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Baricitinib versus dexamethasone for adults hospitalised with COVID-19 (ACTT-4): a randomised, double-blind, double placebo-controlled trial

Wolfe, Cameron R; Tomashek, Kay M; Patterson, Thomas F; Gomez, Carlos A; Marconi, Vincent C; Jain, Mamta K; Yang, Otto O; Paules, Catharine I; Palacios, Guillermo M Ruiz; Grossberg, Robert; Harkins, Michelle S; Mularski, Richard A; Erdmann, Nathaniel; Sandkovsky, Uriel; Almasri, Eyad; Pineda, Justino Regalado; Dretler, Alexandra W; de Castilla, Diego Lopez; Branche, Angela R; Park, Pauline K; Mehta, Aneesh K; Short, William R; McLellan, Susan L F; Kline, Susan; Iovine, Nicole M; El Sahly, Hana M; Doernberg, Sarah B; Oh, Myoung-Don; Huprikar, Nikhil; Hohmann, Elizabeth; Kelley, Colleen F; Holodniy, Mark; Kim, Eu Suk; Sweeney, Daniel A; Finberg, Robert W; Grimes, Kevin A; Maves, Ryan C; Ko, Emily R; Engemann, John J; Taylor, Barbara S; Ponce, Philip O; Larson, LuAnn; Melendez, Dante Paolo; Seibert, Allan M; Rouphael, Nadine G; Strebe, Joslyn; Clark, Jesse L; Julian, Kathleen G; de Leon, Alfredo Ponce; Cardoso, Anabela; de Bono, Stephanie; Atmar, Robert L; Ganesan, Anuradha; Ferreira, Jennifer L; Green, Michelle; Makowski, Mat; Bonnett, Tyler; Beresnev, Tatiana; Ghazaryan, Varduhi; Dempsey, Walla; Nayak, Seema U; Dodd, Lori E; Beigel, John H; Kalil, Andre C; Wahid, Lana; Walter, Emmanuel B; Belur, Akhila G; Dreyer, Grace; Patterson, Jan E; Bowling, Jason E; Dixon, Danielle O; Hewlett, Angela; Odrobina, Robert; Pupaibool, Jakrapun; Mocherla, Satish; Lazarte, Suzana; Cayabyab, Meilani; Hussein, Rezhan H; Golamari, Reshma R; Krill, Kaleigh L; Rajme, Sandra; Riska, Paul F; Zingman, Barry S; Mertz, Gregory; Sosa, Nestor; Goepfert, Paul A; Berhe, Mezgebe; Dishner, Emma; Fayed, Mohamed; Hubel, Kinsley; Martinez-Orozco, José Arturo; Bautista Felix, Nora; Elmor, Sammy T; Bechnak, Amer Ryan; Saklawi, Youssef; Van Winkle, Jason W; Zea, Diego F; Laguio-Vila, Maryrose; Walsh, Edward E; Falsey, Ann R; Carvajal, Karen; Hyzy, Robert C; Hanna, Sinan; Olbrich, Norman; Traenkner, Jessica J; Kraft, Colleen S; Tebas, Pablo; Baron, Jillian T; Levine, Corri; Nock, Joy; Billings, Joanne; Kim, Hyun; Elie-Turenne, Marie-Carmelle; Whitaker, Jennifer A; Luetkemeyer, Anne F; Dwyer, Jay; Bainbridge, Emma; Gyun Choe, Pyoeng; Kyung Kang, Chang; Jilg, Nikolaus; Cantos, Valeria D; Bhamidipati, Divya R; Nithin Gopalsamy, Srinivasa; Chary, Aarthi; Jung, Jongtak; Song, Kyoung-Ho; Kim, Hong Bin; Benson, Constance A; McConnell, Kimberly; Wang, Jennifer P; Wessolossky, Mireya; Perez, Katherine; Eubank, Taryn A; Berjohn, Catherine; Utz, Gregory C; Jackson, Patrick E H; Bell, Taison D; Haughey, Heather M; Moanna, Abeer; Cribbs, Sushma; Harrison, Telisha; Colombo, Christopher J; Schofield, Christina; Colombo, Rhonda E; Tapson, Victor F; Grein, Jonathan; Sutterwala, Fayyaz; Ince, Dilek; Winokur, Patricia L; Fung, Monica; Jang, Hannah; Wyles, David; Frank, Maria G; Sarcone, Ellen; Neumann, Henry; Viswanathan, Anand; Hochman, Sarah; Mulligan, Mark; Eckhardt, Benjamin; Carmody, Ellie; Ahuja, Neera; Nadeau, Kari; Svec, David; Macaraeg, Jeffrey C; Morrow, Lee; Quimby, Dave; Bessesen, Mary; Nicholson, Lindsay; Adams, Jill; Kumar, Princy; Lambert, Allison A; Arguinchona, Henry; Alicic, Radica Z; Saito, Sho; Ohmagari, Norio; Mikami, Ayako; Chien Lye, David; Hong Lee, Tau; Ying Chia, Po; Hsieh, Lanny; Amin, Alpesh N; Watanabe, Miki; Candiotti, Keith A; Castro, Jose G; Antor, Maria A; Lee, Tida; Lalani, Tahaniyat; Novak, Richard M; Wendrow, Andrea; Borgetti, Scott A; George, Sarah L; Hoft, Daniel F; Brien, James D; Cohen, Stuart H; Thompson, George R 3rd; Chakrabarty, Melony; Guirgis, Faheem; Davey, Richard T; Voell, Jocelyn; Strich, Jeffrey R; Lindholm, David A; Mende, Katrin; Wellington, Trevor R; Rapaka, Rekha R; Husson, Jennifer S; Levine, Andrea R; Yen Tan, Seow; Shafi, Humaira; Chien, Jaime M F; Hostler, David C; Hostler, Jordanna M; Shahan, Brian T; Adams, David H; Osinusi, Anu; Cao, Huyen; Burgess, Timothy H; Rozman, Julia; Chung, Kevin K; Nieuwoudt, Christina; El-Khorazaty, Jill A; Hill, Heather; Pettibone, Stephanie; Gettinger, Nikki; Engel, Theresa; Lewis, Teri; Wang, Jing; Deye, Gregory A; Nomicos, Effie; Pikaart-Tautges, Rhonda; Elsafy, Mohamed; Jurao, Robert; Koo, Hyung; Proschan, Michael; Yokum, Tammy; Arega, Janice; Florese, Ruth
BACKGROUND:Baricitinib and dexamethasone have randomised trials supporting their use for the treatment of patients with COVID-19. We assessed the combination of baricitinib plus remdesivir versus dexamethasone plus remdesivir in preventing progression to mechanical ventilation or death in hospitalised patients with COVID-19. METHODS:In this randomised, double-blind, double placebo-controlled trial, patients were enrolled at 67 trial sites in the USA (60 sites), South Korea (two sites), Mexico (two sites), Singapore (two sites), and Japan (one site). Hospitalised adults (≥18 years) with COVID-19 who required supplemental oxygen administered by low-flow (≤15 L/min), high-flow (>15 L/min), or non-invasive mechanical ventilation modalities who met the study eligibility criteria (male or non-pregnant female adults ≥18 years old with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection) were enrolled in the study. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either baricitinib, remdesivir, and placebo, or dexamethasone, remdesivir, and placebo using a permuted block design. Randomisation was stratified by study site and baseline ordinal score at enrolment. All patients received remdesivir (≤10 days) and either baricitinib (or matching oral placebo) for a maximum of 14 days or dexamethasone (or matching intravenous placebo) for a maximum of 10 days. The primary outcome was the difference in mechanical ventilation-free survival by day 29 between the two treatment groups in the modified intention-to-treat population. Safety analyses were done in the as-treated population, comprising all participants who received one dose of the study drug. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04640168. FINDINGS/RESULTS:Between Dec 1, 2020, and April 13, 2021, 1047 patients were assessed for eligibility. 1010 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned, 516 (51%) to baricitinib plus remdesivir plus placebo and 494 (49%) to dexamethasone plus remdesivir plus placebo. The mean age of the patients was 58·3 years (SD 14·0) and 590 (58%) of 1010 patients were male. 588 (58%) of 1010 patients were White, 188 (19%) were Black, 70 (7%) were Asian, and 18 (2%) were American Indian or Alaska Native. 347 (34%) of 1010 patients were Hispanic or Latino. Mechanical ventilation-free survival by day 29 was similar between the study groups (Kaplan-Meier estimates of 87·0% [95% CI 83·7 to 89·6] in the baricitinib plus remdesivir plus placebo group and 87·6% [84·2 to 90·3] in the dexamethasone plus remdesivir plus placebo group; risk difference 0·6 [95% CI -3·6 to 4·8]; p=0·91). The odds ratio for improved status in the dexamethasone plus remdesivir plus placebo group compared with the baricitinib plus remdesivir plus placebo group was 1·01 (95% CI 0·80 to 1·27). At least one adverse event occurred in 149 (30%) of 503 patients in the baricitinib plus remdesivir plus placebo group and 179 (37%) of 482 patients in the dexamethasone plus remdesivir plus placebo group (risk difference 7·5% [1·6 to 13·3]; p=0·014). 21 (4%) of 503 patients in the baricitinib plus remdesivir plus placebo group had at least one treatment-related adverse event versus 49 (10%) of 482 patients in the dexamethasone plus remdesivir plus placebo group (risk difference 6·0% [2·8 to 9·3]; p=0·00041). Severe or life-threatening grade 3 or 4 adverse events occurred in 143 (28%) of 503 patients in the baricitinib plus remdesivir plus placebo group and 174 (36%) of 482 patients in the dexamethasone plus remdesivir plus placebo group (risk difference 7·7% [1·8 to 13·4]; p=0·012). INTERPRETATION/CONCLUSIONS:In hospitalised patients with COVID-19 requiring supplemental oxygen by low-flow, high-flow, or non-invasive ventilation, baricitinib plus remdesivir and dexamethasone plus remdesivir resulted in similar mechanical ventilation-free survival by day 29, but dexamethasone was associated with significantly more adverse events, treatment-related adverse events, and severe or life-threatening adverse events. A more individually tailored choice of immunomodulation now appears possible, where side-effect profile, ease of administration, cost, and patient comorbidities can all be considered. FUNDING/BACKGROUND:National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.
PMID: 35617986
ISSN: 2213-2619
CID: 5249952

Contact tracing in acute hepatitis C: The source patient identification and group overlap therapy proof-of-concept pilot program

Eckhardt, Benjamin; Aponte-Melendez, Yesenia; Kapadia, Shashi N; Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro
PMCID:9405500
PMID: 36033428
ISSN: 2046-2484
CID: 5319462

Rapid decline in vaccine-boosted neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant

Lyke, Kirsten E; Atmar, Robert L; Islas, Clara Dominguez; Posavad, Christine M; Szydlo, Daniel; Paul Chourdhury, Rahul; Deming, Meagan E; Eaton, Amanda; Jackson, Lisa A; Branche, Angela R; El Sahly, Hana M; Rostad, Christina A; Martin, Judith M; Johnston, Christine; Rupp, Richard E; Mulligan, Mark J; Brady, Rebecca C; Frenck, Robert W; Bäcker, Martín; Kottkamp, Angelica C; Babu, Tara M; Rajakumar, Kumaravel; Edupuganti, Srilatha; Dobrzynski, David; Coler, Rhea N; Archer, Janet I; Crandon, Sonja; Zemanek, Jillian A; Brown, Elizabeth R; Neuzil, Kathleen M; Stephens, David S; Post, Diane J; Nayak, Seema U; Suthar, Mehul S; Roberts, Paul C; Beigel, John H; Montefiori, David C
The Omicron variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) exhibits reduced susceptibility to vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies, requiring a boost to generate protective immunity. We assess the magnitude and short-term durability of neutralizing antibodies after homologous and heterologous boosting with mRNA and Ad26.COV2.S vaccines. All prime-boost combinations substantially increase the neutralization titers to Omicron, although the boosted titers decline rapidly within 2 months from the peak response compared with boosted titers against the prototypic D614G variant. Boosted Omicron neutralization titers are substantially higher for homologous mRNA vaccine boosting, and for heterologous mRNA and Ad26.COV2.S vaccine boosting, compared with homologous Ad26.COV2.S boosting. Homologous mRNA vaccine boosting generates nearly equivalent neutralizing activity against Omicron sublineages BA.1, BA.2, and BA.3 but modestly reduced neutralizing activity against BA.2.12.1 and BA.4/BA.5 compared with BA.1. These results have implications for boosting requirements to protect against Omicron and future variants of SARS-CoV-2. This trial was conducted under ClincalTrials.gov: NCT04889209.
PMCID:9212999
PMID: 35798000
ISSN: 2666-3791
CID: 5278372

Multivalvular Endocarditis With Abscess: A Wild Goose Chase

Abuso, Stephanie; Rubin, Lily; Geraghty, Brian; Hoque, Tasneem; Better, Donna; Kumar, T K Susheel; Small, Adam; Halpern, Dan; Weisenberg, Scott; Fiorito, Theresa M
We report a case of Streptococcus mutans multivalvular infective endocarditis complicated by aortic root abscess and septic emboli in a 19-year-old male with a bicuspid aortic valve. This case illustrates the progression of untreated subacute bacterial endocarditis and highlights the importance of ongoing clinical suspicion for infective endocarditis in patients with underlying valvular defects.
PMID: 35389950
ISSN: 1532-0987
CID: 5205002

Rapid Treatment Initiation for Hepatitis C in Young People Who Inject Drugs: The Seek, Test, and Rapid Treatment Randomized Trial

Eckhardt, Benjamin; Kapadia, Shashi N; Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Pai, Melinda; Fong, Chunki; Aponte-Melendez, Yesenia; Marks, Kristen M
Background/UNASSIGNED:Young people who inject drugs (PWID) have high hepatitis C virus (HCV) incidence and low treatment initiation rates. Novel, simplified care models need to be developed to engage, treat, and cure hard-to-reach patient populations, such as young PWID. We present final data from the randomized pilot clinical trial "HCV-Seek Test and Rapid Treatment" for curing HCV in young PWID. Methods/UNASSIGNED:participant. Results/UNASSIGNED: = .01). Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:PWID, significantly higher rates of cure were achieved using the Rapid Treatment model compared with facilitated referral. Providing easy access to HCV treatment for young PWID in low-threshold settings and initiating HCV treatment quickly appears to be a promising strategy for treating this hard-to-reach population.
PMCID:9272437
PMID: 35821731
ISSN: 2328-8957
CID: 5267602

Clinician Attitudes and Beliefs Associated with More Aggressive Diagnostic Testing

Korenstein, Deborah; Scherer, Laura D; Foy, Andrew; Pineles, Lisa; Lydecker, Alison D; Owczarzak, Jill; Magder, Larry; Brown, Jessica P; Pfeiffer, Christopher D; Terndrup, Christopher; Leykum, Luci; Stevens, Deborah; Feldstein, David A; Weisenberg, Scott A; Baghdadi, Jonathan D; Morgan, Daniel J
BACKGROUND:Variation in clinicians' diagnostic test utilization is incompletely explained by demographics and likely relates to cognitive characteristics. We explored clinician factors associated with diagnostic test utilization METHODS: We used a self-administered survey of attitudes, cognitive characteristics, and reported likelihood of test ordering in common scenarios; frequency of lipid and liver testing in patients on statin therapy. Participants were 552 primary care physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants from practices in 8 US states across 3 regions, from June 1, 2018 to November 26, 2019. We measured Testing Likelihood Score: the mean of 4 responses to testing frequency and self-reported testing frequency in patients on statins. RESULTS:Respondents were 52.4% residents, 36.6% attendings, and 11.0% nurse practitioners/physician assistants; most were white (53.6%) or Asian (25.5%). Median age was 32 years; 53.1% were female. Participants reported ordering tests for a median of 20% (stress tests) to 90% (mammograms) of patients; Testing Likelihood Scores varied widely (median 54%, interquartile range 43%-69%). Higher scores were associated with geography, training type, low numeracy, high malpractice fear, high medical maximizer score, high stress from uncertainty, high concern about bad outcomes, and low acknowledgment of medical uncertainty. More frequent testing of lipids and liver tests was associated with low numeracy, high medical maximizer score, high malpractice fear, and low acknowledgment of uncertainty. CONCLUSIONS:Clinician variation in testing was common, with more aggressive testing consistently associated with low numeracy, being a medical maximizer, and low acknowledgment of uncertainty. Efforts to reduce undue variations in testing should consider clinician cognitive drivers.
PMID: 35307357
ISSN: 1555-7162
CID: 5200372

Outcomes of Cytomegalovirus Viremia Treatment in Critically Ill Patients With COVID-19 Infection

Schoninger, Scott; Dubrovskaya, Yanina; Marsh, Kassandra; Altshuler, Diana; Prasad, Prithiv; Louie, Eddie; Weisenberg, Scott; Hochman, Sarah; Fridman, David; Trachuk, Polina
Background/UNASSIGNED:Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) have poor outcomes and frequently develop comorbid conditions, including cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation. The implications of CMV reactivation in this setting are unknown. We aimed to investigate if treatment of CMV viremia improved in-hospital mortality in ICU patients with COVID-19. Methods/UNASSIGNED:In this single-center retrospective study, we analyzed clinical outcomes in patients diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia and CMV viremia admitted to an ICU from March 1, 2020, to April 30, 2021, who either received treatment (ganciclovir and/or valganciclovir) or received no treatment. The primary outcome was all-cause in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were total hospital length of stay (LOS), ICU LOS, requirement for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support, duration of mechanical ventilation (MV), and predictors of in-hospital mortality. Results/UNASSIGNED: = .749). There was no significant difference in hospital LOS, though CMV-treated patients had a longer ICU LOS. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:Treatment of CMV viremia did not decrease in-hospital mortality in ICU patients with COVID-19, but the sample size was limited. CMV viremia was significantly associated with total steroid dose received and longer ICU stay.
PMCID:9214167
PMID: 35859993
ISSN: 2328-8957
CID: 5279242

Microbiome-Independent Effects of Antibiotics in a Murine Model of Nosocomial Infections

Lacey, Keenan A; Gonzalez, Sandra; Yeung, Frank; Putzel, Gregory; Podkowik, Magdalena; Pironti, Alejandro; Shopsin, Bo; Cadwell, Ken; Torres, Victor J
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most common causes of hospital-acquired pneumonia. To better manage patients with MRSA pneumonia, we require a greater understanding of the host-pathogen interactions during infection. MRSA research focuses on highly virulent and cytotoxic strains, which demonstrate robust phenotypes in animal models of infection. However, nosocomial infections are often caused by hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) isolates that exhibit low cytotoxicity and few or no phenotypes in mice, thereby confounding mechanistic studies of pathogenesis. Consequently, virulence pathways utilized by HA-MRSA in nosocomial pneumonia are largely unknown. Here, we report that conditioning mice with broad-spectrum antibiotics lowers the barrier to pneumonia, thereby transforming otherwise avirulent HA-MRSA isolates into lethal pathogens. HA-MRSA isolates are avirulent in gnotobiotic mice, mimicking results in conventional animals. Thus, the observed enhanced susceptibility to infection in antibiotic-treated mice is not due to depletion of the microbiota. More generally, we found that antibiotic conditioning leads to increased susceptibility to infection by diverse antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) pathogens of low virulence. Treatment with antibiotics leads to dehydration and malnutrition, suggesting a potential role for these clinically relevant and reducible hospital complications in susceptibility to pathogens. In sum, the model described here mitigates the impact of low virulence in immunocompetent mice, providing a convenient model to gain fundamental insight into the pathogenesis of nosocomial pathogens. IMPORTANCE Antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) pathogens are responsible for over 2.8 million infections and over 35,000 deaths per year in the United States. To study these microbes, animal models that are susceptible to these pathogens are required. However, many of these pathogens exhibit low virulence in conventional mice, which has negatively impacted mechanistic studies. Here, we show that mice treated with antibiotics in their drinking water become exquisitely susceptible to low-virulence AMR pathogens. Surprisingly, the increased susceptibility was independent of the impact of antibiotics on the microbiome and seems to be due to an unintended consequence of antibiotic treatment: weight loss due to dehydration and caloric restriction. Unlike other models used to sensitize mice to low-virulence pathogens, our model does not reduce phagocyte numbers. Thus, here, we describe an immunocompetent mouse model to facilitate the identification of novel targets and accelerate the development of preventives and therapeutics to combat infections by AMR pathogens.
PMCID:9239109
PMID: 35612285
ISSN: 2150-7511
CID: 5277522

Cellular and Humoral Immunity to SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Multiple Sclerosis Patients on Ocrelizumab and Other Disease-Modifying Therapies: A Multi-Ethnic Observational Study

Kister, Ilya; Patskovsky, Yury; Curtin, Ryan; Pei, Jinglan; Perdomo, Katherine; Rimler, Zoe; Voloshyna, Iryna; Samanovic, Marie I; Cornelius, Amber R; Velmurugu, Yogambigai; Nyovanie, Samantha; Kim, Joseph J; Tardio, Ethan; Bacon, Tamar E; Zhovtis Ryerson, Lana; Raut, Pranil; Pedotti, Rosetta; Hawker, Kathleen; Raposo, Catarina; Priest, Jessica; Cabatingan, Mark; Winger, Ryan C; Mulligan, Mark J; Krogsgaard, Michelle; Silverman, Gregg J
OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to determine the impact of multiple sclerosis (MS) disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) on the development of cellular and humoral immunity to severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS:Patients with MS aged 18 to 60 years were evaluated for anti-nucleocapsid and anti-Spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) antibody with electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay; antibody responses to Spike protein, RBD, N-terminal domain with multiepitope bead-based immunoassays (MBI); live virus immunofluorescence-based microneutralization assay; T-cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 Spike using TruCulture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); and IL-2 and IFNγ ELISpot assays. Assay results were compared by DMT class. Spearman correlation and multivariate analyses were performed to examine associations between immunologic responses and infection severity. RESULTS:Between January 6, 2021, and July 21, 2021, 389 patients with MS were recruited (mean age 40.3 years; 74% women; 62% non-White). Most common DMTs were ocrelizumab (OCR)-40%; natalizumab -17%, Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor (S1P) modulators -12%; and 15% untreated. One hundred seventy-seven patients (46%) had laboratory evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection; 130 had symptomatic infection, and 47 were asymptomatic. Antibody responses were markedly attenuated in OCR compared with other groups (p ≤0.0001). T-cell responses (IFNγ) were decreased in S1P (p = 0.03), increased in natalizumab (p <0.001), and similar in other DMTs, including OCR. Cellular and humoral responses were moderately correlated in both OCR (r = 0.45, p = 0.0002) and non-OCR (r = 0.64, p <0.0001). Immune responses did not differ by race/ethnicity. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) clinical course was mostly non-severe and similar across DMTs; 7% (9/130) were hospitalized. INTERPRETATION/CONCLUSIONS:DMTs had differential effects on humoral and cellular immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Immune responses did not correlate with COVID-19 clinical severity in this relatively young and nondisabled group of patients with MS. ANN NEUROL 2022.
PMID: 35289960
ISSN: 1531-8249
CID: 5191732

Methotrexate and TNF inhibitors affect long-term immunogenicity to COVID-19 vaccination in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory disease

Haberman, Rebecca H; Um, Seungha; Axelrad, Jordan E; Blank, Rebecca B; Uddin, Zakwan; Catron, Sydney; Neimann, Andrea L; Mulligan, Mark J; Herat, Ramin Sedaghat; Hong, Simon J; Chang, Shannon; Myrtaj, Arnold; Ghiasian, Ghoncheh; Izmirly, Peter M; Saxena, Amit; Solomon, Gary; Azar, Natalie; Samuels, Jonathan; Golden, Brian D; Rackoff, Paula; Adhikari, Samrachana; Hudesman, David P; Scher, Jose U
PMCID:8975261
PMID: 35403000
ISSN: 2665-9913
CID: 5218902