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Hippocampal single-voxel MR spectroscopy with a long echo time at 3 T using semi-LASER sequence

Gajdošík, Martin; Landheer, Karl; Swanberg, Kelley M; Adlparvar, Fatemeh; Madelin, Guillaume; Bogner, Wolfgang; Juchem, Christoph; Kirov, Ivan I
The hippocampus is one of the most challenging brain regions for proton MR spectroscopy (MRS) applications. Moreover, quantification of J-coupled species such as myo-inositol (m-Ins) and glutamate + glutamine (Glx) is affected by the presence of macromolecular background. While long echo time (TE) MRS eliminates the macromolecules, it also decreases the m-Ins and Glx signal and, as a result, these metabolites are studied mainly with short TE. Here, we investigate the feasibility of reproducibly measuring their concentrations at a long TE of 120 ms, using a semi-adiabatic localization by adiabatic selective refocusing (sLASER) sequence, as this sequence was recently recommended as a standard for clinical MRS. Gradient offset-independent adiabatic refocusing pulses were implemented, and an optimal long TE for the detection of m-Ins and Glx was determined using the T2 relaxation times of macromolecules. Metabolite concentrations and their coefficients of variation (CVs) were obtained for a 3.4-mL voxel centered on the left hippocampus on 3-T MR systems at two different sites with three healthy subjects (aged 32.5 ± 10.2 years [mean ± standard deviation]) per site, with each subject scanned over two sessions, and with each session comprising three scans. Concentrations of m-Ins, choline, creatine, Glx and N-acetyl-aspartate were 5.4 ± 1.5, 1.7 ± 0.2, 5.8 ± 0.3, 11.6 ± 1.2 and 5.9 ± 0.4 mM (mean ± standard deviation), respectively. Their respective mean within-session CVs were 14.5% ± 5.9%, 6.5% ± 5.3%, 6.0% ± 3.4%, 10.6% ± 6.2% and 3.5% ± 1.4%, and their mean within-subject CVs were 17.8% ± 18.2%, 7.5% ± 6.3%, 7.4% ± 6.4%, 12.4% ± 5.3% and 4.8% ± 3.0%. The between-subject CVs were 25.0%, 12.3%, 5.3%, 10.7% and 6.4%, respectively. Hippocampal long-TE sLASER single voxel spectroscopy can provide macromolecule-independent assessment of all major metabolites including Glx and m-Ins.
PMID: 33956374
ISSN: 1099-1492
CID: 4858972

Functional connectivity of the default mode, dorsal attention and fronto-parietal executive control networks in glial tumor patients

Tordjman, Mickael; Madelin, Guillaume; Gupta, Pradeep Kumar; Cordova, Christine; Kurz, Sylvia C; Orringer, Daniel; Golfinos, John; Kondziolka, Douglas; Ge, Yulin; Wang, Ruoyu Luie; Lazar, Mariana; Jain, Rajan
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) is an emerging tool to explore the functional connectivity of different brain regions. We aimed to assess the disruption of functional connectivity of the Default Mode Network (DMN), Dorsal Attention Network(DAN) and Fronto-Parietal Network (FPN) in patients with glial tumors. METHODS:rsfMRI data acquired on 3T-MR of treatment-naive glioma patients prospectively recruited (2015-2019) and matched controls from the 1000 functional-connectomes-project were analyzed using the CONN functional toolbox. Seed-Based Connectivity Analysis (SBCA) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA, with 10 to 100 components) were performed to study reliably the three networks of interest. RESULTS:). For the FPN, increased connectivity was noted in the precuneus, posterior cingulate gyrus, and frontal cortex. No difference in the connectivity of the networks of interest was demonstrated between low- and high-grade gliomas, as well as when stratified by their IDH1-R132H (isocitrate dehydrogenase) mutation status. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Altered functional connectivity is reliably found with SBCA and ICA in the DMN, DAN, and FPN in glioma patients, possibly explained by decreased connectivity between the cerebral hemispheres across the corpus callosum due to disruption of the connections.
PMID: 33528739
ISSN: 1573-7373
CID: 4789692

Multinuclear MRI to disentangle intracellular sodium concentration and extracellular volume fraction in breast cancer

Ianniello, Carlotta; Moy, Linda; Fogarty, Justin; Schnabel, Freya; Adams, Sylvia; Axelrod, Deborah; Axel, Leon; Brown, Ryan; Madelin, Guillaume
The purpose of this work was to develop a novel method to disentangle the intra- and extracellular components of the total sodium concentration (TSC) in breast cancer from a combination of proton ([Formula: see text]H) and sodium ([Formula: see text]) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements. To do so, TSC is expressed as function of the intracellular sodium concentration ([Formula: see text]), extracellular volume fraction (ECV) and the water fraction (WF) based on a three-compartment model of the tissue. TSC is measured from [Formula: see text] MRI, ECV is calculated from baseline and post-contrast [Formula: see text]H [Formula: see text] maps, while WF is measured with a [Formula: see text]H chemical shift technique. [Formula: see text] is then extrapolated from the model. Proof-of-concept was demonstrated in three healthy subjects and two patients with triple negative breast cancer. In both patients, TSC was two to threefold higher in the tumor than in normal tissue. This alteration mainly resulted from increased [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text] 30 mM), which was [Formula: see text] 130% greater than in healthy conditions (10-15 mM) while the ECV was within the expected range of physiological values (0.2-0.25). Multinuclear MRI shows promise for disentangling [Formula: see text] and ECV by taking advantage of complementary [Formula: see text]H and [Formula: see text] measurements.
PMID: 33664340
ISSN: 2045-2322
CID: 4801862

Global decrease in brain sodium concentration after mild traumatic brain injury

Gerhalter, Teresa; Chen, Anna M; Dehkharghani, Seena; Peralta, Rosemary; Adlparvar, Fatemeh; Babb, James S; Bushnik, Tamara; Silver, Jonathan M; Im, Brian S; Wall, Stephen P; Brown, Ryan; Baete, Steven H; Kirov, Ivan I; Madelin, Guillaume
The pathological cascade of tissue damage in mild traumatic brain injury is set forth by a perturbation in ionic homeostasis. However, whether this class of injury can be detected in vivo and serve as a surrogate marker of clinical outcome is unknown. We employ sodium MRI to test the hypotheses that regional and global total sodium concentrations: (i) are higher in patients than in controls and (ii) correlate with clinical presentation and neuropsychological function. Given the novelty of sodium imaging in traumatic brain injury, effect sizes from (i), and correlation types and strength from (ii), were compared to those obtained using standard diffusion imaging metrics. Twenty-seven patients (20 female, age 35.9 ± 12.2 years) within 2 months after injury and 19 controls were scanned with proton and sodium MRI at 3 Tesla. Total sodium concentration, fractional anisotropy and apparent diffusion coefficient were obtained with voxel averaging across 12 grey and white matter regions. Linear regression was used to obtain global grey and white matter total sodium concentrations. Patient outcome was assessed with global functioning, symptom profiles and neuropsychological function assessments. In the regional analysis, there were no statistically significant differences between patients and controls in apparent diffusion coefficient, while differences in sodium concentration and fractional anisotropy were found only in single regions. However, for each of the 12 regions, sodium concentration effect sizes were uni-directional, due to lower mean sodium concentration in patients compared to controls. Consequently, linear regression analysis found statistically significant lower global grey and white matter sodium concentrations in patients compared to controls. The strongest correlation with outcome was between global grey matter sodium concentration and the composite z-score from the neuropsychological testing. In conclusion, both sodium concentration and diffusion showed poor utility in differentiating patients from controls, and weak correlations with clinical presentation, when using a region-based approach. In contrast, sodium linear regression, capitalizing on partial volume correction and high sensitivity to global changes, revealed high effect sizes and associations with patient outcome. This suggests that well-recognized sodium imbalances in traumatic brain injury are (i) detectable non-invasively; (ii) non-focal; (iii) occur even when the antecedent injury is clinically mild. Finally, in contrast to our principle hypothesis, patients' sodium concentrations were lower than controls, indicating that the biological effect of traumatic brain injury on the sodium homeostasis may differ from that in other neurological disorders. Note: This figure has been annotated.
PMID: 33928248
ISSN: 2632-1297
CID: 4852212

CT-guided radiofrequency ablation for osteoid osteomas: a systematic review

Tordjman, Mickael; Perronne, Laetitia; Madelin, Guillaume; Mali, Rahul D; Burke, Christopher
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:CT-guided radiofrequency ablation (CT-RFA) is considered to be the gold standard for treatment of osteoid osteoma (OO) yet treatment failures (TFs) continue to be reported. This systematic review was conducted to evaluate factors associated with TF, such as ablation time, lesion location, and patient age as well as evaluating how TF has trended over time. METHODS:Original studies reporting on patients undergoing CT-RFA of OO published between 2002 and 2019 were identified. TF was defined as patients with (1) recurrent or persistent pain +/- (2) imaging evidence of persistent OO. TFs were subdivided into those occurring after the index procedure (primary TF) or those occurring after repeat RFA (secondary TF). Subgroup analysis was performed for TF based on the study date (2002-2010 or 2010-2019), time duration of ablation at 90 °C (6 min or > 6 min), patient age, and tumor location (spinal vs. appendicular). RESULTS:Sixty-nine studies were included for a total of 3023 patients. The global primary TF rate was 8.3% whereas the secondary TF rate was 3.1%. The TF rate reported in studies published after 2011(7%) was about half that during the earlier time period 2002-2010 (14%). There was no statistical difference in TF corrected for age, OO location, or duration of ablation (respectively p = 0.39, 0.13, and 0.23). The global complication rate was 3%, the most frequent being skin burns (n = 24; 0.7%). CONCLUSIONS:A decrease in TF observed between 2011-2019 compared to 2002-2010 may reflect improvements in operator technique or advancements in equipment. Duration of ablation, patient age, or location of OO failed to significantly correlate with TF. KEY POINTS/CONCLUSIONS:• CT-guided radiofrequency ablation of osteoid osteomas is a safe technique with a low rate of treatment failure (8.3% failure rate after the primary radiofrequency reducing to 3.1% following a secondary treatment). • The treatment failure rate has decreased over time, possibly due to an improved understanding of the disease process, better technique, and advances in equipment. • Duration of ablation, patient age, or lesion location did not significantly correlate with treatment failure.
PMID: 32518986
ISSN: 1432-1084
CID: 4489612

Diagnostic test accuracy of ADC values for identification of clear cell renal cell carcinoma: systematic review and meta-analysis

Tordjman, Mickael; Mali, Rahul; Madelin, Guillaume; Prabhu, Vinay; Kang, Stella K
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To perform a systematic review on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of renal tumor subtypes and meta-analysis on the diagnostic performance of ADC for differentiation of localized clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) from other renal tumor types. METHODS:Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases were searched for studies published until May 1, 2019, that reported ADC values of renal tumors. Methodological quality was evaluated. For the meta-analysis on diagnostic test accuracy of ADC for differentiation of ccRCC from other renal lesions, we applied a bivariate random-effects model and compared two subgroups of ADC measurement with vs. without cystic and necrotic areas. RESULTS:We included 48 studies (2588 lesions) in the systematic review and 13 studies (1126 lesions) in the meta-analysis. There was no significant difference in ADC of renal parenchyma using b values of 0-800 vs. 0-1000 (p = 0.08). ADC measured on selected portions (sADC) excluding cystic and necrotic areas differed significantly from whole-lesion ADC (wADC) (p = 0.002). Compared to ccRCC, minimal-fat angiomyolipoma, papillary RCC, and chromophobe RCC showed significantly lower sADC while oncocytoma exhibited higher sADC. Summary estimates of sensitivity and specificity to differentiate ccRCC from other tumors were 80% (95% CI, 0.76-0.88) and 78% (95% CI, 0.64-0.89), respectively, for sADC and 77% (95% CI, 0.59-0.90) and 77% (95% CI, 0.69-0.86) for wADC. sADC offered a higher area under the receiver operating characteristic curve than wADC (0.852 vs. 0.785, p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS:ADC values of kidney tumors that exclude cystic or necrotic areas more accurately differentiate ccRCC from other renal tumor types than whole-lesion ADC values. KEY POINTS/CONCLUSIONS:• Selective ADC of renal tumors, excluding cystic and necrotic areas, provides better discriminatory ability than whole-lesion ADC to differentiate clear cell RCC from other renal lesions, with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.852 vs. 0.785, respectively (p = 0.02). • Selective ADC of renal masses provides moderate sensitivity and specificity of 80% and 78%, respectively, for differentiation of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) from papillary RCC, chromophobe RCC, oncocytoma, and minimal-fat angiomyolipoma. • Selective ADC excluding cystic and necrotic areas are preferable to whole-lesion ADC as an additional tool to multiphasic MRI to differentiate clear cell RCC from other renal lesions whether the highest b value is 800 or 1000.
PMID: 32144458
ISSN: 1432-1084
CID: 4340972

Simultaneous proton magnetic resonance fingerprinting and sodium MRI

Yu, Zidan; Madelin, Guillaume; Sodickson, Daniel K; Cloos, Martijn A
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:, and proton density) and sodium density images in 1 single scan. We hope that the development of such capabilities will help to ease the implementation of sodium MRI in clinical trials and provide more opportunities for researchers to investigate metabolism through sodium MRI. METHODS: RESULTS: CONCLUSIONS:
PMID: 31746048
ISSN: 1522-2594
CID: 4195442

A dual-tuned 17 O/1 H head array for direct brain oximetry at 3 Tesla

Lakshmanan, Karthik; Dehkharghani, Seena; Madelin, Guillaume; Brown, Ryan
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:H coil for direct brain oximetry at 3T. METHODS:H images. RESULTS:H structural brain images demonstrated excellent quality and anatomical detail using routine clinical imaging sequence parameters and parallel acceleration. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:H imaging under standard clinical 3 T scanning conditions.
PMID: 31593372
ISSN: 1522-2594
CID: 4129612

Pre-test probability for SARS-Cov-2-related infection score: The PARIS score

Tordjman, Mickael; Mekki, Ahmed; Mali, Rahul D; Saab, Ines; Chassagnon, Guillaume; Guillo, Enora; Burns, Robert; Eshagh, Deborah; Beaune, Sebastien; Madelin, Guillaume; Bessis, Simon; Feydy, Antoine; Mihoubi, Fadila; Doumenc, Benoit; Mouthon, Luc; Carlier, Robert-Yves; Drapé, Jean-Luc; Revel, Marie-Pierre
INTRODUCTION:In numerous countries, large population testing is impossible due to the limited availability of RT-PCR kits and CT-scans. This study aimed to determine a pre-test probability score for SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS:This multicenter retrospective study (4 University Hospitals) included patients with clinical suspicion of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Demographic characteristics, clinical symptoms, and results of blood tests (complete white blood cell count, serum electrolytes and CRP) were collected. A pre-test probability score was derived from univariate analyses of clinical and biological variables between patients and controls, followed by multivariate binary logistic analysis to determine the independent variables associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS:605 patients were included between March 10th and April 30th, 2020 (200 patients for the training cohort, 405 consecutive patients for the validation cohort). In the multivariate analysis, lymphocyte (<1.3 G/L), eosinophil (<0.06 G/L), basophil (<0.04 G/L) and neutrophil counts (<5 G/L) were associated with high probability of SARS-CoV-2 infection but no clinical variable was statistically significant. The score had a good performance in the validation cohort (AUC = 0.918 (CI: [0.891-0.946]; STD = 0.014) with a Positive Predictive Value of high-probability score of 93% (95%CI: [0.89-0.96]). Furthermore, a low-probability score excluded SARS-CoV-2 infection with a Negative Predictive Value of 98% (95%CI: [0.93-0.99]). The performance of the score was stable even during the last period of the study (15-30th April) with more controls than infected patients. CONCLUSIONS:The PARIS score has a good performance to categorize the pre-test probability of SARS-CoV-2 infection based on complete white blood cell count. It could help clinicians adapt testing and for rapid triage of patients before test results.
PMID: 33332360
ISSN: 1932-6203
CID: 4764962

A dual-tuned multichannel bilateral RF coil for 1 H/23 Na breast MRI at 7 T

Ianniello, Carlotta; Madelin, Guillaume; Moy, Linda; Brown, Ryan
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Sodium MRI has shown promise for monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy response in breast cancer. The purpose of this work was to build a dual-tuned bilateral proton/sodium breast coil for 7T MRI that provides sufficient SNR to enable sodium breast imaging in less than 10 minutes. METHODS:The proton/sodium coil consists of 2 shielded unilateral units: 1 for each breast. Each unit consists of 3 nested layers: (1) a 3-loop solenoid for sodium excitation, (2) a 3-loop solenoid for proton excitation and signal reception, and (3) a 4-channel receive array for sodium signal reception. Benchmark measurements were performed in phantoms with and without the sodium receive array insert. In vivo images were acquired on a healthy volunteer. RESULTS:The sodium receive array boosted 1.5 to 3 times the SNR compared with the solenoid. Proton SNR loss due to residual interaction with the sodium array was less than 10%. The coil enabled sodium imaging in vivo with 2.8-mm isotropic nominal resolution (~5-mm real resolution) in 9:36 minutes. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The coil design that we propose addresses challenges associated with sodium's low SNR from a hardware perspective and offers the opportunity to investigate noninvasively breast tumor metabolism as a function of sodium concentration in patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
PMID: 31148249
ISSN: 1522-2594
CID: 4000212