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Contralateral Forced Eyelid Closure Increases Intraocular Pressure

Melachuri, Samyuktha; Palazzolo, Laura; Dhaliwal, Deepinder K
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The purpose of the study was to describe the influence of contralateral forced eyelid closure on intraocular pressure (IOP). METHODS:Twenty-one healthy volunteers with no ophthalmic history had their IOP measured in the supine position to simulate the intraoperative environment. Intraocular pressure was measured with a handheld tonometer over three scenarios: (1) both eyes in a relaxed state, (2) eyelid speculum in the right eye with both eyes open and relaxed, (3) eyelid speculum in the right eye with the fellow eye squeezing tightly. RESULTS:Intraocular pressure significantly increased with forced contralateral eyelid squeezing compared with the relaxed state by a mean of 7.71±5.08 mm Hg (95% Confidence Interval of 5.40-7.37), P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS:Contralateral eyelid squeezing can significantly increase intraoperative IOP measurements.
PMID: 35333794
ISSN: 1542-233x
CID: 5205892

Insect Fungus Metarhizium robertsii Is a Rare Causative Agent of Keratitis

Palazzolo, Laura; Kowalski, Regis P; Nayyar, Shannon V; Jhanji, Vishal; Prakash, Gaurav
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to describe a case of keratitis secondary to Metarhizium robertsii, a soil-dwelling fungus with typical insect pathogenicity. METHODS:A Case report. RESULTS:A 58-year-old man with a ocular history of soft contact lens overwear, poor contact lens hygiene, and ocular exposure to ground well water supplying his house was referred to our university practice for a central corneal ulcer with 40% thinning. Same-day rapid microscopic detection with Giemsa stain identified the presence of many hyphae elements, and he was ultimately diagnosed with M. robertsii keratitis. The patient's course involved severe and progressive corneal thinning that stabilized over a 3-month course of antifungal therapy. CONCLUSIONS:Metarhizium robertsii seems more aggressive than other forms of fungal keratitis; therefore, this infection may be watched more closely with the risk for quick progressive corneal thinning, even while on antifungal management.
PMID: 34870624
ISSN: 1536-4798
CID: 5116842

Sterile iris abscess associated with herpes zoster ophthalmicus [Case Report]

LoBue, Stephen A; Palazzolo, Laura; Antonova, Nataliya; Bivona, Michael R; Smith, Edward; Edelstein, Marcus
Purpose/UNASSIGNED:To report a case of a sterile iris abscess associated with herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO). Observations/UNASSIGNED:A 69-year-old African American female presented to SUNY Downstate Medical Center complaining of left-sided eye pain for two weeks. The patient had a best-corrected visual acuity of 20/30 OD and 20/200 OS. On external exam, vesicles were noted on the left upper lid and tip of the nose. Anterior segment exam was notable for decreased sensation without epithelial defects. The patient had 2+ stromal edema with 3+ cell and flare. The iris was flat with 1+ nuclear sclerosis OU. The intraocular pressure (IOP) was 14 mmHg OD and 40 mmHg OS. The patient was diagnosed with HZO with secondary uveitic glaucoma.At ten weeks, anterior segment inflammation resolved and IOP stabilized. However, an iris nodule was noted superior nasal which continued to enlarge by 16 weeks follow up. Iris ultrasound revealed a 3 × 3 mm elevated lesion with internal homogeneity suggestive of an abscess.At five months, a dense, mature cataract developed. The patient underwent cataract extraction with sector iridectomy. Gram staining and cultures were negative for organisms but positive for polymorphic neutrophils. Histopathology revealed fibrosis, surface necrosis, and stromal infiltration with chronic inflammatory cells consistent with chronic iritis and a sterile abscess secondary to HZO. Conclusions and Importance/UNASSIGNED:HZO is associated with a range of ocular sequelae with acquired iris nodule only mentioned once in the literature. As the second documented case, our findings will add to the general fund of knowledge regarding iris lesions and HZO.
PMID: 34195477
ISSN: 2451-9936
CID: 4952292

DMEK: The Keys to Success : These tips can lead to a positive outcome

Palazzolo, Laura; Dhaliwal, Deepinder K
ISSN: n/a
CID: 4952402

Update on corneal collagen crosslinking for ectasia

Pasha, Hamza; Palazzolo, Laura; Prakash, Gaurav; Jhanji, Vishal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) is a minimally invasive treatment that can stabilize corneal ectatic disorders including keratoconus, pellucid marginal degeneration, or postrefractive surgery ectasia. The benefits of CXL have been well documented. New research is focused on modifying current treatment protocols with the goals of maximizing corneal stability while also shortening overall procedure time. RECENT FINDINGS:Accelerated CXL protocols have the goal of delivering the same ultraviolet A intensity as conventional protocols, but over a shorter time period. Accelerated protocols have shown success to date, but there are concerns for long-term corneal stability. Pulsed protocols may increase the long-term efficacy of the accelerated designs. In addition, transepithelial crosslinking protocols have been designed with the goal of reducing postoperative pain and lower the risk of infectious complications of epithelial-off conventional protocols. SUMMARY:Newer CXL protocols attempt to make the procedure safer and more effective. Current research is promising, but long-term studies are essential to understand how the new protocols may affect corneal stability.
PMID: 33966013
ISSN: 1531-7021
CID: 4952282

Comparison of Clinical Features and Treatment Outcomes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Keratitis in Contact Lens and Non-Contact Lens Wearers

Enzor, Rikki; Bowers, Eve M R; Perzia, Brittany; Perera, Chandrashan; Palazzolo, Laura; Mammen, Alex; Dhaliwal, Deepinder K; Kowalski, Regis P; Jhanji, Vishal
PURPOSE:To compare the outcomes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis (PAK) in contact lens wearers (CLWs) and non-contact lens wearers (non-CLWs) and identify risk factors for poor visual acuity (VA) outcomes in each group. DESIGN:Retrospective cohort study METHODS: Two hundred fourteen consecutive cases of PAK were included between January 2006 and December 2019. Clinical features, microbiologic results, and treatment course were compared between CLW and non-CLW groups. Analyses of clinical features predicting poor final VA were performed. RESULTS:This study identified 214 infected eyes in 207 patients with PAK, including 163 eyes (76.2%) in CLWs and 51 eyes (23.8%) in non-CLWs. The average age was 39.2 years in CLWs and 71.9 years in non-CLWs (P < .0001). The average logMAR visual acuity (VA) at presentation was 1.39 in CLWs and 2.17 in non-CLWs (P < .0001); average final VA was 0.76 in CLWs and 1.82 in non-CLWs (P < .0001). Stromal necrosis required a procedural or surgical intervention in 13.5% of CLWs and 49.0% of non-CLWs (P < .0001). A machine learning-based analysis yielded a list of clinical features that most strongly predict a poor VA outcome (worse than 20/40), including worse initial VA, older age, larger size of infiltrate or epithelial defect at presentation, and greater maximal depth of stromal necrosis. CONCLUSIONS:Non-CLWs have significantly worse VA outcomes and required a higher rate of surgical intervention, compared with CLWs. Our study elucidates risk factors for poor visual outcomes in non-CLWs with PAK.
PMID: 33657419
ISSN: 1879-1891
CID: 4952272

Anterior Chamber and Lens

Chapter by: Palazzolo, Laura; Lanza, Nicole; Rizzuti, Allison E
in: Pediatric ophthalmology in the emergency room : evaluation and treatment by Shinder, Roman
[S.l.] : Springer, 2021
pp. 95-107
CID: 4952422

Neuro-Ophthalmic Trauma

Chapter by: Palazzolo, Laura; Wang, Daniel; Elmalem, Valerie I
in: Pediatric ophthalmology in the emergency room : evaluation and treatment by Shinder, Roman
[S.l.] : Springer, 2021
pp. 123-144
CID: 4952432

Conjunctival mass from insect sting [Case Report]

Betesh, Saul; Palazzolo, Laura; Shinder, Roman
PMID: 31135251
ISSN: 1744-5108
CID: 4952242

Neisseria sicca: A Rare Cause of Bacterial Conjunctivitis [Case Report]

Kozlova, Anna; Palazzolo, Laura; Michael, Anika
BACKGROUND Neisseria-associated conjunctivitis is a rare cause of bacterial conjunctivitis in adults, with Neisseria gonorrhoeae as the primarily identified infectious strain. Here, we present a rare case of bacterial conjunctivitis due to Neisseria sicca in a 34-year-old immunocompetent man with no prior medical or ocular history. CASE REPORT A 34-year-old man with no significant past medical or ocular history presented with a 3-day history of left periorbital edema, ocular pain, and copious purulent discharge. Bacterial conjunctivitis was suspected due to the rapidity of onset and purulence. Peripheral corneal thinning was identified. Preliminary culture results showed gram-negative diplococci, and the patient was treated for gonococcal infection. Final cultures identified Neisseria sicca, a rarely pathogenic strain of Neisseria species. CONCLUSIONS This is the second reported case of Neisseria sicca-associated conjunctivitis, and the first reported case to have corneal involvement. Neisseria sicca, while typically non-pathogenic, may manifest as conjunctivitis in immunocompetent hosts with a low-risk sexual history.
PMID: 32536685
ISSN: 1941-5923
CID: 4952262