Vulvar infections: beyond sexually transmitted infections
The vulva is an under-studied area of the female genitourinary tract which is prone to maceration, overgrowth of organisms, and atypical presentations of common dermatologic conditions. In current practice, dermatologists must recognize and manage vulvar infections and infestations beyond the more commonly recognized sexually transmitted infections. Herein, this article reviews the literature on a selection of under-recognized viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic vulvar infections and infestations.
Covert spatial attention is functionally intact in amblyopic human adults
Certain abnormalities in behavioral performance and neural signaling have been attributed to a deficit of visual attention in amblyopia, a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a diverse array of visual deficits following abnormal binocular childhood experience. Critically, most have inferred attention's role in their task without explicitly manipulating and measuring its effects against a baseline condition. Here, we directly investigate whether human amblyopic adults benefit from covert spatial attention-the selective processing of visual information in the absence of eye movements-to the same degree as neurotypical observers. We manipulated both involuntary (Experiment 1) and voluntary (Experiment 2) attention during an orientation discrimination task for which the effects of covert spatial attention have been well established in neurotypical and special populations. In both experiments, attention significantly improved accuracy and decreased reaction times to a similar extent (a) between the eyes of the amblyopic adults and (b) between the amblyopes and their age- and gender-matched controls. Moreover, deployment of voluntary attention away from the target location significantly impaired task performance (Experiment 2). The magnitudes of the involuntary and voluntary attention benefits did not correlate with amblyopic depth or severity. Both groups of observers showed canonical performance fields (better performance along the horizontal than vertical meridian and at the lower than upper vertical meridian) and similar effects of attention across locations. Despite their characteristic low-level vision impairments, covert spatial attention remains functionally intact in human amblyopic adults.
Coronary Artery Disease and Reticular Macular Disease, a Subphenotype of Early Age-Related Macular Degeneration
PURPOSE: Reticular macular disease (RMD) is the highest risk form of early age-related macular degeneration and also specifically confers decreased longevity. However, because RMD requires advanced retinal imaging for adequate detection of its characteristic subretinal drusenoid deposits (SDD), it has not yet been completely studied with respect to coronary artery disease (CAD), the leading cause of death in the developed world. Because CAD appears in middle age, our purpose was to screen patients aged 45-80 years, documented either with or without CAD, to determine if CAD is associated with RMD. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study of patients with documented CAD status and no known retinal disease in a clinical practice setting at one institution. Subjects and Controls: A number of 76 eyes from 38 consecutive patients (23 with documented CAD, 15 controls documented without CAD; 47.4% female; mean age 66.7 years). METHODS: Patients were imaged with near-infrared reflectance/spectral domain optical coherence tomography and assessed in masked fashion by two graders for the presence of SDD lesions of RMD and soft drusen. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Presence or absence of RMD/SDD and soft drusen. RESULTS: RMD was more frequent in patients with CAD versus those without (Relative Risk [RR] = 2.1, CI = 1.08-3.95, P = 0.03). There was no association of CAD with soft drusen. CONCLUSIONS: A specific relationship between CAD and RMD suggests common systemic causes for both and warrants further study.
De Novo vs Nevus-Associated Melanomas: Differences in Associations With Prognostic Indicators and Survival
BACKGROUND: Although 20% to 30% of melanomas are histopathologically 'nevus associated,' the majority of melanomas arise de novo, ie, in clinically normal skin with no associated nevus. We examined whether these forms of melanoma differed in their associations with clinical and histopathologic features and patient survival. METHODS: We analyzed two prospective cohorts from our institution with protocol-driven follow-up information (NYU1, n = 1024; NYU2, n = 1125). We used univariate and multivariable analyses to examine associations between de novo vs nevus-associated melanoma classification and age, anatomic site, tumor thickness, tumor ulceration, mitotic index, histological subtype, clinical stage, and survival. We tested the associations identified in NYU1 using NYU2 as a replication cohort. All tests of statistical significance were two-sided. RESULTS: In NYU1, de novo melanomas were associated with tumor thickness greater than 1.0 mm (odds ratio [OR] = 1.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.43 to 2.70, P < .001), ulceration (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.10 to 2.54, P = .02), nodular subtype (OR = 3.26, 95% CI = 1.70 to 7.11, P = .001), greater than stage I (OR = 2.35, 95% CI = 1.65 to 3.40, P < .001), older age (OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.18 to 2.30, P = .004), and shorter overall survival (HR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.22 to 2.18, P < .001). In NYU2, de novo melanoma was again statistically significantly associated with thickness greater than 1.0 mm (OR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.72 to 2.93, P < .001), ulceration (OR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.95 to 4.37, P < .001), nodular subtype (OR = 2.41, 95% CI = 1.75 to 3.37, P < .001), greater than stage I (OR = 2.42, 95% CI = 1.80 to 3.29, P < .001), older age (OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.31 to 2.17, P < .001), and shorter overall survival (HR = 2.52, 95% CI = 1.78 to 3.56, P < .001). In multivariable analysis, de novo classification was an independent, poor prognostic indicator in NYU2 (HR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.19 to 2.44, P = .004). Male patients had a statistically significantly worse survival than female patients if their melanoma was de novo (NYU1, P < .001; NYU2, P < .001); unexpectedly, there was no sex difference in survival among patients with nevus-associated tumors. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that de novo melanomas are more aggressive than nevus-associated melanomas. This classification scheme may also provide a useful framework for investigations into sex differences in melanoma outcomes.
New York University School of Medicine Drug Development Educational Program: 2-Year Benchmark
Drug development (DD) is a multidisciplinary process that spans the translational continuum, yet remains an understudied entity in medical schools and biomedical science institutes. In response to a growing interest and unmet need, we implemented a DD course series that details identification of viable molecular targets, clinical trial design, intellectual property, and marketing. Enrollment is open to faculty, postdoctoral trainees, and MD, PhD, and MS students. After 2 years, 37 students and 23 students completed the fall and spring courses, respectively. Pre/post-surveys demonstrated gained knowledge across course topics, with mean survey scores increased by 66% (p < 0.001) after each course. Lectures for each course were consistently rated highly, with a mean course rating of 4.1/5. Through this program, trainees will have a more innovative approach toward identification of therapeutic targets and modalities. Furthermore, they will learn to integrate technology and biomedical informatics to find creative solutions in the DD process.
Treatment of Acrodermatitis Continua of Hallopeau With Ustekinumab as Monotherapy
Lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei
Lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei (LMDF) is a rare, inflammatory condition, which is characterized by red-brown and yellow-brown papules on the face, with characteristic involvement of the eyelids and with histopathologic findings of suppurative and granulomatous folliculitis and dermatitis. The etiology of this disease is not known, but retinoids, anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and antimicrobial medications are utilized to treat the condition with variable results. We present the case of a patient with LMDF that has thus far been refractory to treatment.
Polarized light dermoscopy to aid in the diagnosis of new pink lesions in an amelanotic melanoma survivor
Examining the scalp for melanoma? Try a blow dryer
De novo versus nevus-associated melanomas: Differences in associations with prognostic indicators and survival. [Meeting Abstract]