Telemedicine during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Hand Surgery Perspective
Musculoskeletal Ultrasonography of the Extremities: Clinical and Ultrasonographic Correlation
Ultrasonography as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool has become a resource for musculoskeletal injuries. It can be a useful imaging modality for clinical correlation of physical examination findings as well as an aid for image-guided procedures. Understanding the settings in which it is a helpful adjunct will have implications on efficiency and cost utility. The objectives of this chapter are to provide a background of ultrasonography as a musculoskeletal imaging modality, provide clinical correlation for ultrasonographic findings for common upper extremity pathology, review the diagnostic efficacy of ultrasonography for image-guided procedures, and provide insight into the cost utility of ultrasonography guidance for therapeutic injections.
Tourniquet Use for Short Hand Surgery Procedures Done Under Local Anesthesia Without Epinephrine
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Wide-awake local anesthesia no tourniquet (WALANT) is an increasingly popular surgical technique. However, owing to surgeon preference, patient factors, or hospital guidelines, it may not be feasible to inject patients with solutions containing epinephrine the recommended 25 minutes prior to incision. The purpose of this study was to assess pain and patient experience after short hand surgeries done under local anesthesia using a tourniquet rather than epinephrine for hemostasis. METHODS:Ninety-six consecutive patients undergoing short hand procedures using only local anesthesia and a tourniquet (LA-T) were assessed before and after surgery. A high arm pneumatic tourniquet was used in 73 patients and a forearm pneumatic tourniquet was used in 23. All patients received a local, unbuffered plain lidocaine injection. No patients received sedation. Pain related to local anesthesia, pneumatic tourniquet, and the procedure was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS). Patient experience was assessed using a study-specific questionnaire based on previous WALANT studies. Tourniquet times were recorded. RESULTS:Mean pain related to anesthetic injection was rated 3.9 out of 10. Mean tourniquet related pain was 2.9 out of 10 for high arm pneumatic tourniquets and 2.3 out of 10 for forearm pneumatic tourniquets. Patients rated their experience with LA-T favorably and 95 of 96 patients (99%) reported that they would choose LA-T again for an equivalent procedure. Mean tourniquet time was 9.6 minutes and only 1 patient had a tourniquet inflated for more than 20 minutes. Tourniquet times less than 10 minutes were associated with less pain than tourniquet times greater than 10 minutes (P < .05); however, both groups reported the tourniquet to be on average less painful than the local anesthetic injection. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Short wide-awake procedures using a tourniquet are feasible and well accepted. Local anesthetic injection was reported to be more painful than pneumatic tourniquet use. Tourniquets for short wide-awake procedures can be used in settings in which preprocedure epinephrine injections are logistically difficult or based on surgeon preference. TYPE OF STUDY/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Therapeutic IV.
Outcomes of dorsal plating for selected distal radius fractures
To determine the functional outcome and complications following dorsal plating for unstable fractures of the distal radius. We searched our IRB-approved Distal Radius Fracture Databases and identified all patients who were treated with a dorsally applied plate. Thirty-four distal radius fractures in 33 patients with a mean age of 50 years and average follow-up of 14 months were treated with a dorsal locking plate from 2007 to 2015. Fifteen and six patients had dorsal shearing fracture pattern and delayed presentation, respectively. There were no loss of reduction, malunion, or nonunion. Average VAS pain score was 2.1/10. Eight patients (23%) required hardware removal, one of which was due to extensor tendon rupture (3%) and five due to extensor tendon irritation (15%). Dorsal locked plating of distal radius fractures with newer low-profile implants is a viable option for particular fractures types, such as the dorsal rim shear type fractures.
Postsurgical Rehabilitation of Flexor Tendon Injuries
Rehabilitation after surgical repair of flexor injuries is a controversial topic. Motion at the repair site decreases risk for adhesions but increases risk for rupture. We review the current concepts behind various rehabilitation protocols based on zone of injury and the evidence behind each.
Assessment of Pronator Quadratus Repair Integrity Using Dynamic Ultrasonography Following Volar Plate Fixation for Distal Radius Fractures
BACKGROUND:Previous work evaluating the pronator quadratus (PQ) muscle following volar plate fixation (VPF) of distal radius fractures (DRF) suggests that PQ repair often fails in the postoperative period. The purpose of this investigation was to assess PQ repair integrity following VPF of DRF using dynamic musculoskeletal ultrasonography. METHODS:Twenty adult patients who underwent VPF of DRF with repair of the PQ with a minimum follow-up of 3 months underwent bilateral dynamic wrist ultrasonography. The integrity of the PQ repair, wrist range of motion (ROM) and strength, and functional outcome scores were assessed. RESULTS:Mean patient age at the time of surgery was 59 Â± 14 years, and 50% underwent VPF of their dominant wrist. Patients were evaluated at a mean 9 Â± 4 months after VPF. All patients had an intact PQ repair. The volar plate was completely covered by the PQ in 55% of patients and was associated with a larger PQ when compared to patients with an incompletely covered volar plate ( P = .026). The flexor pollicis longus tendon was in contact with the volar plate in 20% of patients, with those patients demonstrating a trend toward significantly increased wrist flexion ( P = .053). No difference in ROM, strength, or outcome scores was noted among wrists with completely or incompletely covered volar plates. CONCLUSIONS:The PQ demonstrates substantial durability after repair following VPF. Wrist ROM, strength, and functional outcomes are similar in wrists in which the volar plate is completely or incompletely covered by the repaired PQ.
Open surgical elbow contracture release after trauma: results and recommendations
BACKGROUND:Post-traumatic elbow contracture is a debilitating complication after elbow trauma. The purpose of this study was to characterize the affected patient population, operative management, and outcomes after operative elbow contracture release for treatment of post-traumatic elbow contracture. METHODS:A retrospective record review was conducted to identify all patients who underwent post-traumatic elbow contracture release performed by 1 of 3 surgeons at one academic medical center. Patient demographics, injuries, operative details, outcomes, and complications were recorded. RESULTS:The study included 103 patients who met inclusion criteria. At the time of contracture release, patients were a mean age of 45.2â€‰Â±â€‰15.6 years. Contracture release resulted in a significant mean increase to elbow extension/flexion arc of motion of 52Â°â€‰Â±â€‰18Â° (Pâ€‰<â€‰.0005). Not including recurrence of contracture, a subsequent complication occurred in 10 patients (10%). Radiographic recurrence of heterotopic ossification (HO) occurred in 14 patients (14%) after release. Ten patients (11%) elected to undergo a secondary operation to gain more motion. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Soft tissue and bony elbow contracture release is effective. Patients with post-traumatic elbow contracture can make significant gains to their arc of motion after contracture release surgery and can expect to recover a functional elbow arc of motion. Patients with severe preoperative contracture may benefit from concomitant ulnar nerve decompression. HO prophylaxis did not affect the rate of HO recurrence or ultimate elbow range of motion. However, patients must be counseled that contracture may reoccur, and some patients may require or elect to have more than one procedure to achieve functional motion.
Scaphoid nonunions are challenging injuries to manage and the optimal treatment algorithm continues to be debated. Most scaphoid fractures heal when appropriately treated; however, when nonunions occur, they require acute treatment to prevent future complications like scaphoid nonunion advanced collapse. Acute nonunion treatment technique depends on nonunion location, vascular status of the proximal pole, fracture malalignment, and pre-existing evidence of arthrosis. Bone grafting and vascular grafts are common in nonunion management. Chronic nonunions that have progressed to scaphoid nonunion advanced collapse often require a salvage procedure such as four corner fusions, proximal row carpectomy, or wrist fusion. Herein, we review the current literature regarding scaphoid nonunions with regards to their anatomy, natural history, classification, diagnostic imaging, surgical management, and clinical outcomes.
Perilunate Injuries and Dislocations Etiology, Diagnosis, and Management
Perilunate injuries most commonly occur in high energy trauma situations; however, they are rare and frequently missed. Familiarity with the complex bony and ligamentous anatomy is required to fully understand these complex injury patterns. Careful orthogonal imaging and evaluation is required to ensure timely diagnosis of a perilunate injury. Early recognition and management of acute perilunate injuries has been demonstrated to correlate with better patient outcomes. Delayed treatment of chronic injuries can result in post-traumatic osteoarthritis and carpal collapse requiring salvage interventions. Here, we review the anatomy, basic evaluation, and management of this frequently missed injury.
Flexor Tendon Injuries
Flexor tendon injuries of the hand are uncommon, and they are among the most challenging orthopaedic injuries to manage. Proper management is essential to ensure optimal outcomes. Consistent, successful management of flexor tendon injuries relies on understanding the anatomy, characteristics and repair of tendons in the different zones, potential complications, rehabilitation protocols, recent advances in treatment, and future directions, including tissue engineering and biologic modification of the repair site.