Fructose: A New Variable to Consider in SIADH and the Hyponatremia Associated With Long-Distance Running?
Fructose has recently been proposed to stimulate vasopressin secretion in humans. Fructose-induced vasopressin secretion is not only postulated to result from ingestion of fructose-containing drinks but may also occur from endogenous fructose production via activation of the polyol pathway. This raises the question of whether fructose might be involved in some cases of vasopressin-induced hyponatremia, especially in situations where the cause is not fully known such as in the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of diuretic hormone (SIADH) and exercise-associated hyponatremia, which has been observed in marathon runners. Here we discuss the new science of fructose and vasopressin, and how it may play a role in some of these conditions, as well as in the complications associated with rapid treatment (such as the osmotic demyelination syndrome). Studies to test the role of fructose could provide new pathophysiologic insights as well as novel potential treatment strategies for these common conditions.
Cerebral Salt Wasting Is a Real Cause of Hyponatremia: PRO
Haptoglobin-Related Protein without Signal Peptide as Biomarker of Renal Salt Wasting in Hyponatremia, Hyponatremia-Related Diseases and as New Syndrome in Alzheimer's Disease
The application of pathophysiologic tenets has created significant changes in our approach to hyponatremia and hyponatremia-related conditions. This new approach incorporated the determination of fractional excretion (FE) of urate before and after the correction of hyponatremia and the response to isotonic saline infusion to differentiate the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) from renal salt wasting (RSW). FEurate simplified the identification of the different causes of hyponatremia, especially the diagnosis of a reset osmostat and Addison's disease. Differentiating SIADH from RSW has been extremely difficult because both syndromes present with identical clinical parameters, which could be overcome by successfully carrying out the difficult protocol of this new approach. A study of 62 hyponatremic patients from the general medical wards of the hospital identified 17 (27%) to have SIADH, 19 (31%) with reset osmostat, and 24 (38%) with RSW with 21 of these RSW patients presenting without clinical evidence of cerebral disease to warrant changing the nomenclature from cerebral to renal salt wasting. The natriuretic activity found in the plasma of 21 and 18 patients with neurosurgical and Alzheimer's disease, respectively, was later identified as haptoglobin-related protein without signal peptide (HPRWSP). The high prevalence of RSW creates a therapeutic dilemma of deciding whether to water-restrict water-logged patients with SIADH as compared to administering saline to volume-depleted patients with RSW. Future studies will hopefully achieve the following: 1. Abandon the ineffective volume approach; 2. Develop HPRWSP as a biomarker to identify hyponatremic and a projected large number of normonatremic patients at risk of developing RSW, including Alzheimer's disease; 3. Facilitate differentiating SIADH from RSW on the first encounter and improve clinical outcomes.
New Approach to Hyponatremia: High Prevalence of Cerebral/Renal Salt Wasting, Identification of Natriuretic Protein That Causes Salt Wasting
Our understanding of hyponatremic conditions has undergone major alterations. There is a tendency to treat all patients with hyponatremia because of common subtle symptoms that include unsteady gait that lead to increased falls and bone fractures and can progress to mental confusion, irritability, seizures, coma and even death. We describe a new approach that is superior to the ineffectual volume approach. Determination of fractional excretion (FE) of urate has simplified the diagnosis of a reset osmostat, Addison"™s disease, edematous causes such as congestive heart failure, cirrhosis and nephrosis, volume depletion from extrarenal salt losses with normal renal tubular function and the difficult task of differentiating the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) from cerebral/renal salt wasting (C/RSW). SIADH and C/RSW have identical clinical and laboratory parameters but have diametrically opposite therapeutic goals of water-restricting water-loaded patients with SIADH or administering salt water to dehydrated patients with C/RSW. In a study of nonedematous patients with hyponatremia, we utilized FEurate and response to isotonic saline infusions to differentiate SIADH from C/RSW. Twenty-four (38%) of 62 hyponatremic patients had C/RSW with 21 having no clinical evidence of cerebral disease to support our important proposal to change cerebral to renal salt wasting (RSW). Seventeen (27%) had SIADH and 19 (31%) had a reset osmostat. One each from hydrochlorothiazide and Addison"™s disease. We demonstrated natriuretic activity in the plasma of patients with neurosurgical and Alzheimer diseases (AD) in rat clearance studies and have now identified the natriuretic protein to be haptoglobin related protein without signal peptide (HPRWSP). We introduce a new syndrome of RSW in AD that needs further confirmation. Future studies intend to develop HPRWSP as a biomarker to simplify the diagnosis of RSW in hyponatremic and normonatremic patients and explore other clinical applications that can improve clinical outcomes.
Pathophysiologic Approach to Understanding and Successfully Treating Idiopathic Edema: Unappreciated Importance of Nocturia
BACKGROUND:Idiopathic edema (IE), a disorder of females, is characterized by edema and weight gains exceeding 1.4 kg while assuming an upright position followed by nocturia and returning to a non-edematous baseline weight in the morning. There is no successful treatment of IE and the importance of nocturia needs to be emphasized. The major underlying abnormality is an increase in vascular membrane permeability (VMP). We present four cases with differing degrees of IE who were successfully managed by manipulating Starling's forces. While we could not alter the increase in VMP, manipulating oncotic and hydrostatic pressures between both compartments were untenable except to decrease intravascular hydrostatic pressure by sodium restriction. All four cases virtually eliminated daily weight gains and nocturia to improve quality of life considerably, two with the assistance of daily hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) and all four by furosemide to accelerate recovery from the weight gain to permit occasional dietary indiscretions to improve quality of life. Two cases with milder forms of IE did not quantify sodium intake as meticulously as cases one and four, who appeared to have greater increases in VMP. IE can be treated successfully by sodium restriction with or without use of HCTZ and furosemide to eliminate the distressing edema, weight gain and nocturia with marked improvement in emotional instability after understanding that the weight gains and nocturia were linked to dietary intake of sodium.
Identification of a Novel Natriuretic Protein in Patients With Cerebral-Renal Salt Wasting-Implications for Enhanced Diagnosis
BACKGROUND:The most vexing problem in hyponatremic conditions is to differentiate the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) from cerebral/renal salt wasting (C-RSW). Both have identical clinical parameters but diametrically opposite therapeutic goals of water- restricting water-logged patients with SIADH or administering salt and water to dehydrated patients with C-RSW. While C-RSW is considered a rare condition, the report of a high prevalence of C-RSW in the general hospital wards creates an urgency to differentiate one syndrome from the other on first encounter. We decided to identify the natriuretic factor (NF) we previously demonstrated in plasma of neurosurgical and Alzheimer diseases (AD) who had findings consistent with C-RSW. METHODS:We performed the same rat renal clearance studies to determine natriuretic activity (NA) in serum from a patient with a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and another with AD and demonstrated NA in their sera. The sera were subjected to proteomic and SWATH (Sequential Windowed Acquisition of All) analyses which identified increased levels of haptoglobin related protein (Hpr) without signal peptide (Hpr-WSP). RESULTS:Recombinant Hpr with His tag at the N terminus had no NA. Hpr-WSP had a robust NA in a dose-dependent manner when injected into rats. Serum after recovery from C-RSW in the SAH patient had no NA. CONCLUSIONS:Hpr-WSP may be the NF in C-RSW which should be developed as a biomarker to differentiate C-RSW from SIADH on first encounter, introduces a new syndrome of C-RSW in AD and can serve as a proximal diuretic to treat congestive heart failure.
Evolution and evolving resolution of controversy over existence and prevalence of cerebral/renal salt wasting
PURPOSE OF REVIEW/OBJECTIVE:The topic of hyponatremia is in a state of flux. We review a new approach to diagnosis that is superior to previous methods. It simplifies identifying the causes of hyponatremia, the most important issue being the differentiation of the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) from cerebral/renal salt wasting (RSW). We also report on the high prevalence of RSW without cerebral disease in the general wards of the hospital. RECENT FINDINGS/RESULTS:We applied our new approach to hyponatremia by utilizing sound pathophysiologic criteria in 62 hyponatremic patients. Seventeen (27%) had SIADH, 19 (31%) had a reset osmostat, 24 (38%) had RSW with 21 having no evidence of cerebral disease, 1 had Addison's disease, and 1 was because of hydrochlorothiazide. Many had urine sodium concentrations (UNa) less than 30â€Šmmol/l. SUMMARY/CONCLUSIONS:RSW is much more common than perceived in the general wards of the hospital. It is important to change the terminology from cerebral to RSW and to differentiate SIADH from RSW. These changes will improve clinical outcomes because of divergent therapeutic goals of water-restricting in SIADH and administering salt and water to a dehydrated patient with RSW. The present review will hopefully spur others to reflect and act on the new findings and different approaches to hyponatremia.
High Prevalence of Renal Salt Wasting Without Cerebral Disease as Cause of Hyponatremia in General Medical Wards
BACKGROUND:The approach to hyponatremia is in a state of flux, especially in differentiating syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) from cerebral-renal salt wasting (RSW) because of diametrically opposite therapeutic goals. Considering RSW can occur without cerebral disease, we determined the prevalence of RSW in the general hospital wards. METHODS:To differentiate SIADH from RSW, we used an algorithm based on fractional excretion (FE) of urate and nonresponse to saline infusions in SIADH as compared to excretion of dilute urines and prompt increase in serum sodium in RSW. RESULTS:Of 62 hyponatremic patients, (A) 17 patients (27%) had SIADH, 11 were nonresponsive to isotonic saline, and 5 normalized a previously high FEurate after correction of hyponatremia; (B) 19 patients (31%) had a reset osmostat based on normal FEurates and spontaneously excreted dilute urines; (C) 24 patients (38%) had RSW, 21 had no clinical evidence of cerebral disease, 19 had saline-induced dilute urines; 2 had undetectable plasma ADH levels when urine was dilute, 10 required 5% dextrose in water to prevent rapid increase in serum sodium, 11 had persistently increased FEurate after correction of hyponatremia and 10 had baseline urinary sodium < 20 mEq/L; (D) 1 patient had Addison disease with a low FEurate and (E) 1 patient (1.6%) had hyponatremia due to hydrochlorothiazide. CONCLUSIONS:Of the 24 patients with RSW, 21 had no cerebral disease, supporting our proposal to change cerebral-renal salt wasting to renal salt wasting. Application of established pathophysiological standards and a new algorithm based on determination of FEurate were superior to the volume approach for determination of urinary sodium when identifying the cause of hyponatremia.
Determining Fractional Urate Excretion Rates in Hyponatremic Conditions and Improved Methods to Distinguish Cerebral/Renal Salt Wasting From the Syndrome of Inappropriate Secretion of Antidiuretic Hormone
Our evaluation of hyponatremic patients is in a state of confusion because the assessment of the volume status of the patient and determinations of urine sodium concentrations (UNa) >30-40 mEq/L have dominated our approach despite documented evidence of many shortcomings. Central to this confusion is our inability to differentiate cerebral/renal salt wasting (C/RSW) from the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), syndromes with diametrically opposing therapeutic goals. The recent proposal to treat most or all hyponatremic patients makes differentiation even more important and reports of C/RSW occurring without cerebral disease leads to a clinically important proposal to change cerebral to renal salt wasting (RSW). Differentiating SIADH from RSW is difficult because of identical clinical parameters that characterize both syndromes. Determination of fractional urate excretion (FEurate) is central to a new algorithm, which has proven to be superior to current methods. We utilized this algorithm and differences in physiologic response to isotonic saline infusions between SIADH and RSW to evaluate hyponatremic patients from the general medical wards of the hospital. In 62 hyponatremic patients, 17 (27%) had SIADH, 19 (31%) had reset osmostat (RO), 24 (38%) had RSW, 1 due to HCTZ and 1 Addison's disease. Interestingly, 21 of 24 with RSW had no evidence of cerebral disease and 10 of 24 with RSW had UNa < 20 mEqL. We conclude that 1. RSW is much more common than is perceived, 2.the term cerebral salt wasting should be changed to RSW 3. RO should be eliminated as a subclass of SIADH, 4. SIADH should be redefined 5. The volume approach is ineffective and 6. There are limitations to determining UNa, plasma renin, aldosterone or atrial/brain natriuretic peptides. We also present data on a natriuretic peptide found in sera of patients with RSW and Alzheimer's disease.
Application of established pathophysiologic processes brings greater clarity to diagnosis and treatment of hyponatremia [Editorial]
Hyponatremia, serum sodium < 135 mEq/L, is the most common electrolyte abnormality and is in a state of flux. Hyponatremic patients are symptomatic and should be treated but our inability to consistently determine the causes of hyponatremia has hampered the delivery of appropriate therapy. This is especially applicable to differentiating syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD) from cerebral salt wasting (CSW) or more appropriately, renal salt wasting (RSW), because of divergent therapeutic goals, to water-restrict in SIAD and administer salt and water in RSW. Differentiating SIAD from RSW is extremely difficult because of identical clinical parameters that define both syndromes and the mindset that CSW occurs rarely. It is thus insufficient to make the diagnosis of SIAD simply because it meets the defined characteristics. We review the pathophysiology of SIAD and RSW, the evolution of an algorithm that is based on determinations of fractional excretion of urate and distinctive responses to saline infusions to differentiate SIAD from RSW. This algorithm also simplifies the diagnosis of hyponatremic patients due to Addison's disease, reset osmostat and prerenal states. It is a common perception that we cannot accurately assess the volume status of a patient by clinical criteria. Our algorithm eliminates the need to determine the volume status with the realization that too many factors affect plasma renin, aldosterone, atrial/brain natriuretic peptide or urine sodium concentration to be useful. Reports and increasing recognition of RSW occurring in patients without evidence of cerebral disease should thus elicit the need to consider RSW in a broader group of patients and to question any diagnosis of SIAD. Based on the accumulation of supporting data, we make the clinically important proposal to change CSW to RSW, to eliminate reset osmostat as type C SIAD and stress the need for a new definition of SIAD.