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Safety and efficacy of antiviral therapy in hepatitis C virus (HCV)Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfected liver transplant recipients: Preliminary HIVTR results [Meeting Abstract]

Krishnan, K; Poordad, F; Reddy, R; Curry, M; Shaikh, OS; Shetty, K; Schiff, E; Dieterich, D; Regenstein, F; Barin, B; Peters, M; Roland, M; Stock, P; Terrault, N
ISSN: 1600-6135
CID: 2728752

Changes in self-esteem during the middle school years: a latent growth curve study of individual and contextual influences

Rhodes, J; Roffman, J; Reddy, R; Fredriksen, K; [Way, Niobe]
Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) techniques were used to explore interactions among individual and contextual variables and their effects on initial self-esteem levels and changes in these levels across the three years of middle school in a large, diverse sample (N = 1804 students attending 23 schools). Interactions among race, social class, school socioeconomic status (SES), and contextual congruity were found to be particularly influential. Low-income European-American youth consistently experienced the lowest self-esteem levels and the sharpest declines during middle school. Social incongruity appears to play a crucial role in predicting such losses. These results highlight the need for further research employing similar techniques to explore how individual and contextual factors affect the development of self-esteem over the middle school years.
ISSN: 0022-4405
CID: 1854752

T(1rho) relaxation can assess longitudinal proteoglycan loss from articular cartilage in vitro

Duvvuri, U; Kudchodkar, S; Reddy, R; Leigh, J S
Objective To assess the correlation between changes in spin-lattice relaxation in the rotating frame (T(1rho)) and proteoglycan (PG) loss from bovine articular cartilage and to demonstrate the feasibility of performing T(1rho) MR imaging on a 1.5T clinical scanner. Design MR relaxation times (T(1rho), T(2) and T(1)) were measured from excised cartilage plugs (N=3) before and after two sequential digestions with trypsin on a 2T whole-body magnet. Proteoglycan and collagen loss induced by the trypsin digestion was measured using standard biochemical techniques. The correlation between changes in relaxation times and PG loss were tested with regression analysis. T(1rho) MRI was also performed on a clinical 1.5T MRI system to determine whether the spatial distribution of PG loss could be detected. The MRI results were compared with histology sections of native and PG-depleted tissue. Results Increase in T(1rho) relaxation times correlated with PG loss (R(2)=0.81). T(1rho) measurements alone were indicative of PG loss (R(2)=0.8), the addition of T1 and T2 data into the statistical model did not improve the correlation substantially (R(2)=0.83). T(1rho)-weighted imaging demonstrated a hyperintense lamina at the articular surface of the digested tissue, which was subjected to trypsin digestion that correlated with a superficial zone of PG loss observed on histological sections. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate that T(1rho) relaxation changes are correlated with PG loss in vitro. Furthermore, T(1rho) measurements alone can be used to indicate PG loss data. T(1rho) MRI may thus be developed into a useful adjunct to existing techniques for the evaluation of cartilage disease.
PMID: 12435327
ISSN: 1063-4584
CID: 5487902

3D T1-weighted MRI of the human knee at 1.5T [Meeting Abstract]

Borthakur, A; Regatte, RR; Akella, SV; Wheaton, AJ; Kneeland, JB; Reddy, R
ISSN: 0033-8419
CID: 2339742

Quantitative T1rho magnetic resonance imaging of RIF-1 tumors in vivo: detection of early response to cyclophosphamide therapy

Duvvuri, U; Poptani, H; Feldman, M; Nadal-Desbarats, L; Gee, M S; Lee, W M; Reddy, R; Leigh, J S; Glickson, J D
This study compares two potential magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indices for noninvasive early detection of tumor response to chemotherapy: the spin-lattice relaxation in the rotating frame (T1rho) and the transverse relaxation time (T2). Measurements of these relaxation parameters were performed on a s.c. murine radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF-1) model before and after cyclophosphamide treatment. The number of pixels exhibiting T1rho values longer than controls in viable regions of the tumor increased significantly as early as 18 h after drug administration and remained elevated up to 36 h after treatment (P < 0.005). Although a trend of increasing T2s relative to controls was noted in viable regions of the tumor 36 h after treatment, the changes were not statistically significant. Histological examination indicated a decrease in mitotic index that paralleled the changes in T1rho. We conclude that T1rho measurements may be useful for noninvasive monitoring of early response of tumors to chemotherapy.
PMID: 11691788
ISSN: 0008-5472
CID: 5487892

Water magnetic relaxation dispersion in biological systems: the contribution of proton exchange and implications for the noninvasive detection of cartilage degradation

Duvvuri, U; Goldberg, A D; Kranz, J K; Hoang, L; Reddy, R; Wehrli, F W; Wand, A J; Englander, S W; Leigh, J S
Magnetic relaxation has been used extensively to study and characterize biological tissues. In particular, spin-lattice relaxation in the rotating frame (T(1rho)) of water in protein solutions has been demonstrated to be sensitive to macromolecular weight and composition. However, the nature of the contribution from low frequency processes to water relaxation remains unclear. We have examined this problem by studying the water T(1rho) dispersion in peptide solutions ((14)N- and (15)N-labeled), glycosaminoglycan solutions, and samples of bovine articular cartilage before and after proteoglycan degradation. We find in model systems and tissue that hydrogen exchange from NH and OH groups to water dominates the low frequency water T(1rho) dispersion, in the context of the model used to interpret the relaxation data. Further, low frequency dispersion changes are correlated with loss of proteoglycan from the extra-cellular matrix of articular cartilage. This finding has significance for the noninvasive detection of matrix degradation.
PMID: 11606754
ISSN: 0027-8424
CID: 5487882

Human knee: in vivo T1(rho)-weighted MR imaging at 1.5 T--preliminary experience

Duvvuri, U; Charagundla, S R; Kudchodkar, S B; Kaufman, J H; Kneeland, J B; Rizi, R; Leigh, J S; Reddy, R
A fast spin-echo sequence weighted with a time constant that defines the magnetic relaxation of spins under the influence of a radio-frequency field (T1(rho)) was used in six subjects to measure magnetic resonance (MR) relaxation times in the knee joint with a 1.5-T MR imager. A quantitative comparison of T2- and T1(rho)-weighted MR images was also performed. Substantial T1(rho) dispersion was demonstrated in human articular cartilage, but muscle did not demonstrate much dispersion. T1(rho)-weighted images depicted a chondral lesion with 25% better signal-difference-to-noise ratios than comparable T2-weighted images. This technique may depict cartilage and muscular abnormalities.
PMID: 11526288
ISSN: 0033-8419
CID: 5487872

T1rho imaging of murine brain tumors at 4 T

Poptani, H; Duvvuri, U; Miller, C G; Mancuso, A; Charagundla, S; Fraser, N W; Glickson, J D; Leigh, J S; Reddy, R
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:The goal of this study was to evaluate the utility of T1rho weighting in magnetic resonance imaging of murine brain tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:S91 Cloudman melanoma was implanted in mouse brains (n = 4). A T2-weighted spin-echo (SE) and a T1rho-weighted fast SE-based sequence were performed on a 4-T clinical imager. T2 and T1rho maps were computed. The tumor-to-normal-tissue contrast was compared between T2-weighted, T1rho-weighted, proton-density-weighted, and pre- and postcontrast T1-weighted SE images. RESULTS:The tumor-tissue contrast of the T1rho-weighted images was similar to that of the T2-weighted images but less than that of the postcontrast T1-weighted images. The T1rho-weighted images provided better definition of tumor boundaries than T2-weighted images. At spin-locking powers of 0.5 and 1.5 kHz, the T1rho of the tumor was 64.0 msec +/- 0.46 and 68.65 msec +/- 0.59, respectively. There was no significant inter- or intra-animal variation in T1rho for tumor or normal brain cortex. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:T1rho-weighted imaging performed at low spin-lock strengths qualitatively depicted tumor borders better than proton-density or T2-weighted imaging and could be useful in treatment planning when combined with other imaging sequences.
PMID: 11201456
ISSN: 1076-6332
CID: 5487862

17O-decoupled (1)H spectroscopy and imaging with a surface coil: STEAM decoupling

Charagundla, S R; Duvvuri, U; Noyszewski, E A; Dandora, R; Stolpen, A H; Leigh, J S; Reddy, R
(17)O-decoupled (1)H spin-echo imaging has been reported as a means of indirect (17)O detection, with potential application to measurement of blood flow and metabolism. In its current form, (17)O decoupling requires large RF amplitudes and a 180 degrees refocusing pulse, complicating its application in volume and surface coils, respectively. To overcome this problem, we have developed an (17)O-decoupled proton stimulated echo sequence ("STEAM decoupling") to allow (17)O detection with a surface coil. A high B(1) amplitude is easily generated, allowing complete decoupling of (17)O and (1)H. Slice-selective, (17)O-decoupled (1)H imaging is readily performed and the sequence is easily adapted for localized spectroscopy. Intrinsic correction for variations in B(1) and further compensation for B(1) inhomogeneity are discussed.
PMID: 10698645
ISSN: 1090-7807
CID: 5487852

Detection of residual quadrupolar interaction in the human breast in vivo using sodium-23 multiple quantum spectroscopy

Duvvuri, U; Leigh, J S; Reddy, R
Sodium multiple quantum (MQ) spectroscopy of the human breast in vivo was performed. Double quantum (DQ) filtered spectra were used to demonstrate the existence of a non-vanishing (residual) quadrupolar interaction in the tissue. Triple quantum (TQ) filtered spectra were used to measure the two time constants associated with the biexponential transverse relaxation times of sodium in biological tissues. The two time constants were found to be 0.64 and 26.57 msec. The potential applications of this finding are discussed.
PMID: 10194708
ISSN: 1053-1807
CID: 5487832