall accuracy of molecular testing, and provided additional value in the surgical management of patients with indeterminate thyroid nodules. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that compares the performance of these two molecular tests on the same thyroid nodules
Outcomes of carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma compared to de novo adenocarcinoma of major salivary glands
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA) is a rare disease of the major salivary glands that remains poorly characterized. Our objective was to compare the clinical outcomes of patients with CXPA of the major salivary glands to those with de novo adenocarcinomas. METHODS:Review of the NCDB between 2004 and 2016 to compare cases of CXPA and adenocarcinoma of major salivary glands. Demographics, clinical characteristics, and survival were analyzed. RESULTS:We identified 1181 patients with CXPA and 3326 patients with adenocarcinoma of major salivary glands. Adenocarcinomas presented with higher rates of nodal metastasis (54.7% vs. 30.4%, pâ€‰<â€‰.001). Five-year survival of adenocarcinoma (55.8%) was worse than that of CXPA (68.5%, pâ€‰<â€‰.001). When stratified by nodal status, there was no significant difference in 5-year survival between CXPA and adenocarcinoma node-negative (75.3% vs. 71.6%, respectively) and node-positive (40.4% vs. 36.1%, respectively) patients. CONCLUSIONS:CXPAs of the major salivary glands present at an earlier stage with lower rates of regional metastasis compared to adenocarcinomas. After controlling for lymph node metastases, the outcomes are quite similar.
Legumain Induces Oral Cancer Pain by Biased Agonism of Protease-Activated Receptor-2
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most painful cancers, which interferes with orofacial function including talking and eating. We report that legumain (Lgmn) cleaves protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) in the acidic OSCC microenvironment to cause pain. Lgmn is a cysteine protease of late endosomes and lysosomes that can be secreted; it exhibits maximal activity in acidic environments. The role of Lgmn in PAR2-dependent cancer pain is unknown. We studied Lgmn activation in human oral cancers and oral cancer mouse models. Lgmn was activated in OSCC patient tumors, compared to matched normal oral tissue. After intraplantar, facial or lingual injection, Lgmn evoked nociception in wild-type (WT) female mice but not in female mice lacking PAR2 in NaV1.8-positive neurons (Par2Nav1.8), nor in female mice treated with a Lgmn inhibitor, LI-1. Inoculation of an OSCC cell line caused mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia that was reversed by LI-1. Par2Nav1.8 and Lgmn deletion attenuated mechanical allodynia in female mice with carcinogen-induced OSCC. Lgmn caused PAR2-dependent hyperexcitability of trigeminal neurons from WT female mice. Par2 deletion, LI-1 and inhibitors of adenylyl cyclase or protein kinase A prevented the effects of Lgmn. Under acidified conditions, Lgmn cleaved within the extracellular N-terminus of PAR2 at Asn30â†“Arg31, proximal to the canonical trypsin activation site. Lgmn activated PAR2 by biased mechanisms in HEK293 cells to induce Ca2+ mobilization, cAMP formation and protein kinase A/D activation, but not Î²-arrestin recruitment or PAR2 endocytosis. Thus, in the acidified OSCC microenvironment Lgmn activates PAR2 by biased mechanisms that evoke cancer pain.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTOral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most painful cancers. We report that legumain (Lgmn), which exhibits maximal activity in acidic environments, cleaves protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) on neurons to produce OSCC pain. Active Lgmn was elevated in OSCC patient tumors, compared to matched normal oral tissue. Lgmn evokes pain-like behavior through PAR2 Exposure of pain-sensing neurons to Lgmn decreased the current required to generate an action potential through PAR2 Inhibitors of adenylyl cyclase and protein kinase A prevented the effects of Lgmn. Lgmn activated PAR2 to induce calcium mobilization, cAMP formation and activation of protein kinase D and A, but not Î²-arrestin recruitment or PAR2 endocytosis. Thus, Lgmn is a biased agonist of PAR2 that evokes cancer pain.
NRG Oncology HN006: Randomized phase II/III trial of sentinel lymph node biopsy versus elective neck dissection for early-stage oral cavity cancer