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Association between visit frequency, continuity of care, and pharmacy fill adherence in heart failure patients

Hamo, Carine E; Mukhopadhyay, Amrita; Li, Xiyue; Zheng, Yaguang; Kronish, Ian M; Chunara, Rumi; Dodson, John; Adhikari, Samrachana; Blecker, Saul
BACKGROUND:Despite advances in medical therapy for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), major gaps in medication adherence to guideline-directed medical therapies (GDMT) remain. Greater continuity of care may impact medication adherence and reduced hospitalizations. METHODS:We conducted a cross-sectional study of adults with a diagnosis of HF and EF ≤40% with ≥2 outpatient encounters between January 1, 2017 and January 10, 2021, prescribed ≥1 of the following GDMT: 1) Beta Blocker, 2) Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor/Angiotensin Receptor Blocker/Angiotensin Receptor Neprilysin Inhibitor, 3) Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonist, 4) Sodium Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitor. Continuity of care was calculated using the Bice-Boxerman Continuity of Care Index (COC) and the Usual Provider of Care (UPC) index, categorized by quantile. The primary outcome was adherence to GDMT, defined as average proportion of days covered ≥80% over 1 year. Secondary outcomes included all-cause and HF hospitalization at 1-year. We performed multivariable logistic regression analyses adjusted for demographics, insurance status, comorbidity index, number of visits and neighborhood SES index. RESULTS:Overall, 3,971 individuals were included (mean age 72 years (SD 14), 71% male, 66% White race). In adjusted analyses, compared to individuals in the highest COC quartile, individuals in the third COC quartile had higher odds of GDMT adherence (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.03-1.53, P = .024). UPC tertile was not associated with adherence (all P > .05). Compared to the highest quantiles, the lowest UPC and COC quantiles had higher odds of all-cause (UPC: OR 1.53, 95%CI 1.23-1.91; COC: OR 2.54, 95%CI 1.94-3.34) and HF (UPC: OR 1.81, 95%CI 1.23-2.67; COC: OR 1.77, 95%CI 1.09-2.95) hospitalizations. CONCLUSIONS:Continuity of care was not associated with GDMT adherence among patients with HFrEF but lower continuity of care was associated with increased all-cause and HF-hospitalizations.
PMID: 38621576
ISSN: 1097-6744
CID: 5657402

Impact of Visit Volume on the Effectiveness of Electronic Tools to Improve Heart Failure Care

Mukhopadhyay, Amrita; Reynolds, Harmony R; King, William C; Phillips, Lawrence M; Nagler, Arielle R; Szerencsy, Adam; Saxena, Archana; Klapheke, Nathan; Katz, Stuart D; Horwitz, Leora I; Blecker, Saul
BACKGROUND:Electronic health record (EHR) tools can improve prescribing of guideline-recommended therapies for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), but their effectiveness may vary by physician workload. OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:This paper aims to assess whether physician workload modifies the effectiveness of EHR tools for HFrEF. METHODS:This was a prespecified subgroup analysis of the BETTER CARE-HF (Building Electronic Tools to Enhance and Reinforce Cardiovascular Recommendations for Heart Failure) cluster-randomized trial, which compared effectiveness of an alert vs message vs usual care on prescribing of mineralocorticoid antagonists (MRAs). The trial included adults with HFrEF seen in cardiology offices who were eligible for and not prescribed MRAs. Visit volume was defined at the cardiologist-level as number of visits per 6-month study period (high = upper tertile vs non-high = remaining). Analysis at the patient-level used likelihood ratio test for interaction with log-binomial models. RESULTS:Among 2,211 patients seen by 174 cardiologists, 932 (42.2%) were seen by high-volume cardiologists (median: 1,853; Q1-Q3: 1,637-2,225 visits/6 mo; and median: 10; Q1-Q3: 9-12 visits/half-day). MRA was prescribed to 5.5% in the high-volume vs 14.8% in the non-high-volume groups in the usual care arm, 10.3% vs 19.6% in the message arm, and 31.2% vs 28.2% in the alert arm, respectively. Visit volume modified treatment effect (P for interaction = 0.02) such that the alert was more effective in the high-volume group (relative risk: 5.16; 95% CI: 2.57-10.4) than the non-high-volume group (relative risk: 1.93; 95% CI: 1.29-2.90). CONCLUSIONS:An EHR-embedded alert increased prescribing by >5-fold among patients seen by high-volume cardiologists. Our findings support use of EHR alerts, especially in busy practice settings. (Building Electronic Tools to Enhance and Reinforce Cardiovascular Recommendations for Heart Failure [BETTER CARE-HF]; NCT05275920).
PMID: 38043045
ISSN: 2213-1787
CID: 5597482

Neighborhood-Level Socioeconomic Status and Prescription Fill Patterns Among Patients With Heart Failure

Mukhopadhyay, Amrita; Blecker, Saul; Li, Xiyue; Kronish, Ian M; Chunara, Rumi; Zheng, Yaguang; Lawrence, Steven; Dodson, John A; Kozloff, Sam; Adhikari, Samrachana
IMPORTANCE/UNASSIGNED:Medication nonadherence is common among patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and can lead to increased hospitalization and mortality. Patients living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas may be at greater risk for medication nonadherence due to barriers such as lower access to transportation or pharmacies. OBJECTIVE/UNASSIGNED:To examine the association between neighborhood-level socioeconomic status (nSES) and medication nonadherence among patients with HFrEF and to assess the mediating roles of access to transportation, walkability, and pharmacy density. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS/UNASSIGNED:This retrospective cohort study was conducted between June 30, 2020, and December 31, 2021, at a large health system based primarily in New York City and surrounding areas. Adult patients with a diagnosis of HF, reduced EF on echocardiogram, and a prescription of at least 1 guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) for HFrEF were included. EXPOSURE/UNASSIGNED:Patient addresses were geocoded, and nSES was calculated using the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality SES index, which combines census-tract level measures of poverty, rent burden, unemployment, crowding, home value, and education, with higher values indicating higher nSES. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES/UNASSIGNED:Medication nonadherence was obtained through linkage of health record prescription data with pharmacy fill data and was defined as proportion of days covered (PDC) of less than 80% over 6 months, averaged across GDMT medications. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:Among 6247 patients, the mean (SD) age was 73 (14) years, and majority were male (4340 [69.5%]). There were 1011 (16.2%) Black participants, 735 (11.8%) Hispanic/Latinx participants, and 3929 (62.9%) White participants. Patients in lower nSES areas had higher rates of nonadherence, ranging from 51.7% in the lowest quartile (731 of 1086 participants) to 40.0% in the highest quartile (563 of 1086 participants) (P < .001). In adjusted analysis, patients living in the lower 2 nSES quartiles had significantly higher odds of nonadherence when compared with patients living in the highest nSES quartile (quartile 1: odds ratio [OR], 1.57 [95% CI, 1.35-1.83]; quartile 2: OR, 1.35 [95% CI, 1.16-1.56]). No mediation by access to transportation and pharmacy density was found, but a small amount of mediation by neighborhood walkability was observed. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE/UNASSIGNED:In this retrospective cohort study of patients with HFrEF, living in a lower nSES area was associated with higher rates of GDMT nonadherence. These findings highlight the importance of considering neighborhood-level disparities when developing approaches to improve medication adherence.
PMID: 38095897
ISSN: 2574-3805
CID: 5589372

Cluster-Randomized Trial Comparing Ambulatory Decision Support Tools to Improve Heart Failure Care

Mukhopadhyay, Amrita; Reynolds, Harmony R; Phillips, Lawrence M; Nagler, Arielle R; King, William C; Szerencsy, Adam; Saxena, Archana; Aminian, Rod; Klapheke, Nathan; Horwitz, Leora I; Katz, Stuart D; Blecker, Saul
BACKGROUND:Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRA) are under-prescribed for patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). OBJECTIVE:To compare effectiveness of two automated, electronic health record (EHR)-embedded tools vs. usual care on MRA prescribing in eligible patients with HFrEF. METHODS:BETTER CARE-HF (Building Electronic Tools To Enhance and Reinforce CArdiovascular REcommendations for Heart Failure) was a three-arm, pragmatic, cluster-randomized trial comparing the effectiveness of an alert during individual patient encounters vs. a message about multiple patients between encounters vs. usual care on MRA prescribing. We included adult patients with HFrEF, no active MRA prescription, no contraindication to MRA, and an outpatient cardiologist in a large health system. Patients were cluster-randomized by cardiologist (60 per arm). RESULTS:The study included 2,211 patients (alert: 755, message: 812, usual care [control]: 644), with average age 72.2 years, average EF 33%, who were predominantly male (71.4%) and White (68.9%). New MRA prescribing occurred in 29.6% of patients in the alert arm, 15.6% in the message arm, and 11.7% in the control arm. The alert more than doubled MRA prescribing compared to control (RR: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.77-3.62, p<0.0001), and improved MRA prescribing compared to the message (RR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.21-2.29, p=0.002). The number of patients with alert needed to result in an additional MRA prescription was 5.6. CONCLUSIONS:An automated, patient-specific, EHR-embedded alert increased MRA prescribing compared to both a message and usual care. Our findings highlight the potential for EHR-embedded tools to substantially increase prescription of life-saving therapies for HFrEF. (NCT05275920).
PMID: 36882134
ISSN: 1558-3597
CID: 5430312

Physician preferences for revascularization in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy: Defining equipoise from web-based surveys

Mukhopadhyay, Amrita; Spertus, John; Bangalore, Sripal; Zhang, Yan; Tarpey, Thaddeus; Hochman, Judith; Katz, Stuart
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:The optimal revascularization approach in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and ischemic heart disease ("ischemic cardiomyopathy") is unknown. Physician preferences regarding clinical equipoise for mode of revascularization and their willingness to consider offering enrollment in a randomized trial to patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy have not been characterized. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:We conducted two anonymous online surveys: 1) a clinical case scenario-based survey to assess willingness to offer clinical trial enrollment for a patient with ischemic cardiomyopathy (overall response rate to email invitation 0.45 %), and 2) a Delphi consensus-building survey to identify specific areas of clinical equipoise (overall response rate to email invitation 37 %). RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:< 0.0001). In 17 scenarios (11.8 %), there was no difference in CABG or PCI appropriateness ratings, suggesting clinical equipoise in these settings. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:Our findings demonstrate willingness to consider offering enrollment in a randomized clinical trial and areas of clinical equipoise, two factors that support the feasibility of a randomized trial to compare clinical outcomes after revascularization with CABG vs. PCI in selected patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy, suitable coronary anatomy and co-morbidity profile.
PMID: 36844107
ISSN: 2666-6022
CID: 5430302

Design and pilot implementation for the BETTER CARE-HF trial: A pragmatic cluster-randomized controlled trial comparing two targeted approaches to ambulatory clinical decision support for cardiologists

Mukhopadhyay, Amrita; Reynolds, Harmony R; Xia, Yuhe; Phillips, Lawrence M; Aminian, Rod; Diah, Ruth-Ann; Nagler, Arielle R; Szerencsy, Adam; Saxena, Archana; Horwitz, Leora I; Katz, Stuart D; Blecker, Saul
BACKGROUND:Beart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. However, shortfalls in prescribing of proven therapies, particularly mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA) therapy, account for several thousand preventable deaths per year nationwide. Electronic clinical decision support (CDS) is a potential low-cost and scalable solution to improve prescribing of therapies. However, the optimal timing and format of CDS tools is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS/RESULTS:We developed two targeted CDS tools to inform cardiologists of gaps in MRA therapy for patients with HFrEF and without contraindication to MRA therapy: (1) an alert that notifies cardiologists at the time of patient visit, and (2) an automated electronic message that allows for review between visits. We designed these tools using an established CDS framework and findings from semistructured interviews with cardiologists. We then pilot tested both CDS tools (n = 596 patients) and further enhanced them based on additional semistructured interviews (n = 11 cardiologists). The message was modified to reduce the number of patients listed, include future visits, and list date of next visit. The alert was modified to improve noticeability, reduce extraneous information on guidelines, and include key information on contraindications. CONCLUSIONS:The BETTER CARE-HF (Building Electronic Tools to Enhance and Reinforce CArdiovascular REcommendations for Heart Failure) trial aims to compare the effectiveness of the alert vs. the automated message vs. usual care on the primary outcome of MRA prescribing. To our knowledge, no study has directly compared the efficacy of these two different types of electronic CDS interventions. If effective, our findings can be rapidly disseminated to improve morbidity and mortality for patients with HFrEF, and can also inform the development of future CDS interventions for other disease states. (Trial registration: NCT05275920).
PMID: 36640860
ISSN: 1097-6744
CID: 5403312

Association Between Copayment Amount and Filling of Medications for Angiotensin Receptor Neprilysin Inhibitors in Patients With Heart Failure

Mukhopadhyay, Amrita; Adhikari, Samrachana; Li, Xiyue; Dodson, John A; Kronish, Ian M; Shah, Binita; Ramatowski, Maggie; Chunara, Rumi; Kozloff, Sam; Blecker, Saul
Background Angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitors (ARNI) reduce mortality and hospitalization for patients with heart failure. However, relatively high copayments for ARNI may contribute to suboptimal adherence, thus potentially limiting their benefits. Methods and Results We conducted a retrospective cohort study within a large, multi-site health system. We included patients with: ARNI prescription between November 20, 2020 and June 30, 2021; diagnosis of heart failure or left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40%; and available pharmacy or pharmacy benefit manager copayment data. The primary exposure was copayment, categorized as $0, $0.01 to $10, $10.01 to $100, and >$100. The primary outcome was prescription fill nonadherence, defined as the proportion of days covered <80% over 6 months. We assessed the association between copayment and nonadherence using multivariable logistic regression, and nonbinarized proportion of days covered using multivariable Poisson regression, adjusting for demographic, clinical, and neighborhood-level covariates. A total of 921 patients met inclusion criteria, with 192 (20.8%) having $0 copayment, 228 (24.8%) with $0.01 to $10 copayment, 206 (22.4%) with $10.01 to $100, and 295 (32.0%) with >$100. Patients with higher copayments had higher rates of nonadherence, ranging from 17.2% for $0 copayment to 34.2% for copayment >$100 (P<0.001). After multivariable adjustment, odds of nonadherence were significantly higher for copayment of $10.01 to $100 (odds ratio [OR], 1.93 [95% CI, 1.15-3.27], P=0.01) or >$100 (OR, 2.58 [95% CI, 1.63-4.18], P<0.001), as compared with $0 copayment. Similar associations were seen when assessing proportion of days covered as a proportion. Conclusions We found higher rates of not filling ARNI prescriptions among patients with higher copayments, which persisted after multivariable adjustment. Our findings support future studies to assess whether reducing copayments can increase adherence to ARNI and improve outcomes for heart failure.
PMID: 36453634
ISSN: 2047-9980
CID: 5374072

Sex differences in the prognostic value of troponin and D-dimer in COVID-19 illness

Mukhopadhyay, Amrita; Talmor, Nina; Xia, Yuhe; Berger, Jeffrey S; Iturrate, Eduardo; Adhikari, Samrachana; Pulgarin, Claudia; Quinones-Camacho, Adriana; Yuriditsky, Eugene; Horowitz, James; Jung, Albert S; Massera, Daniele; Keller, Norma M; Fishman, Glenn I; Horwitz, Leora; Troxel, Andrea B; Hochman, Judith S; Reynolds, Harmony R
BACKGROUND:Male sex, elevated troponin levels, and elevated D-dimer levels are associated with more complicated COVID-19 illness and greater mortality; however, while there are known sex differences in the prognostic value of troponin and D-dimer in other disease states, it is unknown whether they exist in the setting of COVID-19. OBJECTIVE:We assessed whether sex modified the relationship between troponin, D-dimer, and severe COVID-19 illness (defined as mechanical ventilation, ICU admission or transfer, discharge to hospice, or death). METHODS:We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 at a large, academic health system. We used multivariable regression to assess associations between sex, troponin, D-dimer, and severe COVID-19 illness, adjusting for demographic, clinical, and laboratory covariates. To test whether sex modified the relationship between severe COVID-19 illness and troponin or D-dimer, models with interaction terms were utilized. RESULTS:Among 4,574 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, male sex was associated with higher levels of troponin and greater odds of severe COVID-19 illness, but lower levels of initial D-dimer when compared with female sex. While sex did not modify the relationship between troponin level and severe COVID-19 illness, peak D-dimer level was more strongly associated with severe COVID-19 illness in male patients compared to female patients (males: OR=2.91, 95%CI=2.63-2.34, p<0.001; females: OR=2.31, 95%CI=2.04-2.63, p<0.001; p-interaction=0.005). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Sex did not modify the association between troponin level and severe COVID-19 illness, but did modify the association between peak D-dimer and severe COVID-19 illness, suggesting greater prognostic value for D-dimer in males with COVID-19.
PMID: 36334466
ISSN: 1527-3288
CID: 5358922

Missed opportunities in medical therapy for patients with heart failure in an electronically-identified cohort

Mukhopadhyay, Amrita; Reynolds, Harmony R; Nagler, Arielle R; Phillips, Lawrence M; Horwitz, Leora I; Katz, Stuart D; Blecker, Saul
BACKGROUND:National registries reveal significant gaps in medical therapy for patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), but may not accurately (or fully) characterize the population eligible for therapy. OBJECTIVE:We developed an automated, electronic health record-based algorithm to identify HFrEF patients eligible for evidence-based therapy, and extracted treatment data to assess gaps in therapy in a large, diverse health system. METHODS:In this cross-sectional study of all NYU Langone Health outpatients with EF ≤ 40% on echocardiogram and an outpatient visit from 3/1/2019 to 2/29/2020, we assessed prescription of the following therapies: beta-blocker (BB), angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I)/angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB)/angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI), and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA). Our algorithm accounted for contraindications such as medication allergy, bradycardia, hypotension, renal dysfunction, and hyperkalemia. RESULTS:We electronically identified 2732 patients meeting inclusion criteria. Among those eligible for each medication class, 84.8% and 79.7% were appropriately prescribed BB and ACE-I/ARB/ARNI, respectively, while only 23.9% and 22.7% were appropriately prescribed MRA and ARNI, respectively. In adjusted models, younger age, cardiology visit and lower EF were associated with increased prescribing of medications. Private insurance and Medicaid were associated with increased prescribing of ARNI (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.02-2.00; and OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.07-2.67). CONCLUSIONS:We observed substantial shortfalls in prescribing of MRA and ARNI therapy to ambulatory HFrEF patients. Subspecialty care setting, and Medicaid insurance were associated with higher rates of ARNI prescribing. Further studies are warranted to prospectively evaluate provider- and policy-level interventions to improve prescribing of these evidence-based therapies.
PMID: 35927632
ISSN: 1471-2261
CID: 5285842

Sex and Race Differences in the Evaluation and Treatment of Young Adults Presenting to the Emergency Department With Chest Pain

Banco, Darcy; Chang, Jerway; Talmor, Nina; Wadhera, Priya; Mukhopadhyay, Amrita; Lu, Xinlin; Dong, Siyuan; Lu, Yukun; Betensky, Rebecca A; Blecker, Saul; Safdar, Basmah; Reynolds, Harmony R
Background Acute myocardial infarctions are increasingly common among young adults. We investigated sex and racial differences in the evaluation of chest pain (CP) among young adults presenting to the emergency department. Methods and Results Emergency department visits for adults aged 18 to 55 years presenting with CP were identified in the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey 2014 to 2018, which uses stratified sampling to produce national estimates. We evaluated associations between sex, race, and CP management before and after multivariable adjustment. We identified 4152 records representing 29 730 145 visits for CP among young adults. Women were less likely than men to be triaged as emergent (19.1% versus 23.3%, respectively, P<0.001), to undergo electrocardiography (74.2% versus 78.8%, respectively, P=0.024), or to be admitted to the hospital or observation unit (12.4% versus 17.9%, respectively, P<0.001), but ordering of cardiac biomarkers was similar. After multivariable adjustment, men were seen more quickly (hazard ratio [HR], 1.15 [95% CI, 1.05-1.26]) and were more likely to be admitted (adjusted odds ratio, 1.40 [95% CI, 1.08-1.81]; P=0.011). People of color waited longer for physician evaluation (HR, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.73-0.93]; P<0.001) than White adults after multivariable adjustment, but there were no racial differences in hospital admission, triage level, electrocardiography, or cardiac biomarker testing. Acute myocardial infarction was diagnosed in 1.4% of adults in the emergency department and 6.5% of admitted adults. Conclusions Women and people of color with CP waited longer to be seen by physicians, independent of clinical features. Women were independently less likely to be admitted when presenting with CP. These differences could impact downstream treatment and outcomes.
PMID: 35506534
ISSN: 2047-9980
CID: 5216162