Research communication: Poor sleep health and quality of life among caregivers of patients with prostate cancer
Perspectives of Residency Applicants and Program Directors on the Role of Social Media in the 2021 Urology Residency Match
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To perform a survey assessing the use of, attitudes towards, and perceived utility of social media (SoMe) in the 2021 urology residency match. METHODS:We distributed surveys to urology residency applicants and program directors (PDs) via the Urology Match 2021 Google Spreadsheet and email. The survey collected demographic information as well as SoMe activity, perceived pressure to use SoMe, match results, and attitudes regarding the utility of SoMe in the match process. RESULTS:A total of 108/528 (20%) applicants registered for the 2021 match and 61/142 (43%) PDs completed the survey. More applicants than PDs felt that SoMe helped them gain better insight into residency programs or applicants, respectively. Fewer applicants than PDs felt that SoMe activity provided a benefit to them in the match process. No significant relationship was found between SoMe viewing frequency, posting frequency, or tweetorial use with match outcomes. The majority of PDs believed that SoMe played a more important role in the 2021 match process than previous years while 15% and 12% reported that an applicant's SoMe activity helped or hurt the chances of matching to their program respectively. CONCLUSIONS:SoMe, particularly Twitter, was widely used in the 2021 match by both applicants and PDs. A majority of applicants and PDs believed that SoMe use aided them in some way in the match process, yet there was no relationship between the volume or type of applicant SoMe activity and match outcomes.
Plant-Based Milk Alternatives and Risk Factors for Kidney Stones and Chronic Kidney Disease
OBJECTIVE:Patients with kidney stones are counseled to eat a diet low in animal protein, sodium, and oxalate and rich in fruits and vegetables, with a modest amount of calcium, usually from dairy products. Restriction of sodium, potassium, and oxalate may also be recommended in patients with chronic kidney disease. Recently, plant-based diets have gained popularity owing to health, environmental, and animal welfare considerations. Our objective was to compare concentrations of ingredients important for kidney stones and chronic kidney disease in popular brands of milk alternatives. DESIGN AND METHODS/METHODS:Sodium, calcium, and potassium contents were obtained from nutrition labels. The oxalate content was measured by ion chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. RESULTS:The calcium content is highest in macadamia followed by soy, almond, rice, and dairy milk; it is lowest in cashew, hazelnut, and coconut milk. Almond milk has the highest oxalate concentration, followed by cashew, hazelnut, and soy. Coconut and flax milk have undetectable oxalate levels; coconut milk also has comparatively low sodium, calcium, and potassium, while flax milk has the most sodium. Overall, oat milk has the most similar parameters to dairy milk (moderate calcium, potassium and sodium with low oxalate). Rice, macadamia, and soy milk also have similar parameters to dairy milk. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:As consumption of plant-based dairy substitutes increases, it is important for healthcare providers and patients with renal conditions to be aware of their nutritional composition. Oat, macadamia, rice, and soy milk compare favorably in terms of kidney stone risk factors with dairy milk, whereas almond and cashew milk have more potential stone risk factors. Coconut milk may be a favorable dairy substitute for patients with chronic kidney disease based on low potassium, sodium, and oxalate. Further study is warranted to determine the effect of plant-based milk alternatives on urine chemistry.
Comparison of Sexual Concerns Between Patients with Prostate Cancer and Their Partners [Meeting Abstract]
Introduction: Prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment have a significant impact on sexual function and quality of life. Although prostate cancer is often called a "couples disease," there is limited research on the needs of partners who are affected by the patient's sexual dysfunction.
Objective(s): The objective of our study was to compare the sexual health concerns and unmet needs of patients with prostate cancer and partners using real-world data from an online prostate cancer community.
Method(s): We performed a mixed-methods analysis of data from the Inspire UsTOO Prostate Cancer Online Support & Discussion Community. This online health community about prostate cancer has more than 30,000 members, including both patients and partners. Through a data use agreement, we obtained anonymized text from public postings to the Sexual Health & Intimacy Forum on this community. Quantitative and qualitative data were examined from a random sample of 10% of the posts by women about sexual health (n=66), and were compared to an equal number of randomly selected posts by men.
Result(s): Among 6193 posts about sexual health and intimacy in prostate cancer, 661 (11%) were by female contributors. Of posts with cancer treatment details, surgery was the most common treatment discussed followed by hormonal therapy. Erectile dysfunction was the most common sexual complaint for both men and women. Posts by women were most likely to discuss problems with communication, relationship conflict, their partner's loss of libido, and the importance of intimacy. Common themes of the posts included coping with a "new normal" in their relationship, lack of access to and expense of erectile aids, and insufficient information and support from clinicians surrounding sexual recovery. A greater proportion of female posts conveyed emotion compared to male posts. The most common positive emotions were satisfaction and hope; while the most common negative emotions were frustration and loss of familiar sexual interaction. Although many posts discussed a variety of medical and surgical therapies for sexual recovery, very few discussed counseling or other psychosocial treatments.
Conclusion(s): Patients with prostate cancer and their partners experience a wide range of sexual health issues related to prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment. Online communities are widely used to give and receive peer-to-peer advice and support during sexual recovery. These findings highlight an unmet need for more extensive education and support surrounding sexual health for couples during the prostate cancer journey. Disclosure: No
Helix: A Digital Tool to Address Provider Needs for Prostate Cancer Genetic Testing in Clinical Practice
BACKGROUND:Prostate cancer (PCA) germline testing (GT) is now standard-of-care for men with advanced PCA. Thousands of men may consider GT due to clinical and family history (FH) features. Identifying and consenting men for GT can be complex. Here we identified barriers and facilitators of GT across a spectrum of providers which informed the development of Helix - an educational and clinical/FH collection tool to facilitate GT in practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:A 12-question survey assessing knowledge of genetics PCA risk and FH was administered December 2017 to March 2018 in the Philadelphia area and at the Mid-Atlantic AUA meeting (March 2018). Responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, and urologists across practice settings from March-October 2020 as part of a larger study based on the Tailored Implementation in Chronic Diseases framework. Helix was then developed followed by user testing. RESULTS:Fifty-six providers (50% urologists) responded to the survey. Multiple FH and genetic knowledge gaps were identified: only 66% collected maternal FH and 43% correctly identified BRCA2 and association to aggressive PCA. Genetic counseling gaps included low rates of discussing genetic discrimination laws (45%). Provider interviews (nâ€¯=â€¯14) identified barriers to FH intake including access to details and time needed. In user testing (nâ€¯=â€¯10), providers found Helix helpful for FH collection. All providers found Helix easy to use, suggesting expanded clinical use. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Helix addressed multiple GT knowledge and practice gaps across a spectrum of providers. This tool will become publicly available soon to facilitate PCA GT in clinical practice.
Systematic review of sleep and sleep disorders among prostate cancer patients and caregivers: a call to action for using validated sleep assessments during prostate cancer care
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE:To examine the impact of prostate cancer (PCa) on sleep health for patients and caregivers. We hypothesized that sleep disturbances and poor sleep quality would be prevalent among patients with PCa and their caregivers. PATIENTS/METHODS/METHODS:A systematic literature search was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis guidelines. To be eligible for this systematic review, studies had to include: (1) patients diagnosed with PCa and/or their caregivers; and (2) objective or subjective data on sleep. 2431 articles were identified from the search. After duplicates were removed, 1577 abstracts were screened for eligibility, and 315 underwent full-text review. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS/CONCLUSIONS:Overall, 83 articles met inclusion criteria and were included in the qualitative synthesis. The majority of papers included patients with PCa (98%), who varied widely in their treatment stage. Only 3 studies reported on sleep among caregivers of patients with PCa. Most studies were designed to address a different issue and examined sleep as a secondary endpoint. Commonly used instruments included the Insomnia Severity Index and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaires (EORTC-QLQ). Overall, patients with PCa reported a variety of sleep issues, including insomnia and general sleep difficulties. Both physical and psychological barriers to sleep are reported in this population. There was common use of hypnotic medications, yet few studies of behavioral interventions to improve sleep for patients with PCa or their caregivers. Many different sleep issues are reported by patients with PCa and caregivers with diverse sleep measurement methods and surveys. Future research may develop consensus on validated sleep assessment tools for use in PCa clinical care and research to promote facilitate comparison of sleep across PCa treatment stages. Also, future research is needed on behavioral interventions to improve sleep among this population.
Association of plant-based diet index with prostate cancer risk
BACKGROUND:Plant-based diets are associated with multiple health benefits and a favorable environmental impact. For prostate cancer, previous studies suggest a beneficial role of specific plant-based foods (e.g., tomatoes) and a potentially harmful role of specific animal-based foods (e.g., meat, dairy). However, less is known about plant-based dietary patterns. OBJECTIVES:We sought to examine the relation between plant-based diet indices and prostate cancer risk, including clinically relevant disease. METHODS:This was a prospective cohort study including 47,239 men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2014). Overall and healthful plant-based diet indices were calculated from FFQs. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs to examine the risk of incident prostate cancer (total and by clinical category), among men ages <65 and â‰¥65 y. RESULTS:Of the 47,239 men, 6655 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer over follow-up, including 515 with advanced-stage disease at diagnosis, 956 with lethal disease (metastasis or death), and 806 prostate cancer deaths. Greater overall plant-based consumption was associated with a significantly lower risk of fatal prostate cancer (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.64, 1.01; P-trend = 0.04). In men aged <65, a higher plant-based diet index was associated with a lower risk of advanced, lethal, and fatal prostate cancer. Moreover, greater consumption of a healthful plant-based diet was associated with lower risks of total (HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.98; P-trend = 0.046) and lethal prostate cancer (HR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.94; P-trend = 0.03) at age <65. There were no associations between overall or healthful plant-based diet indices with prostate cancer among men â‰¥65 y. Fewer than 1% of participants followed a strict vegetarian or vegan diet. CONCLUSIONS:This prospective study provides supportive evidence that greater consumption of healthful plant-based foods is associated with a lower risk of aggressive forms of prostate cancer, with stronger benefit among men aged <65 y.
Representation in Online Prostate Cancer Content Lacks Racial and Ethnic Diversity: Implications for Black and Latinx Men
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Black men have the highest incidence and mortality from prostate cancer (PCa) and lower quality of life compared to other U.S. racial groups. Additionally, more Latinx men are diagnosed with advanced disease and fewer receive guideline-concordant care. As many men seek medical information online, high-quality information targeting diverse populations may mitigate disparities. We examined racial/ethnic representation and information quality in online PCa content. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:We retrieved 150 websites and 150 videos about "prostate cancer" using the most widely used search engine (Google) and social network (YouTube). We assessed quality of health information, reading level, perceived race/ethnicity of people featured in the content and discussion of racial/ethnic disparities. RESULTS:Among 81 websites and 127 videos featuring people, 37% and 24% had perceived Black representation, and racial/ethnic disparities were discussed in 27% and 17%, respectively. Among 1,526 people featured, 9% and 1% were perceived as Black and Latinx, respectively. No content with Black or Latinx representation was high quality, understandable, actionable and at the recommended reading level. CONCLUSIONS:Black and Latinx adults are underrepresented in online PCa content. Online media have significant potential for public education and combating health disparities. However, most PCa content lacks diversity and is not readily understandable.
Association Between a 22-feature Genomic Classifier and Biopsy Gleason Upgrade During Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer
Background/UNASSIGNED:Although the Decipher genomic classifier has been validated as a prognostic tool for several prostate cancer endpoints, little is known about its role in assessing the risk of biopsy reclassification for patients on active surveillance, a key event that often triggers treatment. Objective/UNASSIGNED:To evaluate the association between Decipher genomic classifier scores and biopsy Gleason upgrading among patients on active surveillance. Design setting and participants/UNASSIGNED:This was a retrospective cohort study among patients with low- and favorable intermediate-risk prostate cancer on active surveillance who underwent biopsy-based Decipher testing as part of their clinical care. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis/UNASSIGNED:We evaluated the association between the Decipher score and any increase in biopsy Gleason grade group (GG) using univariable and multivariable logistic regression. We compared the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for models comprising baseline clinical variables with or without the Decipher score. Results and limitations/UNASSIGNED:= 0.02). The Decipher score was associated with upgrading among patients with biopsy GG 1 disease, but not GG2 disease. The discriminative ability of a clinical model (AUC 0.63, 95% CI 0.51-0.74) was improved by integration of the Decipher score (AUC 0.69, 95% CI 0.58-0.80). Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:The Decipher genomic classifier score was associated with short-term biopsy Gleason upgrading among patients on active surveillance. Patient summary/UNASSIGNED:The results from this study indicate that among patients with prostate cancer undergoing active surveillance, those with higher Decipher scores were more likely to have higher-grade disease found over time. These findings indicate that the Decipher test might be useful for guiding the intensity of monitoring during active surveillance, such as more frequent biopsy for patients with higher scores.
Diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsy techniques compared to transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy of the prostate: a systematic review and meta-analysis
BACKGROUND:Multiparametric MRI localizes cancer in the prostate, allowing for MRI guided biopsy (MRI-GB) 43 alongside transrectal ultrasound-guided systematic biopsy (TRUS-GB). Three MRI-GB approaches exist; visual estimation (COG-TB); fusion software-assisted (FUS-TB) and MRI 'in-bore' biopsy (IB-TB). It is unknown whether any of these are superior. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to address three questions. First, whether MRI-GB is superior to TRUS-GB at detecting clinically significant PCa (csPCa). Second, whether MRI-GB is superior to TRUS-GB at avoiding detection of insignificant PCa. Third, whether any MRI-GB strategy is superior at detecting csPCa. METHODS:A systematic literature review from 2015 to 2019 was performed in accordance with the START recommendations. Studies reporting PCa detection rates, employing MRI-GB and TRUS-GB were included and evaluated using the QUADAS-2 checklist. 1553 studies were found, of which 43 were included in the meta-analysis. RESULTS:For csPCa, MRI-GB was superior in detection to TRUS-GB (0.83 vs. 0.63 [pâ€‰=â€‰0.02]). MRI-GB was superior in detection to TRUS-GB at avoiding detection of insignificant PCa. No MRI-GB technique was superior at detecting csPCa (IB-TB 0.87; COG TB 0.81; FUS-TB 0.81, [pâ€‰=â€‰0.55]). There was significant heterogeneity observed between the included studies. CONCLUSIONS:In patients with suspected PCa on MRI, MRI-GB offers superior rates of csPCa detection and reduces detection of insignificant PCa compared to TRUS-GB. No individual MRI-GB technique was found to be better in csPCa detection. Prospective adequately powered randomized controlled trials are required.