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Wilson, Donald A; Sullivan, Regina M; Smiley, John F; Saito, Mariko; Raineki, Charlis
Prenatal alcohol exposure is the leading nongenetic cause of human intellectual impairment. The long-term impacts of prenatal alcohol exposure on health and well-being are diverse, including neuropathology leading to behavioral, cognitive, and emotional impairments. Additionally negative effects also occur on the physiological level, such as the endocrine, cardiovascular, and immune systems. Among these diverse impacts is sleep disruption. In this review, we describe how prenatal alcohol exposure affects sleep, and potential mechanisms of those effects. Furthermore, we outline the evidence that sleep disruption across the lifespan may be a mediator of some cognitive and behavioral impacts of developmental alcohol exposure, and thus may represent a promising target for treatment.
PMID: 38309498
ISSN: 1873-7528
CID: 5627042

Anti-inflammatory Action of BT75, a Novel RARα Agonist, in Cultured Microglia and in an Experimental Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

Zhang, Xiuli; Subbanna, Shivakumar; Williams, Colin R O; Canals-Baker, Stefanie; Smiley, John F; Wilson, Donald A; Das, Bhaskar C; Saito, Mariko
BT75, a boron-containing retinoid, is a novel retinoic acid receptor (RAR)α agonist synthesized by our group. Previous studies indicated that activation of retinoic acid (RA) signaling may attenuate progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Presently, we aimed to examine the anti-inflammatory effect of BT75 and explore the possible mechanism using cultured cells and an AD mouse model. Pretreatment with BT75 (1-25 µM) suppressed the release of nitric oxide (NO) and IL-1β in the culture medium of mouse microglial SIM-A9 cells activated by LPS. BMS195614, an RARα antagonist, partially blocked the inhibition of NO production by BT75. Moreover, BT75 attenuated phospho-Akt and phospho-NF-κB p65 expression augmented by LPS. In addition, BT75 elevated arginase 1, IL-10, and CD206, and inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and IL-6 formation in LPS-treated SIM-A9 cells, suggesting the promotion of M1-M2 microglial phenotypic polarization. C57BL/6 mice were injected intracerebroventricularly (icv) with streptozotocin (STZ) (3 mg/kg) to provide an AD-like mouse model. BT75 (5 mg/kg) or the vehicle was intraperitoneally (ip) injected to icv-STZ mice once a day for 3 weeks. Immunohistochemical analyses indicated that GFAP-positive cells and rod or amoeboid-like Iba1-positive cells, which increased in the hippocampal fimbria of icv-STZ mice, were reduced by BT75 treatment. Western blot results showed that BT75 decreased levels of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), GFAP, and phosphorylated Tau, and increased levels of synaptophysin in the hippocampus of icv-STZ mice. BT75 may attenuate neuroinflammation by affecting the Akt/NF-κB pathway and microglial M1-M2 polarization in LPS-stimulated SIM-A9 cells. BT75 also reduced AD-like pathology including glial activation in the icv-STZ mice. Thus, BT75 may be a promising anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective agent worthy of further AD studies.
PMID: 36781685
ISSN: 1573-6903
CID: 5427072

Somatostatin neuron contributions to cortical slow wave dysfunction in adult mice exposed to developmental ethanol

Wilson, Donald A.; Fleming, G.; Williams, C. R.O.; Teixeira, C. M.; Smiley, J. F.; Saito, Mariko
Introduction: Transitions between sleep and waking and sleep-dependent cortical oscillations are heavily dependent on GABAergic neurons. Importantly, GABAergic neurons are especially sensitive to developmental ethanol exposure, suggesting a potential unique vulnerability of sleep circuits to early ethanol. In fact, developmental ethanol exposure can produce long-lasting impairments in sleep, including increased sleep fragmentation and decreased delta wave amplitude. Here, we assessed the efficacy of optogenetic manipulations of somatostatin (SST) GABAergic neurons in the neocortex of adult mice exposed to saline or ethanol on P7, to modulate cortical slow-wave physiology. Methods: SST-cre × Ai32 mice, which selectively express channel rhodopsin in SST neurons, were exposed to ethanol or saline on P7. This line expressed similar developmental ethanol induced loss of SST cortical neurons and sleep impairments as C57BL/6By mice. As adults, optical fibers were implanted targeting the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and telemetry electrodes were implanted in the neocortex to monitor slow-wave activity and sleep-wake states. Results: Optical stimulation of PFC SST neurons evoked slow-wave potentials and long-latency single-unit excitation in saline treated mice but not in ethanol mice. Closed-loop optogenetic stimulation of PFC SST neuron activation on spontaneous slow-waves enhanced cortical delta oscillations, and this manipulation was more effective in saline mice than P7 ethanol mice. Discussion: Together, these results suggest that SST cortical neurons may contribute to slow-wave impairment after developmental ethanol.
ISSN: 1662-4548
CID: 5460362

Estimates of total neuron number show that neonatal ethanol causes immediate and lasting neuron loss in cortical and subcortical areas

Smiley, John F.; Bleiwas, Cynthia; Marino, Brandon M.; Vaddi, Prerana; Canals-Baker, Stefanie; Wilson, Donald A.; Saito, Mariko
In neonatal brain development there is a period of normal apoptotic cell death that regulates adult neuron number. At approximately the same period, ethanol exposure can cause a dramatic spike in apoptotic cell death. While ethanol-induced apoptosis has been shown to reduce adult neuron number, questions remain about the regional selectivity of the ethanol effect, and whether the brain might have some capacity to overcome the initial neuron loss. The present study used stereological cell counting to compare cumulative neuron loss 8 h after postnatal day 7 (P7) ethanol treatment to that of animals left to mature to adulthood (P70). Across several brain regions we found that the reduction of total neuron number after 8 h was as large as that of adult animals. Comparison between regions revealed that some areas are more vulnerable, with neuron loss in the anterior thalamic nuclei > the medial septum/vertical diagonal band, dorsal subiculum, and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus > the mammillary bodies and cingulate cortex > whole neocortex. In contrast to estimates of total neuron number, estimates of apoptotic cell number in Nissl-stained sections at 8 h after ethanol treatment provided a less reliable predictor of adult neuron loss. The findings show that ethanol-induced neonatal apoptosis often causes immediate neuron deficits that persist in adulthood, and furthermore suggests that the brain may have limited capacity to compensate for ethanol-induced neuron loss.
ISSN: 1662-4548
CID: 5501662

Cocaine perturbs mitovesicle biology in the brain

D'Acunzo, Pasquale; Ungania, Jonathan M; Kim, Yohan; Barreto, Bryana R; DeRosa, Steven; Pawlik, Monika; Canals-Baker, Stefanie; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Hashim, Audrey; Goulbourne, Chris N; Neubert, Thomas A; Saito, Mariko; Sershen, Henry; Levy, Efrat
Cocaine, an addictive psychostimulant, has a broad mechanism of action, including the induction of a wide range of alterations in brain metabolism and mitochondrial homeostasis. Our group recently identified a subpopulation of non-microvesicular, non-exosomal extracellular vesicles of mitochondrial origin (mitovesicles) and developed a method to isolate mitovesicles from brain parenchyma. We hypothesised that the generation and secretion of mitovesicles is affected by mitochondrial abnormalities induced by chronic cocaine exposure. Mitovesicles from the brain extracellular space of cocaine-administered mice were enlarged and more numerous when compared to controls, supporting a model in which mitovesicle biogenesis is enhanced in the presence of mitochondrial alterations. This interrelationship was confirmed in vitro. Moreover, cocaine affected mitovesicle protein composition, causing a functional alteration in mitovesicle ATP production capacity. These data suggest that mitovesicles are previously unidentified players in the biology of cocaine addiction and that target therapies to fine-tune brain mitovesicle functionality may be beneficial to mitigate the effects of chronic cocaine exposure.
PMID: 36691887
ISSN: 2001-3078
CID: 5426532

Effects of retinoic acid receptor α modulators on developmental ethanol-induced neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation

Saito, Mariko; Subbanna, Shivakumar; Zhang, Xiuli; Canals-Baker, Stefanie; Smiley, John F; Wilson, Donald A; Das, Bhaskar C
Ethanol exposure in neonatal mice induces acute neurodegeneration followed by long-lasting glial activation and GABAergic cell deficits along with behavioral abnormalities, providing a third trimester model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Retinoic acid (RA), the active form of vitamin A, regulates transcription of RA-responsive genes and plays essential roles in the development of embryos and their CNS. Ethanol has been shown to disturb RA metabolism and signaling in the developing brain, which may be a cause of ethanol toxicity leading to FASD. Using an agonist and an antagonist specific to RA receptor α (RARα), we studied how RA/RARα signaling affects acute and long-lasting neurodegeneration and activation of phagocytic cells and astrocytes caused by ethanol administered to neonatal mice. We found that an RARα antagonist (BT382) administered 30 min before ethanol injection into postnatal day 7 (P7) mice partially blocked acute neurodegeneration as well as elevation of CD68-positive phagocytic cells in the same brain area. While an RARα agonist (BT75) did not affect acute neurodegeneration, BT75 given either before or after ethanol administration ameliorated long-lasting astrocyte activation and GABAergic cell deficits in certain brain regions. Our studies using Nkx2.1-Cre;Ai9 mice, in which major GABAergic neurons and their progenitors in the cortex and the hippocampus are labeled with constitutively expressed tdTomato fluorescent protein, indicate that the long-lasting GABAergic cell deficits are mainly caused by P7 ethanol-induced initial neurodegeneration. However, the partial reduction of prolonged GABAergic cell deficits and glial activation by post-ethanol BT75 treatment suggests that, in addition to the initial cell death, there may be delayed cell death or disturbed development of GABAergic cells, which is partially rescued by BT75. Since RARα agonists including BT75 have been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects, BT75 may rescue GABAergic cell deficits by reducing glial activation/neuroinflammation.
PMID: 37205047
ISSN: 1662-4548
CID: 5544362

Homeostatic NREM sleep and salience network function in adult mice exposed to ethanol during development

Shah, Prachi; Kaneria, Aayush; Fleming, Gloria; Williams, Colin R O; Sullivan, Regina M; Lemon, Christian H; Smiley, John; Saito, Mariko; Wilson, Donald A
Developmental exposure to ethanol is a leading cause of cognitive, emotional and behavioral problems, with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) affecting more than 1:100 children. Recently, comorbid sleep deficits have been highlighted in these disorders, with sleep repair a potential therapeutic target. Animal models of FASD have shown non-REM (NREM) sleep fragmentation and slow-wave oscillation impairments that predict cognitive performance. Here we use a mouse model of perinatal ethanol exposure to explore whether reduced sleep pressure may contribute to impaired NREM sleep, and compare the function of a brain network reported to be impacted by insomnia-the Salience network-in developmental ethanol-exposed mice with sleep-deprived, saline controls. Mice were exposed to ethanol or saline on postnatal day 7 (P7) and allowed to mature to adulthood for testing. At P90, telemetered cortical recordings were made for assessment of NREM sleep in home cage before and after 4 h of sleep deprivation to assess basal NREM sleep and homeostatic NREM sleep response. To assess Salience network functional connectivity, mice were exposed to the 4 h sleep deprivation period or left alone, then immediately sacrificed for immunohistochemical analysis of c-Fos expression. The results show that developmental ethanol severely impairs both normal rebound NREM sleep and sleep deprivation induced increases in slow-wave activity, consistent with reduced sleep pressure. Furthermore, the Salience network connectome in rested, ethanol-exposed mice was most similar to that of sleep-deprived, saline control mice, suggesting a sleep deprivation-like state of Salience network function after developmental ethanol even without sleep deprivation.
PMID: 38033546
ISSN: 1662-4548
CID: 5616972

Cocaine Modulates the Neuronal Endosomal System and Extracellular Vesicles in a Sex-Dependent Manner

Barreto, Bryana R; D'Acunzo, Pasquale; Ungania, Jonathan M; Das, Sasmita; Hashim, Audrey; Goulbourne, Chris N; Canals-Baker, Stefanie; Saito, Mitsuo; Saito, Mariko; Sershen, Henry; Levy, Efrat
In multiple neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders, endosomal changes correlate with changes in exosomes. We examined this linkage in the brain of mice that received cocaine injections for two weeks starting at 2.5 months of age. Cocaine caused a decrease in the number of both neuronal early and late endosomes and exosomes in the brains of male but not female mice. The response to cocaine in ovariectomized females mirrored male, demonstrating that these sex-differences in response to cocaine are driven by hormonal differences. Moreover, cocaine increased the amount of α-synuclein per exosome in the brain of females but did not affect exosomal α-synuclein content in the brain of males, a sex-difference eliminated by ovariectomy. Enhanced packaging of α-synuclein into female brain exosomes with the potential for propagation of pathology throughout the brain suggests a mechanism for the different response of females to chronic cocaine exposure as compared to males.
PMID: 35501523
ISSN: 1573-6903
CID: 5216002

Cocaine Induces Sex-Associated Changes in Lipid Profiles of Brain Extracellular Vesicles

Landfield, Qwynn; Saito, Mitsuo; Hashim, Audrey; Canals-Baker, Stefanie; Sershen, Henry; Levy, Efrat; Saito, Mariko
Cocaine is a highly addictive stimulant with diverse effects on physiology. Recent studies indicate the involvement of extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted by neural cells in the cocaine addiction process. It is hypothesized that cocaine affects secretion levels of EVs and their cargos, resulting in modulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity related to addiction physiology and pathology. Lipids present in EVs are important for EV formation and for intercellular lipid exchange that may trigger physiological and pathological responses, including neuroplasticity, neurotoxicity, and neuroinflammation. Specific lipids are highly enriched in EVs compared to parent cells, and recent studies suggest the involvement of various lipids in drug-induced synaptic plasticity during the development and maintenance of addiction processes. Therefore, we examined interstitial small EVs isolated from the brain of mice treated with either saline or cocaine, focusing on the effects of cocaine on the lipid composition of EVs. We demonstrate that 12 days of noncontingent repeated cocaine (10 mg/kg) injections to mice, which induce locomotor sensitization, cause lipid composition changes in brain EVs of male mice as compared with saline-injected controls. The most prominent change is the elevation of GD1a ganglioside in brain EVs of males. However, cocaine does not affect the EV lipid profiles of the brain in female mice. Understanding the relationship between lipid composition in EVs and vulnerability to cocaine addiction may provide insight into novel targets for therapies for addiction.
PMID: 34245421
ISSN: 1573-6903
CID: 4950392

Neonatal ethanol causes profound reduction of cholinergic cell number in the basal forebrain of adult animals

Smiley, John F; Bleiwas, Cynthia; Canals-Baker, Stefanie; Williams, Sharifa Z; Sears, Robert; Teixeira, Catia M; Wilson, Donald A; Saito, Mariko
In animal models that mimic human third-trimester fetal development, ethanol causes substantial cellular apoptosis in the brain, but for most brain structures the extent of permanent neuron loss that persists into adulthood is unknown. We injected ethanol into C57BL/6J mouse pups at postnatal day 7 (P7) to model human late-gestation ethanol toxicity, and then used stereological methods to investigate adult cell numbers in several subcortical neurotransmitter systems that project extensively in the forebrain to regulate arousal states. Ethanol treatment caused especially large reductions (34-42%) in the cholinergic cells of the basal forebrain, including cholinergic cells in the medial septal/vertical diagonal band (Ch1/Ch2) and in the horizontal diagonal band/substantia innominata/nucleus basalis (Ch3/Ch4) nuclei. Cell loss was also present in non-cholinergic basal forebrain cells, as demonstrated by 34% reduction of parvalbumin immunolabeled GABA cells and 25% reduction of total Nissl-stained neurons in the Ch1/Ch2 region. In contrast, cholinergic cells in the striatum were reduced only 12% by ethanol, and those of the brainstem pedunculopontine/lateral dorsal tegmental nuclei (Ch5/Ch6) were not significantly reduced. Similarly, ethanol did not significantly reduce dopamine cells of the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra or serotonin cells in the in the dorsal raphe nucleus. Orexin (hypocretin) cells in the hypothalamus showed a modest reduction (14%). Our findings indicate that the basal forebrain is especially vulnerable to alcohol exposure in the late gestational period. Reduction of cholinergic and GABAergic projection neurons from the basal forebrain that regulate forebrain arousal may contribute to the behavioral and cognitive deficits associated with neonatal ethanol exposure.
PMID: 34464696
ISSN: 1873-6823
CID: 5000272