Does the Primary Surgical Approach Matter when Choosing the Approach for Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty?
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Multiple surgical approaches are used for primary total hip arthroplasty (pTHA) and revision total hip arthroplasty (rTHA). This study sought to investigate prevalence of discordance of pTHA and rTHA surgical approaches and to evaluate the impact of approach concordance on postoperative outcomes. METHODS:A multi-center retrospective review of patients who underwent rTHA from 2000 to 2021 was conducted at three large, urban academic centers. Patients who had a minimum one-year follow-up post-rTHA were included and grouped based on whether they received pTHA via a posterior (PA), direct anterior (DA), or laterally-based (DL) approach, and by concordance of index rTHA approach with their pTHA approach. Of the 917 patients studied, 839 (91.5%) were included in the concordant cohort and 78 (8.5%) in the discordant cohort. Patient demographics, operative characteristics, and postoperative outcomes were compared. RESULTS:Discordance was most prevalent in the DA-pTHA subset (29.5%), compared to the DL-pTHA subset (14.7%) or PA-pTHA subset (3.7%). Discordance varied significantly between primary approaches among all revisions, with DA-pTHA patients having the highest discordance rate for patients revised for aseptic loosening (46.3%, P<0.001), fracture (22.2%, P<0.001), and dislocation (33.3%, P<0.001). There were no differences between groups in dislocation rate, re-revision for infection, or re-revision for fracture. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The results of this multicenter study showed patients who received pTHA via the DA were more likely to receive rTHA via a discordant approach compared to other primary approaches. Since approach concordance did not impact dislocation, infection, or fracture rates after rTHA, surgeons can feel reassured using a separate approach for rTHA.
Opioid Consumption and Mobilization in Staged Bilateral Total Joint Arthroplasty: Did We Learn Our Lesson the First Time?
BACKGROUND:In patients who require bilateral total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA), staged procedures are a reasonable option for treatment of bilateral osteoarthritis. We sought to determine whether perioperative outcomes differed between first and second total joint arthroplasty (TJA). METHODS:This was a retrospective review of all patients who underwent staged, bilateral THA or TKA between January 30, 2017, and April 8, 2021. All patients who were included underwent their second procedure within 1 year of the first. Patients were separated based on whether both their procedures took place before or subsequently after an institution-wide opioid-sparing protocol that was implemented on October 1, 2018. A total of 961 patients who underwent 1,922 procedures met the inclusion criteria for this study. For THA, 388 unique patients comprised 776 procedures, while 573 unique patients comprised 1,146 TKAs. Opioid prescriptions were prospectively documented on nursing opioid administration flowsheets and converted to morphine milligram equivalents (MME) for comparison. Activity measure scores for postacute care (AM-PAC) were used as a measurement of physical therapy progression. RESULTS:Hospital stays, home discharges, perioperative opioid usages, pain scores, and AM-PAC scores were not significantly different for the second THA or TKA compared to first procedure, regardless of timing in relation to the opioid-sparing protocol. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Patients experienced similar outcomes following their first versus their second TJA. Limited opioid prescriptions following TJA do not negatively impact pain and functional outcomes. These protocols can safely be instituted to help mitigate the opioid epidemic. LEVEL III EVIDENCE/METHODS:Retrospective Cohort Study.
Treatment of Intraoperative Trochanteric Fractures During Primary and Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty
Intraoperative trochanteric fractures during primary and revision total hip arthroplasty typically occur during femoral canal preparation and component placement. Several fixation strategies, including wires, cables, cable grips, and plating, are available for fracture fixation. Surgeons should consider patient activity level preoperatively, bone mineral density, and fracture morphology when deciding on fixation strategies. Patient activity must be modified postoperatively to prevent fracture displacement and additional complications. Patients must be counseled postoperatively about the possibility of decreased clinical outcomes.
Does body mass index influence improvement in patient reported outcomes following total knee arthroplasty? A retrospective analysis of 3918 cases
Purpose: The study aimed to determine whether body mass index (BMI) classification for patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is associated with differences in mean patient reported outcome measure (PROM) score improvements across multiple domains"”including pain, functional status, mental health, and global physical health. We hypothesized that patients with larger BMIs would have worse preoperative and postoperative PROM scores, though improvements in scores would be comparable between groups. Materials and methods: Patients undergoing primary TKA from 2018 to 2021 were retrospectively reviewed and stratified into four groups: Normal Weight; 18.5"“25 kg/m2, Overweight; 25.01"“30 kg/m2, Obese; 30.01"“40 kg/m2, and Morbidly Obese > 40 kg/m2. Preoperative, postoperative, and pre/post-changes (Î”) in knee injury and osteoarthritis, joint replacement (KOOS, JR) and Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) measures of pain intensity, pain interference, physical function, mobility, mental health, and physical health were compared. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess for confounding comorbid conditions. Results: In univariate analysis, patients with larger BMIs had worse scores for KOOS, JR and all PROMIS metrics preoperatively. Postoperatively, scores for KOOS, JR and PROMIS pain interference, mobility, and physical health were statistically worse in higher BMI groups, though differences were not clinically significant. Morbidly obese patients achieved greater pre/post-Î” improvements in KOOS, JR and global physical health scores. Multivariate regression analysis showed high BMI was independently associated with greater pre/post-Î” improvements in KOOS, JR and global health scores. Conclusion: Obese patients report worse preoperative scores for function and health, but greater pre/post-Î” improvements in KOOS, JR and physical health scores following TKA. Quality of life benefits of TKA in obese patients should be a factor when assessing surgical candidacy.
Does antibiotic bone cement reduce infection rates in primary total knee arthroplasty?
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Infection after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) impacts the patient, surgeon, and healthcare system significantly. Surgeons routinely use antibiotic-loaded bone cement (ALBC) in attempts to mitigate infection; however, little evidence supports the efficacy of ALBC in reducing infection rates compared to non-antibiotic-loaded bone cement (non-ALBC) in primary TKA. Our study compares infection rates of patients undergoing TKA with ALBC to those with non-ALBC to assess its efficacy in primary TKA. METHODS:A retrospective review of all primary, elective, cemented TKA patients over the age of 18 between 2011 and 2020 was conducted at an orthopedic specialty hospital. Patients were stratified into two cohorts based on cement type: ALBC (loaded with gentamicin or tobramycin) or non-ALBC. Baseline characteristics and infection rates determined by MSIS criteria were collected. Multilinear and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to limit significant differences in demographics. Independent samples t test and chi-squared test were used to compare means and proportions, respectively, between the two cohorts. RESULTS:) and Charlson Comorbidity Index values (4.51 ± 2.15 vs. 4.04 ± 1.92) were more likely to receive ALBC. The infection rate in the non-ALBC was 0.8% (63/7,980), while the rate in the ALBC was 0.5% (7/1,386). After adjusting for confounders, the difference in rates was not significant between the two groups (OR [95% CI]: 1.53 [0.69-3.38], p = 0.298). Furthermore, a sub-analysis comparing the infection rates within various demographic categories also showed no significant differences between the two groups. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Compared to non-ALBC, the overall infection rate in primary TKA was slightly lower when using ALBC; however, the difference was not statistically significant. When stratifying by comorbidity, use of ALBC still showed no statistical significance in reducing the risk of periprosthetic joint infection. Therefore, the advantage of antibiotics in bone cement to prevent infection in primary TKA is not yet elucidated. Further prospective, multicenter studies regarding the clinical benefits of antibiotic use in bone cement for primary TKA are warranted.
Outcomes of medicaid patients undergoing TJA with previous positive urine toxicology screens
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Previous studies have demonstrated that patients with positive preoperative urine toxicology (utox) screens prior to total joint arthroplasty (TJA) have higher readmission rates, greater complication rates, and longer hospital stays compared to patients with negative screens. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of postponing surgery for patients with positive preoperative utox in the Medicaid population. METHODS:This retrospective, observational study reviewed the Medicaid ambulatory database at a large, academic orthopedic specialty hospital for patients with a utox screen prior to TJA from 2012 to 2020. Patients were categorized into three groups: (1) controls with negative preoperative utox or a utox consistent with prescription medications (Utox-) with TJA completed as scheduled; (2) positive preoperative utox with TJA rescheduled and surgery completed on a later date (R-utox+); (3) positive preoperative utox inconsistent with prescription medications with TJA completed as scheduled (S-utox+). Primary outcomes included mortality, 90-day readmission rate, complication rate, and length of stay. RESULTS:Of the 300 records reviewed, 185 did not meet inclusion criteria. The remaining 115 patients included 80 (69.6%) Utox-, 5 (6.3%) R-utox+, and 30 (37.5%) S-utox+. Mean follow-up time was 49.6 months. Hospital stays trended longer in the Utox- group (3.7 ± 2.0 days vs. 3.1 ± 1.6 S-utox+ vs.2.5 ± 0.4 R-utox+, p = 0.20). Compared to the R-utox+group, the S-utox+ group trended toward lower home discharge rates (p = 0.20), higher in-hospital complication rates (p = 0.85), and more all-cause 90-day emergency department visits (p = 0.57). There were no differences in postoperative opioid utilization between groups (p = 0.319). Duration of postoperative narcotic use trended toward being longer in the Utox- patients (820.7 ± 1073.8 days vs. 684.6 ± 1491.8 S-utox+ vs. 585.1 ± 948.3 R-utox+, p = 0.585). Surgical time (p = 0.045) and revision rates (p = 0.72) trended toward being higher in the S-utox+ group. CONCLUSIONS:Medicaid patients with positive preoperative utox who had surgeries postponed trended towards shorter hospital stays and greater home discharge rates. Larger studies should be conducted to analyze the implications of a positive preoperative utox on risk profiles and outcomes following TJA in the Medicaid population. Study design Retrospective cohort study.
Can pain be improved with retention of the posterior cruciate ligament during total knee arthroplasty?
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The purpose of the current study was to determine if differences exist between cruciate-retaining (CR) and posterior-stabilized (PS) implant articulations for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with regards to early post-operative pain. METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent primary TKA, with the same TKA implant design, at our institution between January 2018 and July 2021. Patients were stratified based on whether they received a CR or non-constrained PS (PSnC) articulation and propensity score matched in a 1:1 ratio. A sub-analysis matching patient who received a constrained PS implant (PSC) to those undergoing CR TKA and PSnC TKA was also carried out. Opioid dosages were converted to morphine milligram equivalents (MME). RESULTS:616 patients after CR TKA were matched 1:1 to 616 patients with a PSnC implant. There were no significant differences between demographic variables. There were no statistically significant differences in opioid usage measured by MME on post-operative day (POD) 0 (p = 0.171), POD1 (p = 0.839), POD2 (p = 0.307), or POD3 (p = 0.138); VAS pain scores (p = 0.175); or 90-day readmission rate for pain (p = 0.654). A sub-analysis of CR versus PSC TKA demonstrated no significant differences in opioid usage on POD0 (p = 0.765), POD1 (p = 0.747), POD2 (p = 0.564), POD3 (p = 0.309); VAS pain scores (p = 0.293); and 90-day readmission rate for pain (p > 0.9). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Our analysis demonstrated no significant difference in post-operative VAS pain scores and MME usage based on implant. The results suggest that neither the type of articulation or constraint used for primary TKA has a significant impact on immediate post-operative pain and opioid consumption. LEVEL III EVIDENCE/METHODS:Retrospective Cohort Study.
Does the geriatric nutritional risk index predict complication rates and implant survivorship in revision total joint arthroplasty?
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Malnutrition is associated with poorer outcomes after revision total joint arthroplasty (rTJA), though no universal metric for assessing malnutrition in rTJA patients has been reported. This study sought to determine if malnutrition as defined by the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) can independently predict short-term complication rates and re-revision risk in patients undergoing rTJA. METHODS:All patients ≥ 65 years old undergoing rTJA from 2011 to 2021 at a single orthopaedic specialty hospital were identified. Preoperative albumin, height, and weight were used to calculate GNRI. Based on the calculated GNRI value, patients were stratified into three groups: normal nutrition (GNRI > 98), moderate malnutrition (GNRI 92-98), and severe malnutrition (GNRI < 92). Chi-squared and independent samples t-tests were used to compare groups. RESULTS:A total of 531 rTJA patients were included. Patients with normal nutrition were younger (p < 0.001), had higher BMI (p < 0.001). After adjusting for baseline characteristics, patients with severe and moderate malnutrition had longer length of stay (p < 0.001), were less likely to be discharged home (p = 0.049), and had higher 90-day major complication (p = 0.02) and readmission (p = 0.005) rates than those with normal nutrition. 90-day revision rates were similar. In Kaplan-Meier analyses, patients with severe and moderate malnutrition had worse survivorship free of all-cause re-revision at 1-year (p = 0.001) and 2-year (p = 0.002) follow-up compared to those with normal nutrition. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Moderate and severe malnutrition, as defined by GNRI, independently predicted higher complication and revision rates in rTJA patients. This suggests that the GNRI may serve as an effective screening tool for nutritional status in patients undergoing rTJA.
The Effect of Prosthetic Joint Infection on Work Status and Quality of Life: A Multicenter, International Study
BACKGROUND:Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) and subsequent revision surgeries may affect patients' social and physical health, ability to complete daily activities, and disability status. This study sought to determine how PJI affects patients' quality of life through patient-reported outcome measures with minimum 1-year follow-up. METHODS:Patients who suffered PJI following primary total joint arthroplasty (TJA) from 2012 to 2021 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients met Musculoskeletal Infection Society criteria for acute or chronic PJI, underwent revision TJA surgery, and had at least 1 year of follow-up. Patients were surveyed regarding how PJI affected their work and disability status, as well as their mental and physical health. Outcome measures were compared between acute and chronic PJIs. In total, 318 patients (48.4% total knee arthroplasty and 51.6% total hip arthroplasty) met inclusion criteria. RESULTS:Following surgical treatment for knee and hip PJI, a substantial proportion of patients reported that they were unable to negotiate stairs (20.5%), had worse physical health (39.6%), and suffered worse mental health (25.2%). A high proportion of patients reported worse quality of life (38.5%) and social satisfaction (35.3%) following PJI. Worse reported patient-reported outcome measures including patients' ability to complete daily physical activities were found among patients undergoing treatment for chronic PJI, and also, 23% of patients regretted their initial decision to pursue primary TJA. CONCLUSIONS:A PJI negatively affects patients' ability to carry out everyday activities. This patient population is prone to report challenges overcoming disability and returning to work. Patients should be adequately educated regarding the risk of PJI to decrease later potential regrets. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Case series (IV).
Precision or Pitfall? Evaluating the Accuracy of ICD-10 Coding for Cemented Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Multicenter Study
BACKGROUND:The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, Procedure Coding System (ICD-10-PCS) was adopted in the U.S. in 2015. Proponents of the ICD-10-PCS have stated that its granularity allows for a more accurate representation of the types of procedures performed by including laterality, joint designation, and more detailed procedural data. However, other researchers have expressed concern that the increased number of codes adds further complexity that leads to inaccurate and inconsistent coding, rendering registry and research data based on ICD-10-PCS codes invalid and inaccurate. We aimed to determine the accuracy of the ICD-10-PCS for identifying cemented fixation in primary total hip arthroplasty (THA). METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed all cemented primary THAs performed at 4 geographically diverse, academic medical centers between October 2015 and October 2020. Cemented fixation was identified from the ICD-10-PCS coding for each procedure. The accuracy of an ICD-10-PCS code relative to the surgical record was determined by postoperative radiograph and chart review, and cross-referencing with institution-level coding published by the American Joint Replacement Registry (AJRR) was also performed. RESULTS:A total of 552 cemented THA cases were identified within the study period, of which 452 (81.9%) were correctly coded as cemented with the ICD-10-PCS. The proportion of cases that were correctly coded was 187 of 260 (72%) at Institution A, 158 of 185 (85%) at Institution B, 35 of 35 (100%) at Institution C, and 72 of 72 (100%) at Institution D. Of the 480 identified cemented THA cases at 3 of the 4 institutions, 403 (84%) were correctly reported as cemented to the AJRR (Institution A, 185 of 260 cases [71%]; Institution B, 185 of 185 [100%]; and Institution C, 33 of 35 [94%]). Lastly, of these 480 identified cemented THA cases, 317 (66%) were both correctly coded with the ICD-10-PCS and correctly reported as cemented to the AJRR. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings revealed existing discrepancies within multiple institutional data sets, which may lead to inaccurate reporting by the AJRR and other registries that rely on ICD-10-PCS coding. Caution should be exercised when utilizing ICD-10 procedural data to evaluate specific details from administrative claims databases as these inaccuracies present inherent challenges to data validity and interpretation.