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The Impact of Obesity on Total Hip Arthroplasty Outcomes When Performed by High-Volume Surgeons-A Propensity Matched Analysis From a High-Volume Urban Center

Ashkenazi, Itay; Thomas, Jeremiah; Lawrence, Kyle W; Meftah, Morteza; Rozell, Joshua C; Schwarzkopf, Ran
BACKGROUND:Previous data suggest that obesity does not impact surgical outcomes following total knee arthroplasty performed by high-volume (HV) surgeons. However, this effect has yet to be studied in total hip arthroplasty (THA) patients. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of patient obesity on THA outcomes when surgery is performed by HV surgeons. METHODS:A retrospective analysis of patients who underwent primary, elective THA between January 2012 and December 2022 with a HV surgeon (top 25% of surgeons by number of annual primary THA) was performed. Patients were stratified by their body mass index (BMI) into 3 cohorts: BMI ≥ 40 (morbidly obese [MO]), 30 ≤ BMI < 40 (obese), and BMI < 30 (nonobese); and 1:1:1 propensity matched based on baseline characteristics. A total of 13,223 patients were evaluated, of which 669 patients were included in the final matched analysis (223 patients per group). The average number of annual THAs performed for HV surgeons was 171 cases. RESULTS:The MO patients had significantly longer surgical times (P < .001) and hospital lengths of stay (P < .001). Rates of 90-day readmissions (P = .211) and all-cause, septic, and aseptic revisions at the latest follow-up (P = .268, P = .903, and P = .168, respectively) were comparable between groups. In a subanalysis for non-HV surgeons, MO patients had a significantly greater risk of revision (P = .021) and trended toward significantly greater readmissions (P = .056). CONCLUSIONS:Clinical outcomes and complication rates after THA performed by a HV surgeon are similar regardless of patient obesity status. Patients who have MO may experience improved outcomes and reduced procedural risks if they are referred to HV surgeons. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:III.
PMID: 38428691
ISSN: 1532-8406
CID: 5655552

Trends in Revenue, Cost, and Contribution Margin of Patients Who Have a High Comorbidity Burden Undergoing Total Hip Arthroplasty From 2013 to 2021

Ashkenazi, Itay; Katzman, Jonathan; Thomas, Jeremiah; Davidovitch, Roy; Meftah, Morteza; Schwarzkopf, Ran
BACKGROUND:With the increasing utilization of total hip arthroplasty (THA) in patients who have a high comorbidity burden (HCB), coinciding with modifications to reimbursement models over the past decade, an evaluation of the financial impact of HCB on THA over time is warranted. This study aimed to investigate trends in revenue and cost associated with THA in HCB patients. METHODS:Of 13,439 patients who had primary, elective THA between 2013 and 2021 at our institution, we retrospectively reviewed 978 patients considered to have HCB (Charlson comorbidity index ≥ 5 and American Society of Anesthesiology scores 3 or 4). We collected patient demographics, perioperative data, revenue, cost, and contribution margin (CM) of the inpatient episode. We analyzed changes as a percentage of 2013 values over time for these financial markers. Linear regression determined trend significance. The final analysis included 978 HCB patients who had complete financial data. RESULTS:Between 2013 and 2021, direct costs increased significantly (P = .002), along with a nonsignificant increase in total costs (P = .056). While revenue remained steady during the study period (P = .486), the CM decreased markedly to 38.0% of 2013 values, although not statistically significant (P = .222). Rates of 90-day complications and home discharge remained steady throughout the study period. CONCLUSIONS:Increasing costs for HCB patients undergoing THA were not matched by an equivalent increase in revenue, leading to dwindling CMs throughout the past decade. Re-evaluation of reimbursement models for THA that account for patients' HCB may be necessary to preserve broad access to care. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:III.
PMID: 38677346
ISSN: 1532-8406
CID: 5657942

Reply to the Letter to the Editor on: The Impact of Machine Learning on Total Joint Arthroplasty Patient Outcomes: A Systematic Review [Letter]

Karlin, Elan A; Lin, Charles C; Meftah, Morteza; Slover, James D; Schwarzkopf, Ran
PMID: 38182326
ISSN: 1532-8406
CID: 5628472

Comparing Outcomes of Bicruciate-Stabilized and Cruciate-Retaining Total Knee Arthroplasty

Hernandez, Lorena; Shichman, Ittai; Christensen, Thomas H; Rozell, Joshua C; Meftah, Morteza; Schwarzkopf, Ran
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:Bicruciate-stabilized (BCS) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) aims to restore normal kinematics by replicating the function of both cruciate ligaments. Conventional cruciate-retaining (CR) design in TKA has shown previous clinical success with lower complication rates. This study compared the patient-reported outcomes between the BCS and CR TKA designs. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:-tests. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:= 0.028) than the CR cohort (n = 203). Both cohorts displayed a significant difference in delta improvements within their respective cohort when measuring FJS from 3 months to 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years after surgery. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:The CR cohort performed better on average, compared to the BCS cohort in measures of KOOS, JR scores at the 2-year follow-up. The BCS cohort performed marginally better regarding FJS only at 1-year follow-up.
PMID: 38304221
ISSN: 2005-4408
CID: 5626882

Robot-Assisted Total Hip Arthroplasty Demonstrates Improved 90-Day Clinical and Patient-Reported Outcomes

Prinos, Alana; Buehring, Weston; Di Gangi, Catherine; Meere, Patrick; Meftah, Morteza; Hepinstall, Matthew
Background: The utilization of technology, including robotics and computer navigation, in total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been steadily increasing; however, conflicting data exists regarding its effect on short-term clinical and patient-reported outcomes. Therefore, this study sought to explore the association between different surgical technologies and postoperative outcomes following THA. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 9892 primary THA cases performed by 62 surgeons from a single institution from September 2017 to November 2022. Three cohorts were created based on the utilization of technology: conventional (no technology), navigation, or robotics. Patient demographics, clinical outcomes, and patient-reported outcome measures were collected over the first 90 days following surgery. This data was compared using analysis of variance and multivariate logistic regressions. In total, 4275 conventional, 4510 navigation, and 1107 robotic cases were included in our analyses. Results: The robotic cohort achieved a perfect Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care (AM-PAC) score earliest (0.1 days, P < .001). After adjusting for potential confounding variables, use of robotic assistance was associated with greater odds of achieving a perfect AM-PAC score on postoperative day 0 (odds ratio 1.6, P < .001) and greater odds of having length of stay shorter than 24 hours (odds ratio 2.3, P < .001) compared to no technology use in THA. Hip dysfunction and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, Joint Replacement and Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Pain Interference scores showed the greatest improvement in the robotic cohort at both 6 weeks and 3 months following surgery. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates favorable clinical and patient-reported outcomes in the first 90 days following surgery for patients undergoing robot-assisted THA compared to conventional and navigation-assisted THA.
ISSN: 2352-3441
CID: 5661362

Outcomes of medicaid patients undergoing TJA with previous positive urine toxicology screens

Moore, Michael; Shendrik, Irina; Roof, Mackenzie A; Sicat, Chelsea Sue; Meftah, Morteza; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Rozell, Joshua C
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Previous studies have demonstrated that patients with positive preoperative urine toxicology (utox) screens prior to total joint arthroplasty (TJA) have higher readmission rates, greater complication rates, and longer hospital stays compared to patients with negative screens. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of postponing surgery for patients with positive preoperative utox in the Medicaid population. METHODS:This retrospective, observational study reviewed the Medicaid ambulatory database at a large, academic orthopedic specialty hospital for patients with a utox screen prior to TJA from 2012 to 2020. Patients were categorized into three groups: (1) controls with negative preoperative utox or a utox consistent with prescription medications (Utox-) with TJA completed as scheduled; (2) positive preoperative utox with TJA rescheduled and surgery completed on a later date (R-utox+); (3) positive preoperative utox inconsistent with prescription medications with TJA completed as scheduled (S-utox+). Primary outcomes included mortality, 90-day readmission rate, complication rate, and length of stay. RESULTS:Of the 300 records reviewed, 185 did not meet inclusion criteria. The remaining 115 patients included 80 (69.6%) Utox-, 5 (6.3%) R-utox+, and 30 (37.5%) S-utox+. Mean follow-up time was 49.6 months. Hospital stays trended longer in the Utox- group (3.7 ± 2.0 days vs. 3.1 ± 1.6 S-utox+ vs.2.5 ± 0.4 R-utox+, p = 0.20). Compared to the R-utox+group, the S-utox+ group trended toward lower home discharge rates (p = 0.20), higher in-hospital complication rates (p = 0.85), and more all-cause 90-day emergency department visits (p = 0.57). There were no differences in postoperative opioid utilization between groups (p = 0.319). Duration of postoperative narcotic use trended toward being longer in the Utox- patients (820.7 ± 1073.8 days vs. 684.6 ± 1491.8 S-utox+ vs. 585.1 ± 948.3 R-utox+, p = 0.585). Surgical time (p = 0.045) and revision rates (p = 0.72) trended toward being higher in the S-utox+ group. CONCLUSIONS:Medicaid patients with positive preoperative utox who had surgeries postponed trended towards shorter hospital stays and greater home discharge rates. Larger studies should be conducted to analyze the implications of a positive preoperative utox on risk profiles and outcomes following TJA in the Medicaid population. Study design Retrospective cohort study.
PMID: 37225946
ISSN: 1432-1068
CID: 5508452

Does the geriatric nutritional risk index predict complication rates and implant survivorship in revision total joint arthroplasty?

Oakley, Christian T; Konopka, Jaclyn A; Rajahraman, Vinaya; Barzideh, Omid S; Meftah, Morteza; Schwarzkopf, Ran
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Malnutrition is associated with poorer outcomes after revision total joint arthroplasty (rTJA), though no universal metric for assessing malnutrition in rTJA patients has been reported. This study sought to determine if malnutrition as defined by the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) can independently predict short-term complication rates and re-revision risk in patients undergoing rTJA. METHODS:All patients ≥ 65 years old undergoing rTJA from 2011 to 2021 at a single orthopaedic specialty hospital were identified. Preoperative albumin, height, and weight were used to calculate GNRI. Based on the calculated GNRI value, patients were stratified into three groups: normal nutrition (GNRI > 98), moderate malnutrition (GNRI 92-98), and severe malnutrition (GNRI < 92). Chi-squared and independent samples t-tests were used to compare groups. RESULTS:A total of 531 rTJA patients were included. Patients with normal nutrition were younger (p < 0.001), had higher BMI (p < 0.001). After adjusting for baseline characteristics, patients with severe and moderate malnutrition had longer length of stay (p < 0.001), were less likely to be discharged home (p = 0.049), and had higher 90-day major complication (p = 0.02) and readmission (p = 0.005) rates than those with normal nutrition. 90-day revision rates were similar. In Kaplan-Meier analyses, patients with severe and moderate malnutrition had worse survivorship free of all-cause re-revision at 1-year (p = 0.001) and 2-year (p = 0.002) follow-up compared to those with normal nutrition. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Moderate and severe malnutrition, as defined by GNRI, independently predicted higher complication and revision rates in rTJA patients. This suggests that the GNRI may serve as an effective screening tool for nutritional status in patients undergoing rTJA.
PMID: 37442825
ISSN: 1434-3916
CID: 5537792

The Impact of Machine Learning on Total Joint Arthroplasty Patient Outcomes: A Systemic Review

Karlin, Elan A; Lin, Charles C; Meftah, Morteza; Slover, James D; Schwarzkopf, Ran
BACKGROUND:Supervised machine learning techniques have been increasingly applied to predict patient outcomes after hip and knee arthroplasty procedures. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the applications of supervised machine learning techniques to predict patient outcomes after primary total hip and knee arthroplasty. METHODS:A comprehensive literature search using the electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was conducted in July of 2021. The inclusion criteria were studies that utilized supervised machine learning techniques to predict patient outcomes after primary total hip or knee arthroplasty. RESULTS:Search criteria yielded n = 30 relevant studies. Topics of study included patient complications (n = 6), readmissions (n = 1), revision (n = 2), patient-reported outcome measures (n = 4), patient satisfaction (n = 4), inpatient status and length of stay (LOS) (n = 9), opioid usage (n = 3), and patient function (n = 1). Studies involved TKA (n = 12), THA (n = 11), or a combination (n = 7). Less than 35% of predictive outcomes had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) in the excellent or outstanding range. Additionally, only 9 of the studies found improvement over logistic regression, and only 9 studies were externally validated. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Supervised machine learning algorithms are powerful tools that have been increasingly applied to predict patient outcomes after total hip and knee arthroplasty. However, these algorithms should be evaluated in the context of prognostic accuracy, comparison to traditional statistical techniques for outcome prediction, and application to populations outside the training set. While machine learning algorithms have been received with considerable interest, they should be critically assessed and validated prior to clinical adoption.
PMID: 36441039
ISSN: 1532-8406
CID: 5373852

Comparison of traditional PS versus kinematically designs in primary total knee arthroplasty

Shichman, Ittai; Oakley, Christian T; Thomas, Jeremiah; Fernandez-Madrid, Ivan; Meftah, Morteza; Schwarzkopf, Ran
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Kinematically designed total knee arthroplasty (TKA) aims to restore normal kinematics by replicating the function of both cruciate ligaments. Traditional posterior-stabilized (PS) TKA designs, on the other hand, simplify knee kinematics and may improve TKA cost-effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes of patients who underwent primary TKA using either a traditional PS or kinematically designed TKA. METHODS:This retrospective study examined all patients who underwent primary TKA using either a kinematically or a traditional PS designed TKA implant, with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Patient demographics, complications, readmissions, revision rates and causes, range of motion (ROM) and patient reported outcomes (KOOS, JR) were compared between groups. Kaplan-Meier survivorship analysis was performed to estimate freedom from revision, and multivariate regression was performed to control for confounding variables. RESULTS:A total of 396 TKAs [173 (43.7%) with a kinematic design, 223 (56.3%) with a traditional design] with a mean follow-up of 3.48 ± 1.51 years underwent analysis. Revision rates did not differ between groups (9.8% vs. 6.7%, p = 0.418). In Kaplan-Meier analysis at 2-year follow-up, freedom from all-cause revision (96.4% vs. 93.1%, p = 0.139) were similar between groups. The two cohorts had no significant difference in aseptic loosening at 2 years (99.6% vs. 97.1, p = 0.050) and at latest follow up (92.7% vs. 96.4%, p = 0.279). KOOS, JR scores and post-operative ROM were similar between groups. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrated similar mid-term outcomes following the use of both a kinematically designed and a traditionally designed implant in primary TKA patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Retrospective study-III.
PMID: 36625899
ISSN: 1434-3916
CID: 5434322

The accuracy of component positioning during revision total hip arthroplasty using 3D optical computer-assisted navigation

Tang, Alex; Singh, Vivek; Sharan, Mohamad; Roof, Mackenzie A; Mercuri, John J; Meftah, Morteza; Schwarzkopf, Ran
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Despite the excellent outcomes associated with primary total hip arthroplasty (THA), implant failure and revision continue to burden the healthcare system. The use of computer-assisted navigation (CAN) offers the potential for more accurate placement of hip components during surgery. While intraoperative CAN systems have been shown to improve outcomes in primary THA, their use in the context of revision total hip arthroplasty (rTHA) has not been elucidated. We sought to investigate the validity of using CAN during rTHA. METHODS:A retrospective analysis was performed at an academic medical institution identifying all patients who underwent rTHA using CAN from 2016-2019. Patients were 1:1 matched with patients undergoing rTHA without CAN (control) based on demographic data. Cup anteversion, inclination, change in leg length discrepancy (ΔLLD) and change in femoral offset between pre- and post-operative plain weight-bearing radiographic images were measured and compared between both groups. A safety target zone of 15-25° for anteversion and 30-50° for inclination was used as a reference for precision analysis of cup position. RESULTS:Eighty-four patients were included: 42 CAN cases and 42 control cases. CAN cases displayed a lower ΔLLD (5.74 ± 7.0 mm vs 9.13 ± 7.9 mm, p = 0.04) and greater anteversion (23.4 ± 8.53° vs 19.76 ± 8.36°, p = 0.0468). There was no statistical difference between the proportion of CAN or control cases that fell within the target safe zone (40% vs 20.9%, p =  0.06). Femoral offset was similar in CAN and control cases (7.63 ± 5.84 mm vs 7.14 ± 4.8 mm, p = 0.68). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Our findings suggest that the use of CAN may improve accuracy in cup placement compared to conventional methodology, but our numbers are underpowered to show a statistical difference. However, with a ΔLLD of ~ 3.4 mm, CAN may be useful in facilitating the successful restoration of pre-operative leg length following rTHA. Therefore, CAN may be a helpful tool for orthopedic surgeons to assist in cup placement and LLD during complex revision cases.
PMID: 36074304
ISSN: 1432-1068
CID: 5332542