person:raabev01 or eckhab01 or mullim04 or weises06 or shopsb01
Multivalvular Endocarditis With Abscess: A Wild Goose Chase
We report a case of Streptococcus mutans multivalvular infective endocarditis complicated by aortic root abscess and septic emboli in a 19-year-old male with a bicuspid aortic valve. This case illustrates the progression of untreated subacute bacterial endocarditis and highlights the importance of ongoing clinical suspicion for infective endocarditis in patients with underlying valvular defects.
Clinician Attitudes and Beliefs Associated with More Aggressive Diagnostic Testing
BACKGROUND:Variation in clinicians' diagnostic test utilization is incompletely explained by demographics and likely relates to cognitive characteristics. We explored clinician factors associated with diagnostic test utilization METHODS: We used a self-administered survey of attitudes, cognitive characteristics, and reported likelihood of test ordering in common scenarios; frequency of lipid and liver testing in patients on statin therapy. Participants were 552 primary care physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants from practices in 8 US states across 3 regions, from June 1, 2018 to November 26, 2019. We measured Testing Likelihood Score: the mean of 4 responses to testing frequency and self-reported testing frequency in patients on statins. RESULTS:Respondents were 52.4% residents, 36.6% attendings, and 11.0% nurse practitioners/physician assistants; most were white (53.6%) or Asian (25.5%). Median age was 32 years; 53.1% were female. Participants reported ordering tests for a median of 20% (stress tests) to 90% (mammograms) of patients; Testing Likelihood Scores varied widely (median 54%, interquartile range 43%-69%). Higher scores were associated with geography, training type, low numeracy, high malpractice fear, high medical maximizer score, high stress from uncertainty, high concern about bad outcomes, and low acknowledgment of medical uncertainty. More frequent testing of lipids and liver tests was associated with low numeracy, high medical maximizer score, high malpractice fear, and low acknowledgment of uncertainty. CONCLUSIONS:Clinician variation in testing was common, with more aggressive testing consistently associated with low numeracy, being a medical maximizer, and low acknowledgment of uncertainty. Efforts to reduce undue variations in testing should consider clinician cognitive drivers.
Cellular and Humoral Immunity to SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Multiple Sclerosis Patients on Ocrelizumab and Other Disease-Modifying Therapies: A Multi-Ethnic Observational Study
OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to determine the impact of multiple sclerosis (MS) disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) on the development of cellular and humoral immunity to severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS:Patients with MS aged 18 to 60â€‰years were evaluated for anti-nucleocapsid and anti-Spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) antibody with electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay; antibody responses to Spike protein, RBD, N-terminal domain with multiepitope bead-based immunoassays (MBI); live virus immunofluorescence-based microneutralization assay; T-cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 Spike using TruCulture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); and IL-2 and IFNÎ³ ELISpot assays. Assay results were compared by DMT class. Spearman correlation and multivariate analyses were performed to examine associations between immunologic responses and infection severity. RESULTS:Between January 6, 2021, and July 21, 2021, 389 patients with MS were recruited (mean age 40.3â€‰years; 74% women; 62% non-White). Most common DMTs were ocrelizumab (OCR)-40%; natalizumab -17%, Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor (S1P) modulators -12%; and 15% untreated. One hundred seventy-seven patients (46%) had laboratory evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection; 130 had symptomatic infection, and 47 were asymptomatic. Antibody responses were markedly attenuated in OCR compared with other groups (pâ€‰â‰¤0.0001). T-cell responses (IFNÎ³) were decreased in S1P (pÂ =Â 0.03), increased in natalizumab (pâ€‰<0.001), and similar in other DMTs, including OCR. Cellular and humoral responses were moderately correlated in both OCR (rÂ =Â 0.45, pÂ =Â 0.0002) and non-OCR (rÂ =Â 0.64, pâ€‰<0.0001). Immune responses did not differ by race/ethnicity. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) clinical course was mostly non-severe and similar across DMTs; 7% (9/130) were hospitalized. INTERPRETATION/CONCLUSIONS:DMTs had differential effects on humoral and cellular immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Immune responses did not correlate with COVID-19 clinical severity in this relatively young and nondisabled group of patients with MS. ANN NEUROL 2022.
Methotrexate and TNF inhibitors affect long-term immunogenicity to COVID-19 vaccination in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory disease
Lassa Virus Infection: a Summary for Clinicians
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:This summary on Lassa virus (LASV) infection and Lassa fever disease (LF) was developed from a clinical perspective to provide clinicians with a condensed, accessible understanding of the current literature. The information provided highlights pathogenesis, clinical features, and diagnostics emphasizing therapies and vaccines that have demonstrated potential value for use in clinical or research environments. METHODS:We conducted an integrative literature review on the clinical and pathological features, vaccines, and treatments for LASV infection, focusing on recent studies and in vivo evidence from humans and/or non-human primates (NHPs), when available. RESULTS:Two antiviral medications with potential benefit for the treatment of LASV infection and 1 for post-exposure prophylaxis were identified, although a larger number of therapeutic candidates are currently being evaluated. Multiple vaccine platforms are in pre-clinical development for LASV prevention, but data from human clinical trials are not yet available. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:We provide succinct summaries of medical countermeasures against LASV to give the busy clinician a rapid reference. Although there are no approved drugs or vaccines for LF, we provide condensed information from a literature review for measures that can be taken when faced with a suspected infection, including investigational treatment options and hospital engineering controls.
Low incidence and transient elevation of autoantibodies post mRNA COVID-19 vaccination in inflammatory arthritis
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Autoantibody seroconversion has been extensively studied in the context of COVID-19 infection but data regarding post-vaccination autoantibody production is lacking. Here we aimed to determine the incidence of common autoantibody formation following mRNA COVID-19 vaccines in patients with inflammatory arthritis (IA) and in healthy controls. METHODS:Autoantibody seroconversion was measured by serum ELISA in a longitudinal cohort of IA participants and healthy controls before and after COVID-19 mRNA-based immunization. RESULTS:Overall, there was a significantly lower incidence of ANA seroconversion in participants who did not contract COVID-19 prior to vaccination compared with those who been previously infected (7.4% vs 24.1%, p= 0.014). Incidence of de novo anti-cyclic citrullinated protein (CCP) seroconversion in all participants was low at 4.9%. Autoantibody levels were typically of low titer, transient, and not associated with increase in IA flares. CONCLUSIONS:In both health and inflammatory arthritis, the risk of autoantibody seroconversion is lower following mRNA-based immunization than following natural SARS-CoV-2 infection. Importantly, seroconversion does not correlate with self-reported IA disease flare risk, further supporting the encouragement of mRNA-based COVID-19 immunization in the IA population.
Severe bacterial infections in people who inject drugs: the role of injection-related tissue damage
BACKGROUND:In the context of the current U.S. injection drug use epidemic, targeted public health harm reduction strategies have traditionally focused on overdose prevention and reducing transmission of blood-borne viral infections. Severe bacterial infections (SBI) associated with intravenous drug use have been increasing in frequency in the U.S. over the last decade. This qualitative study aims to identify the risk factors associated with SBI in hospitalized individuals with recent injection drug use. METHODS:Qualitative analysis (nâ€‰=â€‰15) was performed using an in-depth, semi-structured interview of participants admitted to Bellevue Hospital, NYC, with SBI and recent history of injection drug use. Participants were identified through a referral from either the Infectious Diseases or Addition Medicine consultative services. Interviews were transcribed, descriptively coded, and analyzed for key themes. RESULTS:Participants reported a basic understanding of prevention of blood-borne viral transmission but limited understanding of SBI risk. Participants described engagement in high risk injection behaviors prior to hospitalization with SBI. These practices included polysubstance use, repetitive tissue damage, nonsterile drug diluting water and multipurpose use of water container, lack of hand and skin hygiene, re-use of injection equipment, network sharing, and structural factors leading to an unstable drug injection environment. Qualitative analysis led to the proposal of an Ecosocial understanding of SBI risk, detailing the multi-level interplay between individuals and their social and physical environments in producing risk for negative health outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:Structural factors and injection drug use networks directly impact drug use, injection drug use practices, and harm reduction knowledge, ultimately resulting in tissue damage and inoculation of bacteria into the host and subsequent development of SBI. Effective healthcare and community prevention efforts targeted toward reducing risk of bacterial infections could prevent long-term hospitalizations, decrease health care expenditures, and reduce morbidity and mortality.
Accessible Hepatitis C Care for People Who Inject Drugs: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Importance/UNASSIGNED:To achieve hepatitis C elimination, treatment programs need to engage, treat, and cure people who inject drugs. Objective/UNASSIGNED:To compare a low-threshold, nonstigmatizing hepatitis C treatment program that was colocated at a syringe service program (accessible care) with facilitated referral to local clinicians through a patient navigation program (usual care). Design, Setting, and Participants/UNASSIGNED:This single-site randomized clinical trial was conducted at the Lower East Side Harm Reduction Center, a syringe service program in New York, New York, and included 167 participants who were hepatitis C virus RNA-positive and had injected drugs during the prior 90 days. Participants enrolled between July 2017 and March 2020. Data were analyzed after all patients completed 1 year of follow-up (after March 2021). Interventions/UNASSIGNED:Participants were randomized 1:1 to the accessible care or usual care arm. Main Outcomes and Measures/UNASSIGNED:The primary end point was achieving sustained virologic response within 12 months of enrollment. Results/UNASSIGNED:Among the 572 participants screened, 167 (mean [SD] age, 42.0 [10.6] years; 128 (77.6%) male, 36 (21.8%) female, and 1 (0.6) transgender individuals; 8 (4.8%) Black, 97 (58.5%) Hispanic, and 53 (32.1%) White individuals) met eligibility criteria and were enrolled, with 2 excluded postrandomization (nâ€‰=â€‰165). Baseline characteristics were similar between the 2 arms. In the intention-to-treat analysis, 55 of 82 participants (67.1%) in the accessible care arm and 19 of 83 participants (22.9%) in the usual care arm achieved a sustained virologic response (Pâ€‰<â€‰.001). Loss to follow-up (12.2% [accessible care] and 16.9% [usual care]; Pâ€‰=â€‰.51) was similar in the 2 arms. Of the participants who received therapy, 55 of 64 (85.9%) and 19 of 22 (86.3%) achieved a sustained virologic response in the accessible care and usual care arms, respectively (Pâ€‰=â€‰.96). Significantly more participants in the accessible care arm achieved all steps in the care cascade, with the greatest attrition in the usual care arm seen in referral to hepatitis C virus clinician and attending clinical visit. Conclusions and Relevance/UNASSIGNED:In this randomized clinical trial, among people who inject drugs with hepatitis C infection, significantly higher rates of cure were achieved using the accessible care model that focused on low-threshold, colocated, destigmatized, and flexible hepatitis C care compared with facilitated referral. To achieve hepatitis C elimination, expansion of treatment programs that are specifically geared toward engaging people who inject drugs is paramount. Trial Registration/UNASSIGNED:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03214679.
Pediatric Osteoarticular Infections Caused by Mycobacteria Tuberculosis Complex: A 26-year Review of Cases in San Diego, CA
BACKGROUND:Osteoarticular infections (OAIs) account for 10%-20% of extrapulmonary Mycobacteria tuberculosis (MTB) complex infections in children and 1%-2% of all pediatric tuberculosis infections. Treatment regimens and durations typically mirror recommendations for other types of extrapulmonary MTB, but there are significant variations in practice, with some experts suggesting a treatment course of 12 months or longer. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective review of children diagnosed with MTB complex OAI and cared for between December 31, 1992, and December 31, 2018, at a tertiary care pediatric hospital near the United States-Mexico border. RESULTS:We identified 21 children with MTB complex OAI during the study period. Concurrent pulmonary disease (9.5%), meningitis (9.5%), and intra-abdominal involvement (14.3%) were all observed. MTB complex was identified by culture from operative samples in 15/21 children (71.4%); 8/15 (53.3%) cultures were positive for Mycobacterium bovis. Open bone biopsy was the most common procedure for procurement of a tissue sample and had the highest culture yield. The median duration of antimicrobial therapy was 52 weeks (interquartile range, 46-58). Successful completion of therapy was documented in 15 children (71.4%). Nine children (42.9%) experienced long-term sequelae related to their infection. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Among the 21 children with MTB complex OAI assessed, 8 of 15 (53.3%) children with a positive tissue culture had M. bovis, representing a higher percentage than in previous reports and potentially reflecting its presence in unpasteurized dairy products in the California-Baja region. Bone biopsy produced the highest culture yield in this study. Given the rarity of this disease, multicenter collaborative studies are needed to improve our understanding of the presentation and management of pediatric MTB complex OAI.
Safety and immunogenicity of an AS03-adjuvanted SARS-CoV-2 recombinant protein vaccine (CoV2 preS dTM) in healthy adults: interim findings from a phase 2, randomised, dose-finding, multicentre study
BACKGROUND:We evaluated our SARS-CoV-2 prefusion spike recombinant protein vaccine (CoV2 preS dTM) with different adjuvants, unadjuvanted, and in a one-injection and two-injection dosing schedule in a previous phase 1-2 study. Based on interim results from that study, we selected a two-injection schedule and the AS03 adjuvant for further clinical development. However, lower than expected antibody responses, particularly in older adults, and higher than expected reactogenicity after the second vaccination were observed. In the current study, we evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of an optimised formulation of CoV2 preS dTM adjuvanted with AS03 to inform progression to phase 3 clinical trial. METHODS:This phase 2, randomised, parallel-group, dose-ranging study was done in adults (â‰¥18 years old), including those with pre-existing medical conditions, those who were immunocompromised (except those with recent organ transplant or chemotherapy) and those with a potentially increased risk for severe COVID-19, at 20 clinical research centres in the USA and Honduras. Women who were pregnant or lactating or, for those of childbearing potential, not using an effective method of contraception or abstinence, and those who had received a COVID-19 vaccine, were excluded. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1) using an interactive response technology system, with stratification by age (18-59 years and â‰¥60 years), rapid serodiagnostic test result (positive or negative), and high-risk medical conditions (yes or no), to receive two injections (day 1 and day 22) of 5 7mu;g (low dose), 10 7mu;g (medium dose), or 15 7mu;g (high dose) CoV2 preS dTM antigen with fixed AS03 content. All participants and outcome assessors were masked to group assignment; unmasked study staff involved in vaccine preparation were not involved in safety outcome assessments. All laboratory staff performing the assays were masked to treatment. The primary safety objective was to describe the safety profile in all participants, for each candidate vaccine formulation. Safety endpoints were evaluated for all randomised participants who received at least one dose of the study vaccine (safety analysis set), and are presented here for the interim study period (up to day 43). The primary immunogenicity objective was to describe the neutralising antibody titres to the D614G variant 14 days after the second vaccination (day 36) in participants who were SARS-CoV-2 naive who received both injections, provided samples at day 1 and day 36, did not have protocol deviations, and did not receive an authorised COVID-19 vaccine before day 36. Neutralising antibodies were measured using a pseudovirus neutralisation assay and are presented here up to 14 days after the second dose. As a secondary immunogenicity objective, we assessed neutralising antibodies in non-naive participants. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04762680) and is closed to new participants for the cohort reported here. FINDINGS/RESULTS:Of 722 participants enrolled and randomly assigned between Feb 24, 2021, and March 8, 2021, 721 received at least one injection (low dose=240, medium dose=239, and high dose=242). The proportion of participants reporting at least one solicited adverse reaction (injection site or systemic) in the first 7 days after any vaccination was similar between treatment groups (217 [91%] of 238 in the low-dose group, 213 [90%] of 237 in the medium-dose group, and 218 [91%] of 239 in the high-dose group); these adverse reactions were transient, were mostly mild to moderate in intensity, and occurred at a higher frequency and intensity after the second vaccination. Four participants reported immediate unsolicited adverse events; two (one each in the low-dose group and medium-dose group) were considered by the investigators to be vaccine related and two (one each in the low-dose and high-dose groups) were considered unrelated. Five participants reported seven vaccine-related medically attended adverse events (two in the low-dose group, one in the medium-dose group, and four in the high-dose group). No vaccine-related serious adverse events and no adverse events of special interest were reported. Among participants naive to SARS-CoV-2 at day 36, 158 (98%) of 162 in the low-dose group, 166 (99%) of 168 in the medium-dose group, and 163 (98%) of 166 in the high-dose group had at least a two-fold increase in neutralising antibody titres to the D614G variant from baseline. Neutralising antibody geometric mean titres (GMTs) at day 36 for participants who were naive were 2189 (95% CI 1744-2746) for the low-dose group, 2269 (1792-2873) for the medium-dose group, and 2895 (2294-3654) for the high-dose group. GMT ratios (day 36: day 1) were 107 (95% CI 85-135) in the low-dose group, 110 (87-140) in the medium-dose group, and 141 (111-179) in the high-dose group. Neutralising antibody titres in non-naive adults 21 days after one injection tended to be higher than titres after two injections in adults who were naive, with GMTs 21 days after one injection for participants who were non-naive being 3143 (95% CI 836-11â€ˆ815) in the low-dose group, 2338 (593-9226) in the medium-dose group, and 7069 (1361-36â€ˆ725) in the high-dose group. INTERPRETATION/CONCLUSIONS:Two injections of CoV2 preS dTM-AS03 showed acceptable safety and reactogenicity, and robust immunogenicity in adults who were SARS-CoV-2 naive and non-naive. These results supported progression to phase 3 evaluation of the 10 7mu;g antigen dose for primary vaccination and a 5 7mu;g antigen dose for booster vaccination. FUNDING/BACKGROUND:Sanofi Pasteur and Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority.