Structured versus non-structured reporting of pelvic MRI for ileal pouch evaluation: clarity and effectiveness
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Given that ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) surgery is a technically challenging and high-morbidity procedure, there are numerous pertinent imaging findings that need to be clearly and efficiently communicated to the IBD surgeons for essential patient management and surgical planning. Structured reporting has been increasingly used over the past decade throughout various radiology subspecialties to improve reporting clarity and completeness. We compare structured versus non-structured reporting of pelvic MRI for ileal pouch to evaluate for clarity and effectiveness. METHODS:164 consecutive pelvic MRI's for ileal pouch evaluation, excluding subsequent exams for the same patient, acquired between 1/1/2019 and 7/31/2021 at one institution were included, before and after implementation (11/15/2020) of a structured reporting template, which was created with institutional IBD surgeons. Reports were assessed for the presence of 18 key features required for complete ileal pouch assessment: anastomosis (IPAA, tip of J, pouch body), cuff (length, cuffitis), pouch body (size, pouchitis, stricture), pouch inlet/pre-pouch ileum (stricture, inflammation, sharp angulation), pouch outlet (stricture), peripouch mesentery (position, mesentery twist), pelvic abscess, peri-anal fistula, pelvic lymph nodes, and skeletal abnormalities. Subgroup analysis was performed based on reader experience and divided into three categories: experienced (n = 2), other intra-institutional (n = 20), or affiliate site (n = 6). RESULTS:57 (35%) structured and 107 (65%) non-structured pelvic MRI reports were reviewed. Structured reports contained 16.6 [SD:4.0] key features whereas non-structured reports contained 6.3 [SD:2.5] key features (p < .001). The largest improvement following template implementation was for reporting sharp angulation of the pouch inlet (91.2% vs. 0.9%, p < .001), tip of J suture line and pouch body anastomosis (both improved to 91.2% from 3.7%). Structured versus non-structured reports contained mean 17.7 versus 9.1 key features for experienced readers, 17.0 versus 5.9 for other intra-institutional readers, and 8.7 versus 5.3 for affiliate site readers. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Structured reporting of pelvic MRI guides a systematic search pattern and comprehensive evaluation of ileal pouches, and therefore facilitates surgical planning and clinical management. This standardized reporting template can serve as baseline at other institutions for adaptation based on specific radiology and surgery preferences, fostering a collaborative environment between radiology and surgery, and ultimately improving patient care.
Rectal and perirectal CT findings in patients with monkeypox virus infection
OBJECTIVE:To analyze the findings of proctitis in patients with laboratory-confirmed Mpox and correlate the patient clinical presentation and laboratory findings. METHODS:21 patients with PCR-positive Mpox who obtained abdominopelvic CT were retrospectively identified by electronic medical record search. Three radiologists independently evaluated CT images, measuring rectal wall thickness (cm), degree of perirectal fat stranding on a 5-point Likert scale, and size of perirectal lymph nodes (cm, short axis). Mann-Whitney U-test (Wilcoxon rank sum test) was used to assess the association of rectal wall thickness and perirectal fat standing between patients with rectal symptoms and patients without rectal symptoms. RESULTS:20 of 21 patients presented with perirectal fat stranding, with mean Likert score of 3.0 ± 1.4, indicating moderate perirectal stranding. Mean transverse rectal wall thickness was 1.1 ± 0.5 cm (range 0.3-2.3 cm); it was thicker among patients with HIV (1.2 cm vs 0.7 cm; p = .019). Mean perirectal fat stranding was greater among patients presenting with HIV, and with rectal symptoms, though not significantly so. 17/21 (81%) patients had abnormal mesorectal lymph nodes by at least two of three readers, with mean short-axis measurement 1.0 ± 0.3 cm (range 0.5-1.6 cm). Multiple linear regression showed no significant correlation between rectal thickness and laboratory values or HIV status. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Nearly all patients with Mpox who presented with additional symptoms warranting a CT demonstrated proctitis. Degree of proctitis varied greatly within the cohort, with greatest thickening among patients with HIV. Physicians should have a high suspicion for proctitis in patients with suspected Mpox.
How We Got Here: The Legacy of Anti-Black Discrimination in Radiology
Current disparities in the access to diagnostic imaging for Black patients and the underrepresentation of Black physicians in radiology, relative to their representation in the general U.S. population, reflect contemporary consequences of historical anti-Black discrimination. These disparities have existed within the field of radiology and professional medical organizations since their inception. Explicit and implicit racism against Black patients and physicians was institutional policy in the early 20th century when radiology was being developed as a clinical medical field. Early radiology organizations also embraced this structural discrimination, creating strong barriers to professional Black radiologist involvement. Nevertheless, there were numerous pioneering Black radiologists who advanced scholarship, patient care, and diversity within medicine and radiology during the early 20th century. This work remains important in the present day, as race-based health care disparities persist and continue to decrease the quality of radiology-delivered patient care. There are also structural barriers within radiology affecting workforce diversity that negatively impact marginalized groups. Multiple opportunities exist today for antiracism work to improve quality of care and to apply standards of social justice and health equity to the field of radiology. An initial step is to expand education on the disparities in access to imaging and health care among Black patients. Institutional interventions include implementing community-based outreach and applying antibias methodology in artificial intelligence algorithms, while systemic interventions include identifying national race-based quality measures and ensuring imaging guidelines properly address the unique cancer risks in the Black patient population. These approaches reflect some of the strategies that may mutually serve to address health care disparities in radiology. © RSNA, 2023 See the invited commentary by Scott in this issue. Quiz questions for this article are available in the supplemental material.
Comparison of a Deep Learning-Accelerated vs. Conventional T2-Weighted Sequence in Biparametric MRI of the Prostate
BACKGROUND:Demand for prostate MRI is increasing, but scan times remain long even in abbreviated biparametric MRIs (bpMRI). Deep learning can be leveraged to accelerate T2-weighted imaging (T2WI). PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To compare conventional bpMRIs (CL-bpMRI) with bpMRIs including a deep learning-accelerated T2WI (DL-bpMRI) in diagnosing prostate cancer. STUDY TYPE/METHODS:Retrospective. POPULATION/METHODS:Eighty consecutive men, mean age 66 years (47-84) with suspected prostate cancer or prostate cancer on active surveillance who had a prostate MRI from December 28, 2020 to April 28, 2021 were included. Follow-up included prostate biopsy or stability of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for 1 year. FIELD STRENGTH AND SEQUENCES/UNASSIGNED:. ASSESSMENT/RESULTS:CL-bpMRI and DL-bpMRI including the same conventional diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) were presented to three radiologists (blinded to acquisition method) and to a deep learning computer-assisted detection algorithm (DL-CAD). The readers evaluated image quality using a 4-point Likert scale (1 = nondiagnostic, 4 = excellent) and graded lesions using Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) v2.1. DL-CAD identified and assigned lesions of PI-RADS 3 or greater. STATISTICAL TESTS/METHODS:Quality metrics were compared using Wilcoxon signed rank test, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were compared using Delong's test. SIGNIFICANCE/CONCLUSIONS:P = 0.05. RESULTS:Eighty men were included (age: 66 ± 9 years; 17/80 clinically significant prostate cancer). Overall image quality results by the three readers (CL-T2, DL-T2) are reader 1: 3.72 ± 0.53, 3.89 ± 0.39 (P = 0.99); reader 2: 3.33 ± 0.82, 3.31 ± 0.74 (P = 0.49); reader 3: 3.67 ± 0.63, 3.51 ± 0.62. In the patient-based analysis, the reader results of AUC are (CL-bpMRI, DL-bpMRI): reader 1: 0.77, 0.78 (P = 0.98), reader 2: 0.65, 0.66 (P = 0.99), reader 3: 0.57, 0.60 (P = 0.52). Diagnostic statistics from DL-CAD (CL-bpMRI, DL-bpMRI) are sensitivity (0.71, 0.71, P = 1.00), specificity (0.59, 0.44, P = 0.05), positive predictive value (0.23, 0.24, P = 0.25), negative predictive value (0.88, 0.88, P = 0.48). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Deep learning-accelerated T2-weighted imaging may potentially be used to decrease acquisition time for bpMRI. EVIDENCE LEVEL/METHODS:3. TECHNICAL EFFICACY/UNASSIGNED:Stage 2.
Accelerated T2-weighted MRI of the liver at 3Â T using a single-shot technique with deep learning-based image reconstruction: impact on the image quality and lesion detection
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging (T2-FS) requires a long scan time and can be wrought with motion artifacts, urging the development of a shorter and more motion robust sequence. We compare the image quality of a single-shot T2-weighted MRI prototype with deep-learning-based image reconstruction (DL HASTE-FS) with a standard T2-FS sequence for 3Â T liver MRI. METHODS:41 consecutive patients with 3Â T abdominal MRI examinations including standard T2-FS and DL HASTE-FS, between 5/6/2020 and 11/23/2020, comprised the study cohort. Three radiologists independently reviewed images using a 5-point Likert scale for artifact and image quality measures, while also assessing for liver lesions. RESULTS:DL HASTE-FS acquisition time was 54.93â€‰Â±â€‰16.69, significantly (pâ€‰<â€‰.001) shorter than standard T2-FS (114.00â€‰Â±â€‰32.98Â s). DL HASTE-FS received significantly higher scores for sharpness of liver margin (4.3 vs 3.3; pâ€‰<â€‰.001), hepatic vessel margin (4.2 vs 3.3; pâ€‰<â€‰.001), pancreatic duct margin (4.0 vs 1.9; pâ€‰<â€‰.001); in-plane (4.0 vs 3.2; pâ€‰<â€‰.001) and through-plane (3.9 vs 3.4; pâ€‰<â€‰.001) motion artifacts; other ghosting artifacts (4.3 vs 2.9; pâ€‰<â€‰.001); and overall image quality (4.0 vs 2.9; pâ€‰<â€‰.001), in addition to receiving a higher score for homogeneity of fat suppression (3.7 vs 3.4; pâ€‰=â€‰.04) and liver-fat contrast (pâ€‰=â€‰.03). For liver lesions, DL HASTE-FS received significantly higher scores for sharpness of lesion margin (4.4 vs 3.7; pâ€‰=â€‰.03). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Novel single-shot T2-weighted MRI with deep-learning-based image reconstruction demonstrated superior image quality compared with the standard T2-FS sequence for 3Â T liver MRI, while being acquired in less than half the time.
Factors affecting MRI scanner efficiency in an academic center
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To determine which patient characteristics influence MRI scan time and how. METHODS:A database search of outpatient MRI liver examinations on 1.5T and 3T scanners from 1/1/2019 to 4/4/2019 was performed using an in-house developed software tool. Mean and median scan times were calculated. Patients who had difficulty following breathing instructions or completing breath-hold sequences were identified. Twenty-one additional patient characteristics were obtained from an Electronic Medical Record (EMR) search. RESULTS:Scan times were significantly increased for patients with breath-holding issues during the exam (Nâ€‰=â€‰43, medianâ€‰=â€‰23.98Â min) versus not (Nâ€‰=â€‰179, medianâ€‰=â€‰17.5Â min, pâ€‰<â€‰0.001). Among patients who had difficulty following breathing instructions/completing breath-hold sequences, a significant number were non-native English speakers (23/43, 53%) compared to those whose first language was English (48/179, 27%, pâ€‰<â€‰0.001). Breath-holding issues were also significantly more frequent for patients requiring a translator during the exam (15/43, 35%) versus those who did not (24/179, 13%, pâ€‰<â€‰0.001). No other patient characteristics showed a significance difference between those with breathing issues and those without. Patient characteristics that caused a significant number of scan times to be one standard deviation or more above the median were as follows: Breath-holding issues during exam (21/43â€‰â‰¥â€‰one SD above, 51%, versus 22/189â€‰<â€‰one SD above, 12%, pâ€‰<â€‰0.001); and first language not English (16/71â€‰â‰¥â€‰one SD above, 23%, versus 55/189â€‰<â€‰one SD above, 29%, pâ€‰=â€‰0.03). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The ability to follow breathing instructions and complete breath-hold sequences had a significant impact on patient scan time. Patients who were not native English speakers had more frequent breathing issues during scans and significantly longer scans times compared native English speakers.
Correlation between imaging findings on outpatient MR enterography (MRE) in adult patients with Crohn disease and progression to surgery within 5Â years
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To retrospectively evaluate which key imaging features described by SAR-AGA on outpatient surveillance MRE correlate with progression to surgery in adults with CD. METHODS:52 CD patients imaged with outpatient MRE from 10/2015 to 12/2016 and with available clinical information were included. Two abdominal radiologists reviewed the MRE for the presence of active inflammation, intramural edema, restricted diffusion, stricture, probable stricture, ulceration, sacculation, simple fistula, complex fistula, sinus tract, inflammatory mass, abscess, perienteric inflammation, engorged vasa recta, fibrofatty proliferation, and perianal disease. Bowel wall thickness, length of bowel involvement, and degree of upstream dilation in strictures were quantified. Subsequent bowel resection, prior bowel surgery, and available laboratory values were recorded. The association between progression to surgery and imaging features was evaluated using a logistic regression model adjusting for demographics, prior bowel surgery, medication usage, and body mass index. RESULTS:19.2% (10/52) of patients progressed to surgery. Restricted diffusion, greater degree of upstream dilation from stricture, complex fistula, perienteric inflammation, and fibrofatty proliferation were significantly more common in patients progressing to surgery (all pâ€‰<â€‰0.05). Îº for these significant findings ranged 0.568-0.885. Patients progressing to surgery had longer length bowel involvement (pâ€‰=â€‰0.03). Platelet count, ESR, and fecal calprotectin were significantly higher, and serum albumin was significantly lower in patients progressing to surgery. Prior bowel surgery, sex, age, and all other parameters were similar. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Radiologists should carefully describe bowel dilation upstream from strictures, penetrating and perienteric findings on outpatient MRE in CD patients, as these findings may herald progression to surgery.
Deep Learning Reconstruction Enables Highly Accelerated Biparametric MR Imaging of the Prostate
BACKGROUND:Early diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) can be curative; however, prostate-specific antigen is a suboptimal screening test for clinically significant PCa. While prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has demonstrated value for the diagnosis of PCa, the acquisition time is too long for a first-line screening modality. PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To accelerate prostate MRI exams, utilizing a variational network (VN) for image reconstruction. STUDY TYPE/METHODS:Retrospective. SUBJECTS/METHODS:One hundred and thirteen subjects (train/val/test: 70/13/30) undergoing prostate MRI. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE/UNASSIGNED:3.0â€‰T; a T2 turbo spin echo (TSE) T2-weighted image (T2WI) sequence in axial and coronal planes, and axial echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). ASSESSMENT/RESULTS:, and apparent diffusion coefficient map-according to the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS v2.1), for both VN and standard reconstructions. Accuracy of PI-RADS â‰¥3 for clinically significant cancer was computed. Projected scan time of the retrospectively under-sampled biparametric exam was also computed. STATISTICAL TESTS/UNASSIGNED:One-sided Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for comparison of image quality. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were calculated for lesion detection and grading. Generalized estimating equation with cluster effect was used to compare differences between standard and VN bp-MRI. A P-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS:(Reader 1: 3.20â€‰Â±â€‰0.70 (Standard), 3.40â€‰Â±â€‰0.75 (VN) PÂ =Â 0.98; Reader 2: 2.85â€‰Â±â€‰0.81 (Standard), 3.00â€‰Â±â€‰0.79 (VN) PÂ =Â 0.93; Reader 3: 4.45â€‰Â±â€‰0.72 (Standard), 4.05â€‰Â±â€‰0.69 (VN) PÂ =Â 0.02; Reader 4: 4.50â€‰Â±â€‰0.69 (Standard), 4.45â€‰Â±â€‰0.76 (VN) PÂ =Â 0.50). In the lesion evaluation study, there was no significant difference in the number of PI-RADS â‰¥3 lesions identified on standard vs. VN bp-MRI (PÂ =Â 0.92, 0.59, 0.87) with similar sensitivity and specificity for clinically significant cancer. The average scan time of the standard clinical biparametric exam was 11.8Â minutes, and this was projected to be 3.2Â minutes for the accelerated exam. DATA CONCLUSION/UNASSIGNED:Diagnostic accelerated biparametric prostate MRI exams can be performed using deep learning methods in <4 minutes, potentially enabling rapid screening prostate MRI. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:3 TECHNICAL EFFICACY: Stage 5.
Comparison of Prostate Imaging and Reporting Data System V2.0 and V2.1 for Evaluation of Transition Zone Lesions: A 5-Reader 202-Patient Analysis
OBJECTIVE:The aim of the study was to compare the distribution of Prostate Imaging and Reporting Data System (PI-RADS) scores, interreader agreement, and diagnostic performance of PI-RADS v2.0 and v2.1 for transition zone (TZ) lesions. METHODS:The study included 202 lesions in 202 patients who underwent 3T prostate magnetic resonance imaging showing a TZ lesion that was later biopsied with magnetic resonance imaging/ultrasound fusion. Five abdominal imaging faculty reviewed T2-weighted imaging and high b value/apparent diffusion coefficient images in 2 sessions. Cases were randomized using a crossover design whereby half in the first session were reviewed using v2.0 and the other half using v2.1, and vice versa for the 2nd session. Readers provided T2-weighted imaging and DWI scores, from which PI-RADS scores were derived. RESULTS:Interreader agreement for all PI-RADS scores had Îº of 0.37 (v2.0) and 0.26 (v2.1). For 4 readers, the percentage of lesions retrospectively scored PI-RADS 1 increased greater than 5% and PI-RADS 2 score decreased greater than 5% from v2.0 to v2.1. For 2 readers, the percentage scored PI-RADS 3 decreased greater than 5% and, for 2 readers, increased greater than 5%. The percentage of PI-RADS 4 and 5 lesions changed less than 5% for all readers. For the 4 readers with increased frequency of PI-RADS 1 using v2.1, 4% to 16% were Gleason score â‰¥3 + 4 tumor. Frequency of Gleason score â‰¥3 + 4 in PI-RADS 3 lesions increased for 2 readers and decreased for 1 reader. Sensitivity of PI-RADS of 3 or greater for Gleason score â‰¥3 + 4 ranged 76% to 90% (v2.0) and 69% to 96% (v2.1). Specificity ranged 32% to 64% (v2.0) and 25% to 72% (v2.1). Positive predictive value ranged 43% to 55% (v2.0) and 41% to 58% (v2.1). Negative predictive value ranged 82% to 87% (v2.0) and 81% to 91% (v2.1). CONCLUSIONS:Poor interreader agreement and lack of improvement in diagnostic performance indicate an ongoing need to refine evaluation of TZ lesions.
Using Lung Base Covid-19 Findings to Predict Future Disease Trends and New Variant Outbreaks: Study of First New York City (NYC) Outbreak
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Asymptomatic COVID-19 carriers and insufficient testing make containment of the virus difficult. The purpose of this study was to determine if unexpected lung base findings on abdominopelvic CTs concerning for COVID-19 infection could serve as a surrogate for the diagnosis of COVID-19 in the community. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:A database search of abdominopelvic CT reports from March 1,2020 to May 2,2020 was performed for keywords suggesting COVID-19 infection by lung base findings. COVID-19 status, respiratory symptoms, laboratory parameters and patient outcomes (hospitalization, ICU admission and/or intubation, and death) were recorded. The trend in cases of unexpected concerning lung base findings on abdominopelvic CT at our institution was compared to the total number of confirmed new cases in NYC over the same time period. RESULTS:The trend in abnormal lung base findings on abdominopelvic CT at our institution correlated with the citywide number of confirmed new cases, including rise and subsequent fall in total cases. The trend was not mediated by COVID-19 testing status or number of tests performed. Patients with respiratory symptoms had significantly higher ferritin (medianÂ =Â 995ng/ml vs 500ng/ml, pÂ =Â 0.027) and death rate (8/24, 33% vs 4/54, 9%, pÂ =Â 0.018) compared to those without. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The rise and fall of unexpected lung base findings suggestive of COVID-19 infection on abdominopelvic CT in patients without COVID-19 symptoms correlated with the number of confirmed new cases throughout NYC from the same time period. A model using abdominopelvic CT lung base findings can serve as a surrogate for future COVID-19 outbreaks.