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The use of imageless navigation to quantify cutting error in total knee arthroplasty

Schwarzkopf, Ran; Meftah, Morteza; Marwin, Scott E; Zabat, Michelle A; Muir, Jeffrey M; Lamb, Iain R
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Navigated total knee arthroplasty (TKA) improves implant alignment by providing feedback on resection parameters based on femoral and tibial cutting guide positions. However, saw blade thickness, deflection, and cutting guide motion may lead to final bone cuts differing from planned resections, potentially contributing to suboptimal component alignment. We used an imageless navigation device to intraoperatively quantify the magnitude of error between planned and actual resections, hypothesizing final bone cuts will differ from planned alignment. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:A retrospective study including 60 consecutive patients undergoing primary TKA using a novel imageless navigation device was conducted. Device measurements of resection parameters were obtained via attachment of optical trackers to femoral and tibial cutting guides prior to resection. Following resection, optical trackers were placed directly on the bone cut surface and measurements were recorded. Cutting guide and bone resection measurements of both femoral and tibial varus/valgus, femoral flexion, tibial slope angles, and both femoral and tibial medial and lateral resection depths were compared using a Student's t-test. RESULTS:Femoral cutting guide position differed from the actual cut by an average 0.6 ± 0.5° (p = 0.85) in the varus/valgus angle and 1.0 ± 1.0° (p = 0.003) in the flexion/extension angle. The difference between planned and actual cut measurements for medial and lateral femoral resection depth was 1.1 ± 1.1 mm (p = 0.32) and 1.2 ± 1.0 mm (p = 0.067), respectively. Planned cut measurements based on tibial guide position differed from the actual cut by an average of 0.9 ± 0.8° (p = 0.63) in the varus/valgus angle and 1.1 ± 1.0° (p = 0.95) in slope angle. Measurement of medial and lateral tibial resection depth differed by an average of 0.1 ± 1.8 mm (p = 0.78) and 0.2 ± 2.1 mm (p = 0.85), respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Significant discrepancies between planned and actual femoral bone resection were demonstrated for flexion/extension angle, likely the result of cutting error. Our data highlights the importance of cut verification postresection to confirm planned resections are achieved, and suggests imageless navigation may be a source of feedback that would allow surgeons to intraoperatively adjust resections to achieve optimal implant alignment.
PMID: 34863317
ISSN: 2234-0726
CID: 5074992

The Use of Navigation or Robotic-Assisted Technology in Total Knee Arthroplasty Does Not Reduce Postoperative Pain

Zak, Stephen Gerard; Yeroushalmi, David; Tang, Alex; Meftah, Morteza; Schnaser, Erik; Schwarzkopf, Ran
The use of intraoperative technology (IT), such as computer-assisted navigation (CAN) and robot-assisted surgery (RA), in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is increasingly popular due to its ability to enhance surgical precision and reduce radiographic outliers. There is disputing evidence as to whether IT leads to better clinical outcomes and reduced postoperative pain. The purpose of this study was to determine if use of CAN or RA in TKA improves pain outcomes. This is a retrospective review of a multicenter randomized control trial of 327 primary TKAs. Demographics, surgical time, IT use (CAN/RA), length of stay (LOS), and opioid consumption (in morphine milligram equivalents) were collected. Analysis was done by comparing IT (n = 110) to a conventional TKA cohort (n = 217). When accounting for demographic differences and the use of a tourniquet, the IT cohort had shorter surgical time (88.77 ± 18.57 vs. 98.12 ± 22.53 minutes; p = 0.005). While postoperative day 1 pain scores were similar (p = 0.316), the IT cohort has less opioid consumption at 2 weeks (p = 0.006) and 1 month (p = 0.005) postoperatively, but not at 3 months (p = 0.058). When comparing different types of IT, CAN, and RA, we found that they had similar surgical times (p = 0.610) and pain scores (p = 0.813). Both cohorts had similar opioid consumption at 2 weeks (p = 0.092), 1 month (p = 0.058), and 3 months (p = 0.064) postoperatively. The use of IT in TKA does not yield a clinically significant reduction in pain outcomes. There was also no difference in pain or perioperative outcomes between CAN and RA technology used in TKA.
PMID: 34530477
ISSN: 1938-2480
CID: 5067272

Does the Use of Intraoperative Technology Yield Superior Patient Outcomes Following Total Knee Arthroplasty?

Singh, Vivek; Fiedler, Benjamin; Simcox, Trevor; Aggarwal, Vinay K; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Meftah, Morteza
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:There is debate regarding whether the use of computer-assisted technology, such as navigation and robotics, has any benefit on outcomes or patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). This study aims to report on the association between intraoperative use of technology and outcomes in patients who underwent primary TKA. METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed 7096 patients who underwent primary TKA from 2016-2020. Patients were stratified depending on the technology utilized: navigation, robotics, or no technology. Patient demographics, clinical data, Forgotten Joint Score-12 (FJS), and Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score for Joint Replacement (KOOS, JR) were collected at various time points up to 1-year follow-up. Demographic differences were assessed with chi-square and ANOVA. Clinical data and PROMs were compared using univariate ANCOVA, controlling for demographic differences. RESULTS:A total of 287(4%) navigation, 367(5%) robotics, and 6442(91%) manual cases were included. Surgical-time significantly differed between the three groups (113.33 vs 117.44 vs 102.11; P < .001). Discharge disposition significantly differed between the three groups (P < .001), with more manual TKA patients discharged to a skilled nursing facility (12% vs 8% vs 15%; P < .001) than those who had technology utilized. FJS scores did not statistically differ at three-months (P = .067) and one-year (P = .221). We found significant statistical differences in three-month KOOS, JR scores (59.48 vs 60.10 vs 63.64; P = .001); however, one-year scores did not statistically differ between all groups (P = .320). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrates shorter operative-time in cases with no utilization of technology and clinically similar PROMs associated with TKAs performed between all modalities. While the use of technology may aid surgeons, it has not currently translated to better short-term outcomes. LEVEL III EVIDENCE/UNASSIGNED:Retrospective Cohort.
PMID: 33277145
ISSN: 1532-8406
CID: 4708272

Does the Use of a Tourniquet Influence Outcomes in Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Zak, Stephen G; Yeroushalmi, David; Long, William J; Meftah, Morteza; Schnaser, Erik; Schwarzkopf, Ran
BACKGROUND:Intraoperative tourniquet use in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a common practice which may improve visualization of the surgical field and reduce blood loss. However, the safety and efficacy associated with tourniquet use continues to be a subject of debate among orthopedic surgeons. The primary purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of tourniquet use on pain and opioid consumption after TKA. METHODS:This is a multicenter randomized controlled trial among patients undergoing TKA. Patients were preoperatively randomized to undergo TKA with or without the use of an intraoperative tourniquet. Frequency distributions, means, and standard deviations were used to describe baseline patient demographics (age, gender, race, body mass index, smoking status), length of stay, surgical factors, visual analog scale pain scores, and opioid consumption in morphine milligram equivalents. RESULTS:A total of 327 patients were included in this study, with 166 patients undergoing TKA without a tourniquet and 161 patients with a tourniquet. A statistically significant difference was found in surgical time (97.87 vs 92.98 minutes; P = .05), whereas none was found for length of stay (1.73 vs 1.70 days; P = .87), postop visual analog scale pain scores (1.73 vs 1.70; P = .87), inpatient opioid consumption (19.84 vs 19.27 morphine milligram equivalents; P = .74), or outpatient opioid consumption between the tourniquet-less and tourniquet cohorts, respectively. There were no readmissions in either cohort during the 90-day episode of care. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Utilization of a tourniquet during TKA has minimal impact on postoperative pain scores and opioid consumption when compared with patients who underwent TKA without a tourniquet.
PMID: 33795174
ISSN: 1532-8406
CID: 4838372

Response to Letter to the Editor on "Does the Use of Intraoperative Technology Yield Superior Patient Outcomes Following Total Knee Arthroplasty?" [Letter]

Singh, Vivek; Fiedler, Benjamin; Simcox, Trevor; Aggarwal, Vinay K; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Meftah, Morteza
PMID: 34116774
ISSN: 1532-8406
CID: 4911042

Primary total hip arthroplasty outcomes in octogenarians

Zak, Stephen Gerard; Lygrisse, Katherine; Tang, Alex; Meftah, Morteza; Long, William J; Schwarzkopf, Ran
AIMS/OBJECTIVE:As our population ages, the number of octogenarians who will require a total hip arthroplasty (THA) rises. In a value-based system where operative outcomes are linked to hospital payments, it is necessary to assess the outcomes in this population. The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes of elective, primary THA in patients ≥ 80 years old to those aged < 80. METHODS:A retrospective review of 10,251 consecutive THA cases from 2011 to 2019 was conducted. Patient-reported outcome (PRO) scores (Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS)), as well as demographic, readmission, and complication data, were collected. RESULTS:= 0.57; p = 0.048). There were no observed differences in 12-week (p = 0.518) or one-year (p = 0.511) HOOS scores. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS: 2021;2(7):535-539.
PMID: 34264138
ISSN: 2633-1462
CID: 4938802

Effect of Marital Status on Outcomes Following Total Joint Arthroplasty

Singh, Vivek; Fiedler, Benjamin; Kugelman, David N; Meftah, Morteza; Aggarwal, Vinay K; Schwarzkopf, Ran
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the specific socioeconomic factor such as marital status has any effect on clinical outcomes and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) after primary total hip (THA) and knee (TKA) arthroplasty. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent primary THA or TKA from January 2019 to August 2019 who answered all PROM questionnaires. Both THA and TKA patients were separated into two groups based on their marital status at the time of surgery (married vs. non-married). Demographics, clinical data, and PROMs (FJS-12, HOOS, JR, KOOS, JR, and VR-12 PCS&MCS) were collected at various time-periods. Demographic differences were assessed using chi-square and independent sample t tests. Clinical data and mean PROMs were compared using multilinear regressions while accounting for demographic differences. RESULTS:This study included 389 patients who underwent primary THA and 193 that underwent primary TKA. In the THA cohort, 256 (66%) patients were married and 133 (34%) were non-married. In the TKA cohort, there were 117 (61%) married patients and 76 (39%) non-married patients. Length of stay was significantly shorter for married patients in both the THA (1.30 vs. 1.64; p = 0.002) and TKA (1.89 vs. 2.36; p = 0.024) cohorts. Surgical-time, all-cause emergency department visits, discharge disposition, and 90-day all-cause adverse events (readmissions/revisions) did not statistically differ between both cohorts. Both HOOS, JR and KOOS, JR score improvements from baseline to 1-year did not statistically differ for the THA and TKA cohorts, respectively. Although VR-12 PCS (p = 0.012) and MCS (p = 0.004) score improvement from baseline to 1-year statistically differed for the THA cohort, they did not for the TKA cohort. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Total joint arthroplasty may yield similar clinical benefits in all patients irrespective of their marital status. Although some PROMs statistically differed among married and non-married patients, the differences are likely not clinically significant. Surgeons should continue to assess levels of psychosocial support in their patients prior to undergoing TJA to optimize outcomes. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:III, Retrospective Cohort Study.
PMID: 34032892
ISSN: 1434-3916
CID: 4887742

Adoption of Robotic Arm-Assisted Total Hip Arthroplasty Results in Reliable Clinical and Radiographic Outcomes at Minimum Two-Year Follow Up

Hepinstall, Matthew; Zucker, Harrison; Matzko, Chelsea; Meftah, Morteza; Mont, Michael A
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Longevity and success of total hip arthroplasty (THA) is largely dependent on component positioning. While use of robotic platforms can improve this positioning, published evidence on its clinical benefits is limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the clinical outcomes of THA with robotic surgical assistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:We conducted an analysis of robotic arm-assisted primary THAs performed by a single surgeon utilizing a posterior approach. A total of 99 patients (107 cases) who had a minimum two-year follow up were identified. Their mean age was 61 years (range, 33 to 84 years), and their mean body mass index was 30.5 kg/m2 (range, 18.5 to 49.1 kg/m2). There were 56% female patients and primary osteoarthritis was the principal hip diagnosis in 88.8%. Operative times, lengths of hospital stay, and discharge dispositions were recorded, along with any complications. Modified Harris Hip Scores (HHS) were calculated to quantify clinical outcomes. RESULTS:Mean postoperative increases in HHS at 2- to 5.7-year follow up was 33 points (range, 6 to 77 points). There were no complications attributable to the use of robotic assistance. Surgical-site complications were rare; one case underwent a revision for prosthetic joint infection (0.93%) but there were no dislocations, periprosthetic fractures, or cases of mechanical implant loosening. There was no evidence of progressive radiolucencies or radiographic failure. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:Robotic arm-assisted THA resulted in low complication rates at minimum two-year follow up, with clinical outcomes comparable to those reported with manual surgery.1-4 The haptically-guided acetabular bone preparation enabled reliable cementless acetabular fixation and there were no adverse events related to the use of the robot. Dislocations were avoided in this case series. Randomized controlled clinical trials are needed to compare manual to robotic surgery and to investigate whether the precision found with this functional planning will reliably reduce the incidence of dislocations.
PMID: 34000754
ISSN: 1090-3941
CID: 4876762

Obesity does not influence acetabular component accuracy when using a 3D optical computer navigation system

Sharan, Mohamad; Tang, Alex; Schoof, Lauren; Gaukhman, Alexander; Meftah, Morteza; Sculco, Peter; Schwarzkopf, Ran
Introduction/UNASSIGNED:Improper cup positioning and leg length discrepancy (LLD) are two of the most common errors following total hip arthroplasty (THA) and are associated with potentially significant consequences. Obesity is associated with increased risk of mechanical complications, including dislocations, which may be secondary to cup malposition and failure to restore leg length and offset. 3D Optical Camera computerassisted navigation (CAN) system may reduce the risk of component malposition and LLD with real time intraoperative feedback. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of CAN influences acetabular component placement (CP) accuracy and leg length restoration in obese (body mass index(BMI)≥35kg/m 2 ) patients undergoing primary THA. Methods/UNASSIGNED:A multi-center retrospective review was conducted identifying consecutive THA cases with BMI > 35kg/m 2 using CAN (Intellijoint Hip, Waterloo, CA) from 2015-2019. These patients were then matched with patients undergoing conventional THA (control) at a 1:1 ratio according to BMI, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, and gender. TraumaCad™ software (Brainlab, Chicago, IL) was used to measure cup anteversion, inclination, and change (Δ) in LLD between pre- and postoperative radiographic images. The safety target zones used as reference for precision analysis of CP were 15°-30° for anteversion and 30°-50° for inclination. Results/UNASSIGNED:176 patients were included: 88 CAN and 88 control cases. CAN cases were found to have a lower ΔLLD than controls (3.53±2.12mm vs. 5.00±4.05mm; p=0.003). Additionally, more CAN cases fell within the target safe zone than controls (83% vs.60%, p=0.00083). Conclusion/UNASSIGNED:Our findings suggest that the use of a CAN system may be more precise in component placement, and useful in facilitating the successful restoration of preoperative leg length following THA than conventional methodology.
PMID: 33717895
ISSN: 0976-5662
CID: 4817352

Impact of Preoperative Opioid Use on Patient Outcomes Following Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty

Singh, Vivek; Kugelman, David N; Rozell, Joshua C; Meftah, Morteza; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Davidovitch, Roy I
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether preoperative opioid use had any effect on clinical outcomes and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) before and after primary, elective total hip arthroplasty (THA). The authors retrospectively reviewed 793 patients who underwent primary THA from November 2018 to March 2020 with available PROMs. Patients were stratified into two groups based on whether or not they were taking opioids preoperatively. Demographics, clinical data, and PROMs (Forgotten Joint Score-12 [FJS-12], Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score for Joint Replacement [HOOS, JR], and Veterans RAND 12 [VR-12] Physical Component Score [PCS] and Mental Component Score [MCS]) were collected at various time periods. Demographic differences were assessed with chi-square and independent sample t tests. Clinical data and PROMs were compared using multilinear regressions. Seventy-five (10%) patients were preoperative opioid users and 718 (90%) were not. Preoperative opioid users had a longer stay (1.37 vs 1.07 days; P=.030), a longer surgical time (102.44 vs 90.20 minutes; P=.001), and higher all-cause postoperative emergency department visits (6.7% vs 2.1%; P=.033) compared with patients not taking opioids preoperatively. Preoperative HOOS, JR (46.63 vs 51.26; P=.009), VR-12 PCS (27.79 vs 31.53; P<.001), and VR-12 MCS (46.24 vs 49.33; P=.044) were significantly lower for preoperative opioid users, but 3-month and 1-year postoperative scores were not statistically different. At 3 months and 1 year, FJS-12 scores did not differ significantly. Mean improvement preoperatively to 1 year in HOOS, JR values exceeded the minimal clinically important difference, with preoperative opioid users experiencing a greater improvement (36.50 vs 33.11; P=.008). Preoperative opioid users had a longer stay, a longer surgical time, and higher all-cause emergency department visits compared with preoperatively opioid naïve patients. Although preoperative opioid users reported significantly lower preoperative PROMs, they did not statistically differ postoperatively, which indicates a larger delta improvement and similar benefits following THA. [Orthopedics. 2021;44(2):77-84.].
PMID: 34038695
ISSN: 1938-2367
CID: 4887952