COVID-19: Perspectives from Students Pursuing Plastic Surgery
Hematoma After Non-Oncologic Breast Procedures: A Comprehensive Review of the Evidence
BACKGROUND:Hematoma after non-oncologic breast surgery is a common concern requiring expeditious treatment. The purpose of this study is to perform an evidence-based review of perioperative factors that may contribute to hematoma in non-oncologic breast procedures. METHODS:A comprehensive literature review was performed of non-oncologic breast procedures: breast augmentation, single-stage augmentation-mastopexy, mastopexy, and reduction. In total, 28 studies highlighting incidence and potential risk factors for hematoma were included; overall level of evidence was established regarding each perioperative factor examined and hematoma rate. RESULTS:The hematoma rate in breast augmentation ranges from 0.2 to 5.7%. There is inconclusive evidence to support an association between pocket choice or incision location and hematoma rate (Level III) and no evidence of an association between implant type and hematoma (Level V). Single-stage augmentation-mastopexy may have a lower hematoma rate than augmentation alone (Level II). Hematoma may increase the risk of capsular contracture (Level III). In breast reduction, the hematoma rate ranges from 1.0 to 9.3%. Evidence of an association between incision choice and hematoma rate is inconclusive (Level III). Use of epinephrine-containing solution, pedicle choice, and resection weight do not appear to affect hematoma rate (Level V, II, and II, respectively). The use of postoperative drains and ketorolac do not affect the incidence of hematoma (Level I and III, respectively). Intraoperative hypotension may increase the risk of hematoma after breast reduction (Level III). CONCLUSIONS:Breast hematomas are not uncommon complications. Current literature lacks ample evidence for risk factors for hematoma after non-oncologic breast procedures, warranting further, high-powered investigations. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE III/UNASSIGNED:This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
Interview Hoarding: Disparities in the Integrated Plastic Surgery Application Cycle in the COVID-19 Pandemic [Editorial]
Chronicling the COVID-19 pandemic through the plastic surgery literature [Letter]
Dangle protocols in lower extremity reconstruction
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Dangling protocols are known to vary by surgeon and center, and their specific regimen is often largely based on single surgeon or institutional experience. A systematic review was conducted to derive evidence-based recommendations for dangling protocols according to patient-specific and flap-specific considerations. METHODS:A systematic review was performed using PubMed, Embase-OVID and Cochrane-CENTRAL. Study design, patient and flap characteristics, protocol details, dangling-related complications, and flap success rate were recorded. Studies were graded using the Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine Levels of Evidence Scale. Data heterogeneity precluded quantitative analysis. RESULTS:Eleven articles were included (level of evidence (range):IIb-IV; N (range):8-150; age (range):6-89). Dangling initiation, time, and frequency varied considerably. Flap success rate ranged from 94 to 100%. Active smoking, diabetes, and hypertension are associated with characteristic physiologic changes that require vigilance and potential protocol modification. Early dangling appears to be safe across a variety of free flap locations, sizes, and indications. Axial fasciocutaneous flaps may tolerate more aggressive protocols than muscular flaps. While flaps with single venous anastomosis tolerate dangling, double venous or flow-through anastomoses may provide additional benefit. Major limitations included small sample sizes, uncontrolled study designs, and heterogeneous patient selection, dangling practices, monitoring methods, and outcome measures. CONCLUSIONS:Significant heterogeneity persists in postoperative dangling protocols after lower extremity microvascular reconstruction. Patient comorbidities and flap characteristics appear to affect tolerance to dangling. We propose two different standardized pathways based on risk factors. Clinical vigilance should be exercised in tailoring lower extremity protocols to patients' individual characteristics and postoperative course.
Reply to: Virtual Interviews for the 2020-2021 National Residency Matching Program During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Curse or Blessing? [Letter]
Massive, Extended Pedicled Anterolateral Thigh Flap for Abdominal Wall Reconstruction
Perforator Variability of the Anterolateral Thigh Flap Identified on Computed Tomographic Angiography: Anatomic and Clinical Implications
BACKGROUND:â€ƒThe anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap is a useful flap with minimal donor site morbidity. Preoperative computed tomographic angiography (CTA) for lower extremity reconstruction can determine vessel integrity and plan for recipient vascular targets. This study reviews lower extremity CTAs to further characterize ALT vascular anatomy and associated clinical implications thereof. PATIENTS AND METHODS/METHODS:â€ƒLower extremity CTA studies were retrospectively reviewed, and information on ALT cutaneous perforator location, origin, and course was collected. RESULTS:. The majority of patients were females (23, 74.2%). The LCFA most commonly originated from the profunda femoris artery (87.3%), followed by the distal common femoral artery (9.1%). On average, there were 1.66â€‰Â±â€‰0.69â€‰cm perforators per extremity, with an average of 5.38â€‰cm between adjacent perforators. Perforators originated from the descending branch of the LCFA in 89.6% of studies. Perforator caliber was <1â€‰mm (29, 30.2%), 1 to 2â€‰mm (55, 57.3%), or >2â€‰mm (12, 12.5%). Mean distance from the most proximal perforator to the anterior superior iliac spine was 20.4â€‰Â±â€‰4.82â€‰cm. Perforators were musculocutaneous (46.9%), septocutaneous (34.4%), or septomyocutaneous (18.8%). In 58.1% of patients, only one thigh had easily dissectable septocutaneous and/or septomyocutaneous perforators, in which case preoperative CTA aided in donor thigh selection. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:â€ƒALT flap cutaneous perforator anatomy varies considerably. Using CTA, we report on rates of septocutaneous, myocutaneous, and septomyocutaneous perforators and underscore its utility in perforator selection.
Feasibility and Perception of Cross-sex Face Transplantation to Expand the Donor Pool
Background/UNASSIGNED:A major challenge in face transplantation (FT) is the limited donor allograft pool. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of cross-sex FT (CSFT) for donor pool expansion by: (1) comparing craniomaxillofacial metrics following CSFT versus same-sex FT (SSFT); and (2) evaluating the public and medical professionals' perception of CSFT. Methods/UNASSIGNED:Seven cadaveric FTs were performed, resulting in both CSFT and SSFT. Precision of bony and soft tissue inset was evaluated by comparing pre- versus post-operative cephalometric and anthropometric measurements. Fidelity of the FT compared to the virtual plan was assessed by imaging overlay techniques. Surveys were administered to medical professionals, medical students, and general population to evaluate opinions regarding CSFT. Results/UNASSIGNED:< 0.001). On non-blinded and blinded assessments, 62.9% and 79% of responses rated the CSFT superior or equal to SSFT, respectively. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:Our study demonstrates similar anthropometric and cephalometric outcomes for CSFT and SSFT. Participants were more reticent to undergo CSFT, with increased willingness if supported by research. CSFT may represent a viable option for expansion of the donor pool in future patients prepared to undergo transplantation.
Larger free flap size is associated with increased complications in lower extremity trauma reconstruction
BACKGROUND:Free flap reconstruction after lower extremity trauma remains challenging with various factors affecting overall success. Increasing defect and flap size have been demonstrated to be a surrogate for overall injury severity and correlated with complications. In addition, larger free flaps that encompass more tissue theoretically possess high metabolic demand, and may be more susceptible to ischemic insult. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to determine how flap size affects microsurgical outcomes in the setting of lower extremity trauma reconstruction. METHODS:. Partial flap failure, total flap failure, takebacks, and overall major complications (defined as events involving flap compromise) were compared between these two groups. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine whether flap size independently predicts complications and flap failures, controlling for injury-related and operative factors. RESULTS:, use of muscle flaps was associated with significantly increased flap failure rates (p = .008) while for smaller flap size, there was no significant difference in complications between muscle and fasciocutaneous flaps. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:was associated with significantly increased flap failure and complications particularly among muscle-based flaps. Therefore, we suggest that fasciocutaneous flaps be utilized for injuries requiring large surface area of soft tissue reconstruction.