Caring for a child after a liver transplant: Challenges beyond medical complexity [Comment]
Patient-reported outcomes in HCC: A scoping review by the Practice Metrics Committee of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
BACKGROUND AND AIMS:HCC is a leading cause of mortality in patients with advanced liver disease and is associated with significant morbidity. Despite multiple available curative and palliative treatments, there is a lack of systematic evaluation of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in HCC. APPROACH AND RESULTS:The American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases Practice Metrics Committee conducted a scoping review of PROs in HCC from 1990 to 2021 to (1) synthesize the evidence on PROs in HCC and (2) provide recommendations on incorporating PROs into clinical practice and quality improvement efforts. A total of 63 studies met inclusion criteria investigating factors associated with PROs, the relationship between PROs and survival, and associations between HCC therapy and PROs. Studies recruited heterogeneous populations, and most were cross-sectional. Poor PROs were associated with worse prognosis after adjusting for clinical factors and with more advanced disease stage, although some studies showed better PROs in patients with HCC compared to those with cirrhosis. Locoregional and systemic therapies were generally associated with a high symptom burden; however, some studies showed lower symptom burden for transarterial radiotherapy and radiation therapy. Qualitative studies identified additional symptoms not routinely assessed with structured questionnaires. Gaps in the literature include lack of integration of PROs into clinical care to guide HCC treatment decisions, unknown impact of HCC on caregivers, and the effect of palliative or supportive care quality of life and health outcomes. CONCLUSION:Evidence supports assessment of PROs in HCC; however, clinical implementation and the impact of PRO measurement on quality of care and longitudinal outcomes need future investigation.
50 Years Ago in TheJournalofPediatrics: Hepatic Encephalopathy: Progress Made, but Mystery Remains
Quality measures in HCC care by the Practice Metrics Committee of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
The burden of HCC is substantial. To address gaps in HCC care, the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) Practice Metrics Committee (PMC) aimed to develop a standard set of process-based measures and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) along the HCC care continuum. We identified candidate process and outcomes measures for HCC care based on structured literature review. A 13-member panel with content expertise across the HCC care continuum evaluated candidate measures on importance and performance gap using a modified Delphi approach (two rounds of rating) to define the final set of measures. Candidate PROs based on a structured scoping review were ranked by 74 patients with HCC across 7 diverse institutions. Out of 135 measures, 29 measures made the final set. These covered surveillance (6 measures), diagnosis (6 measures), staging (2 measures), treatment (10 measures), and outcomes (5 measures). Examples included the use of ultrasound (± alpha-fetoprotein [AFP]) every 6 months, need for surveillance in high-risk populations, diagnostic testing for patients with a new AFP elevation, multidisciplinary liver tumor board (MLTB) review of Liver Imaging-Reporting and Data System 4 lesions, standard evaluation at diagnosis, treatment recommendations based on Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging, MLTB discussion of treatment options, appropriate referral for evaluation of liver transplantation candidacy, and role of palliative therapy. PROs include those related to pain, anxiety, fear of treatment, and uncertainty about the best individual treatment and the future. The AASLD PMC has developed a set of explicit quality measures in HCC care to help bridge the gap between guideline recommendations and measurable processes and outcomes. Measurement and subsequent implementation of these metrics could be a central step in the improvement of patient care and outcomes in this high-risk population.
50 Years Ago in TheJournalofPediatrics: Disappearance of Reye Syndrome Outbreaks: One of the Greatest Public Health Victories
COVID-19 infection in pediatric solid organ transplant patients
BACKGROUND:Adult SOT recipients with COVID-19 have higher mortality rates when compared to general population. There is paucity of data on outcomes in pediatric SOT recipients. METHODS:This is a cross-sectional study investigating the prevalence of COVID-19 infection and outcomes in pediatric SOT (heart, liver, and kidney) recipients. We extracted demographic and clinical characteristics and COVID-19 testing (PCR or [Ab] test) results from medical records. Clinical characteristics were compared between patients who were positive for COVID-19 (PCR or Ab) and those who did not, using Mann-Whitney, Student's t test, or chi-square test. p value <.05 was statistically significant. RESULTS:A total of 108 SOT recipients with a median age of 13.1 (8.4, 17.8) years and median 4.2 (2.7, 7.9) years from transplant were checked for COVID-19 via a PCR or Ab test. A positive PCR was confirmed in 10 patients (9.3%), while 12 patients (11.1%) were positive for COVID-19 Ab. The patients who tested positive in our cohort were 9/50 (18%) heart, 6/68 (8.8%) kidney, and 7/50 (14%) liver transplant recipients. There were no differences in the clinical characteristics between patients with and without COVID-19 infection. All patients were either asymptomatic (50%) or had self-limiting symptoms. No changes were made to the immunosuppressive regimen. Only one patient was hospitalized and none had an oxygen requirement. CONCLUSIONS:In our cohort of pediatric SOT recipients, COVID-19 infection was asymptomatic or mild. This data may aid clinicians in counseling patients and families in this increased-risk population.
IMPROVEMENT IN HEPATIC ENCEPHALOPATHY IN CHILDREN AND ADULTS WITH ACUTE LIVER FAILURE ON MOLECULAR ABSORBENT RECIRCULATING SYSTEM WITH CONTINUOUS RENAL REPLACEMENT THERAPY [Meeting Abstract]
Liver Disease in Right Heart Failure: Not Just Fontan Associated [Meeting Abstract]
Recurrence of Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis After Liver Transplant in Children: An International Observational Study
BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Recurrent primary sclerosing cholangitis (rPSC) following liver transplant (LT) has a negative impact on graft and patient survival; little is known about risk factors for rPSC or disease course in children. APPROACH AND RESULTS:We retrospectively evaluated risk factors for rPSC in 140 children from the Pediatric PSC Consortium, a multicenter international registry. Recipients underwent LT for PSC and had >90 days of follow-up. The primary outcome, rPSC, was defined using Graziadei criteria. Median follow-up after LT was 3 years (interquartile range 1.1-6.1). rPSC occurred in 36 children, representing 10% and 27% of the subjects at 2 years and 5 years following LT, respectively. Subjects with rPSC were younger at LT (12.9 vs. 16.2 years), had faster progression from PSC diagnosis to LT (2.5 vs. 4.1 years), and had higher alanine aminotransferase (112 vs. 66 IU/L) at LT (all P < 0.01). Inflammatory bowel disease was more prevalent in the rPSC group (86% vs. 66%; P = 0.025). After LT, rPSC subjects had more episodes of biopsy-proved acute rejection (mean 3 vs. 1; P < 0.001), and higher prevalence of steroid-refractory rejection (41% vs. 20%; P = 0.04). In those with rPSC, 43% developed complications of portal hypertension, were relisted for LT, or died within 2 years of the diagnosis. Mortality was higher in the rPSC group (11.1% vs. 2.9%; P = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:The incidence of rPSC in this cohort was higher than previously reported, and was associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Patients with rPSC appeared to have a more aggressive, immune-reactive phenotype. These findings underscore the need to understand the immune mechanisms of rPSC, to lay the foundation for developing new therapies and improve outcomes in this challenging population.
Liver involvement in children with SARS-COV-2 infection: Two distinct clinical phenotypes caused by the same virus
BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) associated acute liver injury (ALI) has been linked to poor outcomes in adults. Here we compare characteristics in children with elevated ALT (E-ALT) in two distinct manifestations of the infection, multisystem inflammatory syndrome-children (MIS-C) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS:This is a retrospective study of patients â‰¤21Â years of age with positive for SARS-CoV-2 PCR. E-ALT was defined as alanine aminotransferase (ALT)Â >Â 40Â U/L. Bivariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were obtained to describe differences in children with and without E-ALT in COVID-19 and MIS-C. RESULTS:E-ALT was detected in 36% of the 291 patients; 31% with COVID-19, and 51% with MIS-C. E-ALT in COVID-19 was associated with obesity (PÂ <Â .001), immunocompromised status (PÂ =Â .04), and chronic liver disease (PÂ =Â .01). In the regression models, E-ALT in COVID-19 was associated with higher c-reactive protein (OR 1.08, PÂ =Â .01) after adjusting for common independent predictors. Children with E-ALT and MIS-C were more often boys (PÂ =Â .001), Hispanic (PÂ =Â .04), or Black (PÂ <Â .001). In MIS-C, male gender (OR 5.3, PÂ =Â .02) and Black race (OR 4.4, PÂ =Â .04) were associated with increased odds of E-ALT. Children with E-ALT in both cohorts had significantly higher multiorgan dysfunction, longer hospitalization, and ICU stay. Children with MIS-C had 2.3-fold increased risk of E-ALT compared to COVID-19. No association was found between E-ALT and mortality. CONCLUSION:E-ALT with SARS-CoV-2 presents as elevated transaminases without hepatic synthetic dysfunction. Patients with either manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 infection and E-ALT experienced more severe disease.