Editorial for "Magnetic Resonance Imaging as an Alternative to Contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomography to Mitigate Iodinated Contrast Shortages in the United States: Recommendations From the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine" [Editorial]
Estimation of the capillary level input function for dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of the breast using a deep learning approach
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To develop a deep learning approach to estimate the local capillary-level input function (CIF) for pharmacokinetic model analysis of DCE-MRI. METHODS:A deep convolutional network was trained with numerically simulated data to estimate the CIF. The trained network was tested using simulated lesion data and used to estimate voxel-wise CIF for pharmacokinetic model analysis of breast DCE-MRI data using an abbreviated protocol from women with malignant (n = 25) and benign (n = 28) lesions. The estimated parameters were used to build a logistic regression model to detect the malignancy. RESULT/RESULTS:The pharmacokinetic parameters estimated using the network-predicted CIF from our breast DCE data showed significant differences between the malignant and benign groups for all parameters. Testing the diagnostic performance with the estimated parameters, the conventional approach with arterial input function (AIF) showed an area under the curve (AUC) between 0.76 and 0.87, and the proposed approach with CIF demonstrated similar performance with an AUC between 0.79 and 0.81. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:This study shows the feasibility of estimating voxel-wise CIF using a deep neural network. The proposed approach could eliminate the need to measure AIF manually without compromising the diagnostic performance to detect the malignancy in the clinical setting.
Response to Letter to JACR regarding recently released ACR Appropriateness Criteria Supplemental Breast Cancer Screening [Letter]
ACR Appropriateness CriteriaÂ® Imaging of the Axilla
This publication reviews the current evidence supporting the imaging approach of the axilla in various scenarios with broad differential diagnosis ranging from inflammatory to malignant etiologies. Controversies on the management of axillary adenopathy results in disagreement on the appropriate axillary imaging tests. Ultrasound is often the appropriate initial imaging test in several clinical scenarios. Clinical information (such as age, physical examinations, risk factors) and concurrent complete breast evaluation with mammogram, tomosynthesis, or MRI impact the type of initial imaging test for the axilla. Several impactful clinical trials demonstrated that selected patient's population can received sentinel lymph node biopsy instead of axillary lymph node dissection with similar overall survival, and axillary lymph node dissection is a safe alternative as the nodal staging procedure for clinically node negative patients or even for some node positive patients with limited nodal tumor burden. This approach is not universally accepted, which adversely affect the type of imaging tests considered appropriate for axilla. This document is focused on the initial imaging of the axilla in various scenarios, with the understanding that concurrent or subsequent additional tests may also be performed for the breast. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.
Differences between human and machine perception in medical diagnosis
Deep neural networks (DNNs) show promise in image-based medical diagnosis, but cannot be fully trusted since they can fail for reasons unrelated to underlying pathology. Humans are less likely to make such superficial mistakes, since they use features that are grounded on medical science. It is therefore important to know whether DNNs use different features than humans. Towards this end, we propose a framework for comparing human and machine perception in medical diagnosis. We frame the comparison in terms of perturbation robustness, and mitigate Simpson's paradox by performing a subgroup analysis. The framework is demonstrated with a case study in breast cancer screening, where we separately analyze microcalcifications and soft tissue lesions. While it is inconclusive whether humans and DNNs use different features to detect microcalcifications, we find that for soft tissue lesions, DNNs rely on high frequency components ignored by radiologists. Moreover, these features are located outside of the region of the images found most suspicious by radiologists. This difference between humans and machines was only visible through subgroup analysis, which highlights the importance of incorporating medical domain knowledge into the comparison.
Follow-up of COVID-19 Vaccine-related Axillary Lymphadenopathy before 12 weeks is Unnecessary [Comment]
Advances in Abbreviated Breast MRI and Ultrafast Imaging
Abbreviated breast MRI is an emerging technique that is being incorporated into clinical practice for breast cancer imaging and screening. Conventional breast MRI includes barriers such as high examination cost and lengthy examination times which make its use in the screening setting challenging. Abbreviated MRI aims to address these pitfalls by reducing overall examination time and increasing accessibility to MRI while preserving diagnostic accuracy. Sequences selected for abbreviated MRI protocols allow for preserved accuracy in breast cancer detection and characterization. Novel techniques such as ultrafast imaging are being used to provide kinetic information from early post-contrast imaging.
Axillary Adenopathy after COVID-19 Vaccine: No Reason to Delay Screening Mammogram
The Economic Impact of AI on Breast Imaging
Reducing False-Positive Biopsies using Deep Neural Networks that Utilize both Local and Global Image Context of Screening Mammograms
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, and hundreds of thousands of unnecessary biopsies are done around the world at a tremendous cost. It is crucial to reduce the rate of biopsies that turn out to be benign tissue. In this study, we build deep neural networks (DNNs) to classify biopsied lesions as being either malignant or benign, with the goal of using these networks as second readers serving radiologists to further reduce the number of false-positive findings. We enhance the performance of DNNs that are trained to learn from small image patches by integrating global context provided in the form of saliency maps learned from the entire image into their reasoning, similar to how radiologists consider global context when evaluating areas of interest. Our experiments are conducted on a dataset of 229,426 screening mammography examinations from 141,473 patients. We achieve an AUC of 0.8 on a test set consisting of 464 benign and 136 malignant lesions.