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On Chatbots and Generative Artificial Intelligence

Oermann, Eric Karl; Kondziolka, Douglas
PMID: 36779766
ISSN: 1524-4040
CID: 5448032

A Nationwide Study Characterizing the Risk and Outcome Profiles of Multilevel Fusion Procedures in Neuromuscular Scoliosis Patients with Neurofibromatosis Type 1

Price, Gabrielle; Martini, Michael L; Caridi, John M; Lau, Darryl; Oermann, Eric K; Neifert, Sean N
BACKGROUND:Spine abnormalities are a common manifestation of Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1); however, the outcomes of surgical treatment for NF1-associated spinal deformity are not well explored. The purpose of this study was to investigate the outcome and risk profiles of multilevel fusion surgery for NF1 patients. METHODS:The National Inpatient Sample was queried for NF1 and non-NF1 patient populations with neuromuscular scoliosis who underwent multilevel fusion surgery involving eight or more vertebral levels between 2004 and 2017. Multivariate regression modeling was used to explore the relationship between perioperative variables and pertinent outcomes. RESULTS:Of the 55,485 patients with scoliosis, 533 patients (0.96%) had NF1. Patients with NF1 were more likely to have comorbid solid tumors (P < 0.0001), clinical depression (P < 0.0001), peripheral vascular disease (P < 0.0001), and hypertension (P < 0.001). Following surgery, NF1 patients had a higher incidence of hydrocephalus (0.6% vs. 1.9% P = 0.002), seizures (4.9% vs. 5.7% P = 0.006), and accidental vessel laceration (0.3% vs.1.9% P = 0.011). Although there were no differences in overall complication rates or in-hospital mortality, multivariate regression revealed NF1 patients had an increased probability of pulmonary (OR 0.5, 95%CI 0.3-0.8, P = 0.004) complications. There were no significant differences in utilization, including nonhome discharge or extended hospitalization; however, patients with NF1 had higher total hospital charges (mean -$18739, SE 3384, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS:These findings indicate that NF1 is associated with certain complications following multilevel fusion surgery but does not appear to be associated with differences in quality or cost outcomes. These results provide some guidance to surgeons and other healthcare professionals in their perioperative decision making by raising awareness about risk factors for NF1 patients undergoing multilevel fusion surgery. We intend for this study to set the national baseline for complications after multilevel fusion in the NF1 population.
PMID: 36586581
ISSN: 1878-8769
CID: 5418972

Methods and Impact for Using Federated Learning to Collaborate on Clinical Research

Cheung, Alexander T M; Nasir-Moin, Mustafa; Fred Kwon, Young Joon; Guan, Jiahui; Liu, Chris; Jiang, Lavender; Raimondo, Christian; Chotai, Silky; Chambless, Lola; Ahmad, Hasan S; Chauhan, Daksh; Yoon, Jang W; Hollon, Todd; Buch, Vivek; Kondziolka, Douglas; Chen, Dinah; Al-Aswad, Lama A; Aphinyanaphongs, Yindalon; Oermann, Eric Karl
BACKGROUND:The development of accurate machine learning algorithms requires sufficient quantities of diverse data. This poses a challenge in health care because of the sensitive and siloed nature of biomedical information. Decentralized algorithms through federated learning (FL) avoid data aggregation by instead distributing algorithms to the data before centrally updating one global model. OBJECTIVE:To establish a multicenter collaboration and assess the feasibility of using FL to train machine learning models for intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) detection without sharing data between sites. METHODS:Five neurosurgery departments across the United States collaborated to establish a federated network and train a convolutional neural network to detect ICH on computed tomography scans. The global FL model was benchmarked against a standard, centrally trained model using a held-out data set and was compared against locally trained models using site data. RESULTS:A federated network of practicing neurosurgeon scientists was successfully initiated to train a model for predicting ICH. The FL model achieved an area under the ROC curve of 0.9487 (95% CI 0.9471-0.9503) when predicting all subtypes of ICH compared with a benchmark (non-FL) area under the ROC curve of 0.9753 (95% CI 0.9742-0.9764), although performance varied by subtype. The FL model consistently achieved top three performance when validated on any site's data, suggesting improved generalizability. A qualitative survey described the experience of participants in the federated network. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrates the feasibility of implementing a federated network for multi-institutional collaboration among clinicians and using FL to conduct machine learning research, thereby opening a new paradigm for neurosurgical collaboration.
PMID: 36399428
ISSN: 1524-4040
CID: 5385002

Generating novel pituitary datasets from open-source imaging data and deep volumetric segmentation

Gologorsky, Rachel; Harake, Edward; von Oiste, Grace; Nasir-Moin, Mustafa; Couldwell, William; Oermann, Eric; Hollon, Todd
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The estimated incidence of pituitary adenomas in the general population is 10-30%, yet radiographic diagnosis remains a challenge. Diagnosis is complicated by the heterogeneity of radiographic features in both normal (e.g. complex anatomy, pregnancy) and pathologic states (e.g. primary endocrinopathy, hypophysitis). Clinical symptoms and laboratory testing are often equivocal, which can result in misdiagnosis or unnecessary specialist referrals. Computer vision models can aid in pituitary adenoma diagnosis; however, a major challenge to model development is the lack of dedicated pituitary imaging datasets. We hypothesized that deep volumetric segmentation models trained to extract the sellar and parasellar region from existing whole-brain MRI scans could be used to generate a novel dataset of pituitary imaging. METHODS:Six open-source whole-brain MRI datasets, created for research purposes, were included for model development. Deep learning-based volumetric segmentation models were trained using 318 manually annotated MRI scans from a single open-source MRI dataset. Out-of-distribution volumetric segmentation performance was then tested on 418 MRIs from five held-out research datasets. RESULTS:On our annotated images, agreement between manual and model volumetric segmentations was high. Dice scores (a measure of overlap) ranged 0.76-0.82 for both in-distribution and out-of-distribution model testing. In total, 6,755 MRIs from six data sources were included in the final generated pituitary dataset. CONCLUSIONS:We present the first and largest dataset of pituitary imaging constructed using existing MRI data and deep volumetric segmentation models trained to identify sellar and parasellar anatomy. The model generalizes well across patient populations and MRI scanner types. We hope our pituitary dataset will be an integral part of future machine learning research on pituitary pathologies.
PMID: 35943676
ISSN: 1573-7403
CID: 5286832

Robust Prediction of Non-home Discharge After Thoracolumbar Spine Surgery with Ensemble Machine Learning and Validation on a Nationwide Cohort

Valliani, Aly A; Kim, Nora C; Martini, Michael L; Gal, Jonathan S; Neifert, Sean N; Feng, Rui; Geng, Eric E; Kim, Jun S; Cho, Samuel K; Oermann, Eric K; Caridi, John M
BACKGROUND:Delays in postoperative referrals to rehabilitation or skilled nursing facilities contribute toward extended hospital stays. Facilitating more efficient referrals through accurate preoperative prediction algorithms has the potential to reduce unnecessary economic burden and minimize risk of hospital-acquired complications. We develop a robust machine learning algorithm to predict non-home discharge after thoracolumbar spine surgery that generalizes to unseen populations and identifies markers for prediction. METHODS:Retrospective electronic health records were obtained from the single-center data warehouse (SCDW) to identify patients undergoing thoracolumbar spine surgeries between 2008 and 2019 for algorithm development and internal validation. The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database was queried to identify thoracolumbar surgeries between 2009 and 2017 for out-of-sample validation. Ensemble decision trees were constructed for prediction and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was used to assess performance. SHAP values were derived to identify drivers of non-home discharge for interpretation of algorithm predictions. RESULTS:5,224 cases of thoracolumbar spine surgeries were isolated from the SCDW and 492,312 cases were identified from NIS. The model achieved an AUROCs of 0.81 (SD=0.01) on the SCDW test set and 0.77 (SD=0.01) on the nationwide NIS dataset, thereby demonstrating robust prediction of non-home discharge across all diverse patient cohorts. Age, total Elixhauser comorbidities, Medicare insurance, weighted Elixhauser score, and female gender were among the most important predictors of non-home discharge. CONCLUSIONS:Machine learning algorithms reliably predict non-home discharge after thoracolumbar spine surgery across single-center and national cohorts and identify preoperative features of importance that elucidate algorithm decision-making.
PMID: 35654334
ISSN: 1878-8769
CID: 5236162

Pragmatic Prediction of Excessive Length of Stay After Cervical Spine Surgery With Machine Learning and Validation on a National Scale

Valliani, Aly A; Feng, Rui; Martini, Michael L; Neifert, Sean N; Kim, Nora C; Gal, Jonathan S; Oermann, Eric K; Caridi, John M
BACKGROUND:Extended postoperative hospital stays are associated with numerous clinical risks and increased economic cost. Accurate preoperative prediction of extended length of stay (LOS) can facilitate targeted interventions to mitigate clinical harm and resource utilization. OBJECTIVE:To develop a machine learning algorithm aimed at predicting extended LOS after cervical spine surgery on a national level and elucidate drivers of prediction. METHODS:Electronic medical records from a large, urban academic medical center were retrospectively examined to identify patients who underwent cervical spine fusion surgeries between 2008 and 2019 for machine learning algorithm development and in-sample validation. The National Inpatient Sample database was queried to identify cervical spine fusion surgeries between 2009 and 2017 for out-of-sample validation of algorithm performance. Gradient-boosted trees predicted LOS and efficacy was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). Shapley values were calculated to characterize preoperative risk factors for extended LOS and explain algorithm predictions. RESULTS:Gradient-boosted trees accurately predicted extended LOS across cohorts, achieving an AUROC of 0.87 (SD = 0.01) on the single-center validation set and an AUROC of 0.84 (SD = 0.00) on the nationwide National Inpatient Sample data set. Anterior approach only, elective admission status, age, and total number of Elixhauser comorbidities were important predictors that affected the likelihood of prolonged LOS. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Machine learning algorithms accurately predict extended LOS across single-center and national patient cohorts and characterize key preoperative drivers of increased LOS after cervical spine surgery.
PMID: 35834322
ISSN: 1524-4040
CID: 5269342

Neurosurgical Performance in the First 2 Years of Merit-Based Incentive Payment System: A Descriptive Analysis and Predictors of Receiving Bonus Payments

Neifert, Sean N; Cho, Logan D; Gal, Jonathan S; Martini, Michael L; Shuman, William H; Chapman, Emily K; Monterey, Michael; Oermann, Eric K; Caridi, John M
BACKGROUND:The merit-based incentive payment system (MIPS) program was implemented to tie Medicare reimbursements to value-based care measures. Neurosurgical performance in MIPS has not yet been described. OBJECTIVE:To characterize neurosurgical performance in the first 2 years of MIPS. METHODS:Publicly available data regarding MIPS performance for neurosurgeons in 2017 and 2018 were queried. Descriptive statistics about physician characteristics, MIPS performance, and ensuing payment adjustments were performed, and predictors of bonus payments were identified. RESULTS:There were 2811 physicians included in 2017 and 3147 in 2018. Median total MIPS scores (99.1 vs 90.4, P < .001) and quality scores (97.9 vs 88.5, P < .001) were higher in 2018 than in 2017. More neurosurgeons (2758, 87.6%) received bonus payments in 2018 than in 2017 (2013, 71.6%). Of the 2232 neurosurgeons with scores in both years, 1347 (60.4%) improved their score. Reporting through an alternative payment model (odds ratio [OR]: 32.3, 95% CI: 16.0-65.4; P < .001) and any practice size larger than 10 (ORs ranging from 2.37 to 10.2, all P < .001) were associated with receiving bonus payments. Increasing years in practice (OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.982-0.998, P = .011) and having 25% to 49% (OR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.53-0.97; P = .029) or ≥50% (OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.28-0.82; P = .007) of a physician's patients eligible for Medicaid were associated with lower rates of bonus payments. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Neurosurgeons performed well in MIPS in 2017 and 2018, although the program may be biased against surgeons who practice in small groups or take care of socially disadvantaged patients.
PMID: 35343468
ISSN: 1524-4040
CID: 5205932

Population scale latent space cohort matching for the improved use and exploration of observational trial data

Gologorsky, Rachel; Somani, Sulaiman S; Neifert, Sean N; Valliani, Aly A; Link, Katherine E; Chen, Viola J; Costa, Anthony B; Oermann, Eric K
A significant amount of clinical research is observational by nature and derived from medical records, clinical trials, and large-scale registries. While there is no substitute for randomized, controlled experimentation, such experiments or trials are often costly, time consuming, and even ethically or practically impossible to execute. Combining classical regression and structural equation modeling with matching techniques can leverage the value of observational data. Nevertheless, identifying variables of greatest interest in high-dimensional data is frequently challenging, even with application of classical dimensionality reduction and/or propensity scoring techniques. Here, we demonstrate that projecting high-dimensional medical data onto a lower-dimensional manifold using deep autoencoders and post-hoc generation of treatment/control cohorts based on proximity in the lower-dimensional space results in better matching of confounding variables compared to classical propensity score matching (PSM) in the original high-dimensional space (P<0.0001) and performs similarly to PSM models constructed by experts with prior knowledge of the underlying pathology when evaluated on predicting risk ratios from real-world clinical data. Thus, in cases when the underlying problem is poorly understood and the data is high-dimensional in nature, matching in the autoencoder latent space might be of particular benefit.
PMID: 35730283
ISSN: 1551-0018
CID: 5278662

Post-operative vision loss: analysis of 587 patients undergoing endoscopic surgery for pituitary macroadenoma

Rutland, John W; Dullea, Jonathan T; Oermann, Eric K; Feng, Rui; Villavisanis, Dillan F; Gilja, Shivee; Shuman, William; Lander, Travis; Govindaraj, Satish; Iloreta, Alfred M C; Chelnis, James; Post, Kalmon; Bederson, Joshua B; Shrivastava, Raj K
PURPOSE/UNASSIGNED:Vision loss following surgery for pituitary adenoma is poorly described in the literature and cannot be reliably predicted with current prognostic models. Detailed characterization of this population is warranted to further understand the factors that predispose a minority of patients to post-operative vision loss. MATERIALS AND METHODS/UNASSIGNED:The medical records of 587 patients who underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery at the Mount Sinai Medical Centre between January 2013 and August 2018 were reviewed. Patients who experienced post-operative vision deterioration, defined by reduced visual acuity, worsened VFDs, or new onset of blurry vision, were identified and analysed. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:Eleven out of 587 patients who received endoscopic surgery for pituitary adenoma exhibited post-operative vision deterioration. All eleven patients presented with preoperative visual impairment (average duration of 13.1 months) and pre-operative optic chiasm compression. Seven patients experienced visual deterioration within 24 h of surgery. The remaining four patients experienced delayed vision loss within one month of surgery. Six patients had complete blindness in at least one eye, one patient had complete bilateral blindness. Four patients had reduced visual acuity compared with preoperative testing, and four patients reported new-onset blurriness that was not present before surgery. High rates of graft placement (10/11 patients) and opening of the diaphragma sellae (9/11 patients) were found in this series. Four patients had hematomas and four patients had another significant post-operative complication. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:While most patients with pituitary adenoma experience favourable ophthalmological outcomes following endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery, a subset of patients exhibit post-operative vision deterioration. The present study reports surgical and disease features of this population to further our understanding of factors that may underlie vision loss following pituitary adenoma surgery. Graft placement and opening of the diaphragma sellae may be important risk factors in vision loss following ETS and should be an area of future investigation.
PMID: 35264032
ISSN: 1360-046x
CID: 5190422

Development and Practical Implementation of a Deep Learning-Based Pipeline for Automated Pre- and Postoperative Glioma Segmentation

Lotan, E; Zhang, B; Dogra, S; Wang, W D; Carbone, D; Fatterpekar, G; Oermann, E K; Lui, Y W
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Quantitative volumetric segmentation of gliomas has important implications for diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. We present a deep-learning model that accommodates automated preoperative and postoperative glioma segmentation with a pipeline for clinical implementation. Developed and engineered in concert, the work seeks to accelerate clinical realization of such tools. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:A deep learning model, autoencoder regularization-cascaded anisotropic, was developed, trained, and tested fusing key elements of autoencoder regularization with a cascaded anisotropic convolutional neural network. We constructed a dataset consisting of 437 cases with 40 cases reserved as a held-out test and the remainder split 80:20 for training and validation. We performed data augmentation and hyperparameter optimization and used a mean Dice score to evaluate against baseline models. To facilitate clinical adoption, we developed the model with an end-to-end pipeline including routing, preprocessing, and end-user interaction. RESULTS:The autoencoder regularization-cascaded anisotropic model achieved median and mean Dice scores of 0.88/0.83 (SD, 0.09), 0.89/0.84 (SD, 0.08), and 0.81/0.72 (SD, 0.1) for whole-tumor, tumor core/resection cavity, and enhancing tumor subregions, respectively, including both preoperative and postoperative follow-up cases. The overall total processing time per case was ∼10 minutes, including data routing (∼1 minute), preprocessing (∼6 minute), segmentation (∼1-2 minute), and postprocessing (∼1 minute). Implementation challenges were discussed. CONCLUSIONS:We show the feasibility and advantages of building a coordinated model with a clinical pipeline for the rapid and accurate deep learning segmentation of both preoperative and postoperative gliomas. The ability of the model to accommodate cases of postoperative glioma is clinically important for follow-up. An end-to-end approach, such as used here, may lead us toward successful clinical translation of tools for quantitative volume measures for glioma.
PMID: 34857514
ISSN: 1936-959x
CID: 5069232