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Total knee arthroplasty is associated with greater immediate post-surgical pain and opioid use than total hip arthroplasty

Kugelman, David N; Mahure, Siddharth A; Feng, James E; Rozell, Joshua C; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Long, William J
BACKGROUND:As greater emphasis is being placed on opioid reduction strategies and implementation of multimodal analgesia, we sought to determine whether immediate post-surgical opioid consumption was different between THA and TKA. METHODS:A single-institution total joint arthroplasty database was used to identify patients who underwent elective THA and TKA from 2016 to July 2019. Baseline demographic data, operative time (defined by incision time), and American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) class were collected. Morphine milligram equivalents (MME) were calculated and derived from prospectively documented nursing opioid administration events, while visual analog scale (VAS) scores represented pain levels, both of which were collected as part of our institution's standard protocols. Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care (AMPAC) was used to determine physical therapy progress. RESULTS:; p < 0.01). THA patients had lower ASA scores in comparison to TKA patients (p < 0.01). Aggregate opioid consumption (93.76 MME vs 147.55 MME; p < 0.01) along with first 24-h and 48-h usage was significantly less for THA as compared to TKA. Similarly, mean pain scores (4.15 vs 5.08; p < 0.01) were lower for THA, while AMPAC mobilization scores were higher (20.88 vs 19.29; p < 0.01) when compared to TKA. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:THA patients reported lower pain scores and were found to require less opioid medication in the immediate post-surgical period than TKA patients.
PMID: 33991234
ISSN: 1434-3916
CID: 4889432

Effect of Marital Status on Outcomes Following Total Joint Arthroplasty

Singh, Vivek; Fiedler, Benjamin; Kugelman, David N; Meftah, Morteza; Aggarwal, Vinay K; Schwarzkopf, Ran
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the specific socioeconomic factor such as marital status has any effect on clinical outcomes and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) after primary total hip (THA) and knee (TKA) arthroplasty. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent primary THA or TKA from January 2019 to August 2019 who answered all PROM questionnaires. Both THA and TKA patients were separated into two groups based on their marital status at the time of surgery (married vs. non-married). Demographics, clinical data, and PROMs (FJS-12, HOOS, JR, KOOS, JR, and VR-12 PCS&MCS) were collected at various time-periods. Demographic differences were assessed using chi-square and independent sample t tests. Clinical data and mean PROMs were compared using multilinear regressions while accounting for demographic differences. RESULTS:This study included 389 patients who underwent primary THA and 193 that underwent primary TKA. In the THA cohort, 256 (66%) patients were married and 133 (34%) were non-married. In the TKA cohort, there were 117 (61%) married patients and 76 (39%) non-married patients. Length of stay was significantly shorter for married patients in both the THA (1.30 vs. 1.64; p = 0.002) and TKA (1.89 vs. 2.36; p = 0.024) cohorts. Surgical-time, all-cause emergency department visits, discharge disposition, and 90-day all-cause adverse events (readmissions/revisions) did not statistically differ between both cohorts. Both HOOS, JR and KOOS, JR score improvements from baseline to 1-year did not statistically differ for the THA and TKA cohorts, respectively. Although VR-12 PCS (p = 0.012) and MCS (p = 0.004) score improvement from baseline to 1-year statistically differed for the THA cohort, they did not for the TKA cohort. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Total joint arthroplasty may yield similar clinical benefits in all patients irrespective of their marital status. Although some PROMs statistically differed among married and non-married patients, the differences are likely not clinically significant. Surgeons should continue to assess levels of psychosocial support in their patients prior to undergoing TJA to optimize outcomes. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:III, Retrospective Cohort Study.
PMID: 34032892
ISSN: 1434-3916
CID: 4887742

Conversion total hip arthroplasty for early failure following unstable intertrochanteric hip fracture: what can patients expect?

Schultz, Blake J; Sicat, Chelsea; Penev, Aleks; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Egol, Kenneth A
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To report surgical outcomes in patients treated with conversion total hip arthroplasty (CTHA) for early failure of cephalomedullary nails (CMNs). METHODS:A retrospective review was conducted of CTHA for treatment of failed CMN within 1 year of initial surgery for intertrochanteric (IT) hip fractures. The cohort was matched 1:5 to patients who underwent elective primary THA (PTHA). Patient demographics, mechanism of CMN failure, surgical outcomes, and complication rates were assessed. RESULTS:22 patients met criteria with a mean time to failure of 145 days. Modes of failure included: lag screw cut-out with superior migration (9, 40.9%), or medialization (8, 36.4%), and aseptic nonunion with implant failure (2, 9.0%) and without implant failure (3, 13.6%). Fourteen of the patients (63.6%) had acetabular-sided damage secondary to lag screw penetration, all in the screw cut-out groups. Patient demographics were similar between cohorts. Compared to PTHA, CTHA patients had increased operative time, blood loss, LOS, and readmission rates. After IMN failure, the operative leg was shorter than the contralateral leg in all cases. CTHA restored leg lengths to <  = 10 mm in 15 (68.1%) of patients, with an average leg length discrepancy after CTHA of 6.7 mm. CTHA patients had increased rates of overall surgical complications and medical complications, specifically anemia (all p < 0.01). Tranexamic acid was used less often in the CTHA group (p < 0.01). Rate of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI), dislocation, and revision were all higher in the CTHA, though did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The majority (77.3%) of CMN implant failure for nonunion within 1 year was due to screw cut-out. CTHA is a salvage option for early failed IT hip fracture repair, but expected surgical outcomes are more similar to revision THA than primary THA, with increased risk of readmission, longer surgery and LOS, increased blood loss, and higher complication rates. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:III, Retrospective comparative study.
PMID: 34657163
ISSN: 1434-3916
CID: 5043032

Prior Instability is Strongly Associated With Dislocation After Isolated Head and Liner Exchange

Berlinberg, Elyse J; Roof, Mackenzie A; Shichman, Ittai; Meftah, Morteza; Schwarzkopf, Ran
BACKGROUND:Isolated head and liner exchange is an appealing alternative to a more extensive revision total hip arthroplasty in patients who have well-fixed components. Despite efforts to increase femoral offset and restore soft tissue tensioning, limited component revision may be associated with higher rates of postoperative instability. METHODS:(range, 18.2-46.7). The most common indications for surgery included acetabular liner wear in 86 hips (41%), instability in 40 hips (19%), and infection in 36 hips (17%). RESULTS:increase, 95% CI 0.80-0.99, P = .046). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:In a large cohort of patients who had isolated head and liner exchange, patients who had prior instability had 7-fold elevated odds of postoperative dislocation. This risk remains significant after controlling for cup positioning outside the Lewinnek safe zone, liner type, head size, neck length, soft tissue compromise, neuromuscular disease, and dual mobility constructs. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:III, retrospective cohort study.
PMID: 35780950
ISSN: 1532-8406
CID: 5280092

Impact of Indication for Revision THA on Resource Utilization

Shichman, Ittai; Kurapatti, Mark; Roof, Mackenzie; Christensen, Thomas H; Rozell, Joshua C; Schwarzkopf, Ran
BACKGROUND:Demographic variables play an important role in outcomes following revision total hip arthroplasty (rTHA). Surgical and in-patient variables as well as outcomes vary between indications for rTHA. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the indication for the rTHA on costs and postoperative outcomes. METHODS:This retrospective cohort analysis investigated all patients who underwent unilateral, aseptic rTHA at an academic orthopaedic specialty hospital who had at least 1-year postoperative follow-up. In total, 654 patients were evaluated and categorized based on their indication for aseptic rTHA. Demographics, direct and total procedure costs, surgical factors, postoperative outcomes, and re-revision rates were collected and compared between indications. RESULTS:Younger patients had the greatest leg length discrepancy (LLD) and older patients had the highest incidence of periprosthetic fracture (PPF) (P = .001). The greatest proportion of full revisions were found for LLD (16.7%) and head/polyethylene liner-only revisions for metallosis/adverse tissue reaction (100%). Operative time was significantly longest for LLD revisions and shortest for metallosis/adverse tissue reaction revisions (P < .001). Length of stay was longest for periprosthetic fracture and shortest for LLD and stiffness/heterotopic ossification (P < .001). Re-revision rate was greatest for implant failure and lowest for LLD. Total cost was highest for PPF (148.9%) and lowest for polyethylene liner wear (87.7%). CONCLUSIONS:Patients undergoing rTHA for indications such as PPF and aseptic loosening were associated with longer operative times, length of stay and higher total and direct costs. Therefore, they may need increased perioperative attention with respect to resource utilization, risk stratification, surgical planning, and cost-reducing measures. LEVEL III EVIDENCE/METHODS:Retrospective Cohort Study.
PMID: 35738359
ISSN: 1532-8406
CID: 5282102

Minimum 2-Year Outcomes of a Novel 3D-printed Fully Porous Titanium Acetabular Shell in Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty

Berlinberg, Elyse J; Kavian, J Abraham; Roof, Mackenzie A; Shichman, Ittai; Frykberg, Brett; Lutes, William B; Schnaser, Erik A; Jones, Stephen A; McCalden, Richard W; Schwarzkopf, Ran
Background/UNASSIGNED:Fully porous acetabular shells are an appealing choice for patients with extensive acetabular defects undergoing revision total hip arthroplasty (rTHA). This study reports on the early outcomes of a novel 3-D printed fully porous titanium acetabular shell in revision acetabular reconstruction. Methods/UNASSIGNED:A multicenter retrospective study of patients who received a fully porous titanium acetabular shell for rTHA with a minimum of 2 years of follow-up was conducted. The primary outcome was rate of acetabular revision. Results/UNASSIGNED:(standard deviation 5.9). Ninety-four percent had a preoperative Paprosky defect grade of 2A or higher. The average follow-up duration was 3.0 years (range 2.0-5.1). Revision-free survivorship at 2 years was 81% for all causes, 88% for acetabular revisions, and 90% for acetabular revision for aseptic acetabular shell failure. Eight shells were explanted within 2 years (12%): 3 for failure of osseointegration/aseptic loosening (4%) after 15, 17, and 20 months; 3 for infection (4%) after 1, 3, and 6 months; and 2 for instability (3%). At the latest postoperative follow-up, all unrevised shells showed radiographic signs of osseointegration, and none had migrated. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:This novel 3-D printed fully porous titanium shell in rTHA demonstrated good survivorship and osseointegration when used in complex acetabular reconstruction at a minimum of 2 years. Level of evidence/UNASSIGNED:IV, case series.
PMCID:9576483
PMID: 36267391
ISSN: 2352-3441
CID: 5360552

Correction to: Comparison of silver‑embedded occlusive dressings and negative pressure wound therapy following total joint arthroplasty in high BMI patients: a randomized controlled trial

Lygrisse, Katherine A; Teo, Greg; Singh, Vivek; Muthusamy, Nishanth; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Long, William John
PMID: 36370161
ISSN: 1434-3916
CID: 5357712

Impact of COVID-19 Protocols on Primary and Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty

Sybert, Michael; Oakley, Christian T; Christensen, Thomas; Bosco, Joseph; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Slover, James
BACKGROUND:Surgical site infection (SSI) after total hip arthroplasty (THA) is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare expenditures. Our institution intensified hygiene standards during the COVID-19 pandemic; hospital staff exercised greater hand hygiene, glove use, and mask compliance. We examined the effect of these factors on SSI rates for primary THA (pTHA) and revision THA (rTHA). METHODS:A retrospective review was performed identifying THA from January 2019 to June 2021 at a single institution. Baseline characteristics and outcomes were compared before (January 2019 to February 2020) and during (May 2020 to June 2021) the COVID-19 pandemic and during the first (May 2020 to November 2020) and second (December 2020 to June 2021) periods of the pandemic. Cohorts were compared using the Chi-squared test and independent samples t-test. RESULTS:A total of 2,682 pTHA (prepandemic: 1,549 [57.8%]; pandemic: 1,133 [42.2%]) and 402 rTHA (prepandemic: 216 [53.7%]; Pandemic: 186 [46.2%]) were included. For primary and revision cases, superficial and deep SSI rates were similar before and during COVID-19. During COVID-19, the incidence of all (-0.43%, P = .029) and deep (-0.36%, P = .049) SSIs decreased between the first and second periods for rTHA. pTHA patients had longer operative times (P < .001) and shorter length of stay (P = .006) during COVID-19. Revision cases had longer operative times (P = .004) and length of stay (P = .046). Both pTHA and rTHA were discharged to skilled nursing facilities less frequently during COVID-19. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:During COVID-19, operative times were longer in both pTHA and rTHA and patients were less likely to be discharged to a skilled nursing facility. Although intensified hygienic standards may lower SSI rates, infection rates did not significantly differ after our hospital implemented personal protective guidelines and a mask mandate.
PMID: 35598760
ISSN: 1532-8406
CID: 5247812

Trends in Revenue, Cost, and Contribution Margin for Total Joint Arthroplasty 2011-2021

Bieganowski, Thomas; Christensen, Thomas H; Bosco, Joseph A; Lajam, Claudette M; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Slover, James D
BACKGROUND:Regulatory change has created a growing demand to decrease the hospital costs associated with primary total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Concurrently, the removal of lower extremity TJA from the in-patient only list has affected hospital reimbursement. The purpose of this study is to investigate trends in hospital revenue versus costs in primary TJA. METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent primary TJA from June 2011 to May 2021 at our institution. Patient demographics, revenue, total cost, direct cost, and contribution margin were collected. Changes over time as a percentage of 2011 numbers were analyzed. Linear regression analysis was used to determine overall trend significance and develop projection models. RESULTS:Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) insured by government-managed/Medicaid (GMM) plans showed a significant upward trend (p=0.013) in total costs. Direct costs of TKA across all insurance providers (p=0.001 and p<0.001) and total hip arthroplasty (THA) for Medicare (p=0.009) and GMM (p=0.001) plans demonstrated significant upward trends. Despite this, 2011 to 2021 modeling found no significant change in contribution margin for TKA and THA covered under all insurance plans. However, models based on 2018 to 2021 financial data demonstrate a significant downward trend in contribution margin across Medicare (p<0.001) and GMM (p<0.001) insurers for both TKA and THA. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Physician-led innovation in cost-saving strategies has maintained contribution margin over the past decade. However, the increase in direct costs seen over the past few years could lead to negative contribution margins over time if further efficiency and cost-saving measures are not developed.
PMID: 35533825
ISSN: 1532-8406
CID: 5214192

Impact of Coronavirus Disease-2019 Protocols on Primary and Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty

Oakley, Christian T; Sybert, Michael; Arraut, Jerry; Bosco, Joseph; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Slover, James D
PMID: 36301569
ISSN: 1557-8674
CID: 5358342