Thin-filament mutations, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and risk [Comment]
Vector flow mapping in obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy to assess the relationship of early systolic left ventricular flow and the mitral valve
BACKGROUND: The hydrodynamic cause of systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve (SAM) is unresolved. OBJECTIVES: This study hypothesized that echocardiographic vector flow mapping, a new echocardiographic technique, would provide insights into the cause of early SAM in obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). METHODS: We analyzed the spatial relationship of left ventricular (LV) flow and the mitral valve leaflets (MVL) on 3-chamber vector flow mapping frames, and performed mitral valve measurements on 2-dimensional frames in patients with obstructive and nonobstructive HCM and in normal patients. RESULTS: We compared 82 patients (22 obstructive HCM, 23 nonobstructive HCM, and 37 normal) by measuring 164 LV pre- and post-SAM velocity vector flow maps, 82 maximum isovolumic vortices, and 328 2-dimensional frames. We observed color flow and velocity vector flow posterior to the MVL impacting them in the early systolic frames of 95% of obstructive HCM, 22% of nonobstructive HCM, and 11% of normal patients (p < 0.001). In both pre- and post-SAM frames, we measured a high angle of attack >60 degrees of local vector flow onto the posterior surface of the leaflets whether the flow was ejection (59%) or the early systolic isovolumic vortex (41%). Ricochet of vector flow, rebounding off the leaflet into the cul-de-sac, was noted in 82% of the obstructed HCM, 9% of nonobstructive HCM, and none (0%) of the control patients (p < 0.001). Flow velocities in the LV outflow tract on the pre-SAM frame 1 and 2 mm from the tip of the anterior leaflet were low: 39 and 43 cm/s, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Early systolic flow impacts the posterior surfaces of protruding MVL initiating SAM in obstructive HCM.
Surgical Septal Myectomy and Alcohol Ablation: Not Equivalent in Efficacy or Survival [Comment]
Future Role of New Negative Inotropic Agents in the Era of Established Surgical Myectomy for Symptomatic Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy [Editorial]
Subcutaneous Versus Transvenous Implantable Defibrillator in Patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
BACKGROUND:Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most prevalent inherited cardiomyopathy. Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) is important for prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in patients at high risk. In recent years the subcutaneous ICD (S-ICD) has emerged as a viable alternative to the transvenous ICD (TV-ICD). The S-ICD does not require intravascular access, but cannot provide antitachycardia pacing therapy (ATP). OBJECTIVE:To assess the real world incidence of ICD therapy in patients with HCM implanted with TV-ICD versus S-ICD. METHODS:We compared the incidence of ATP and shock therapies between all HCM patients with S-ICD and TV-ICD enrolled in the Boston Scientific ALTITUDE database. Cumulative Kaplan Meier incidence was used to compare therapy free survival and Cox proportional hazard ratios were calculated. We performed an unmatched as well as propensity match analysis. RESULTS:We included 2047 patients with TV-ICD and 626 patients with S-ICD followed for an average of 1650.5Â±1038.5 and 933.4Â±550.6 days, respectively. Patients with HCM and TV-ICD had significantly higher rate of device therapy as compared to those with S-ICD (32.7 vs. 14.5 therapies /100 patient year; p<0.001), driven by a high incidence of ATP therapy in the TV-ICD group which accounted for more than 67% of therapies delivered. Shock incidence was similar between groups, both in the general and in the matched cohorts. CONCLUSIONS:Patients with HCM and S-ICD had significantly lower therapy rate than patients with TV-ICD without difference in shock therapy, suggesting potentially unnecessary ATP therapy. Empiric ATP programing in patients with HCM may be unbeneficial.
Mitral annular calcification in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
BACKGROUND:Changes in mitral valve anatomy contribute to left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Mitral annular calcification (MAC) is common among patients with HCM but its implications are currently unknown. METHODS:We tested the hypothesis that echocardiographic MAC would be associated with anterior displacement of the mitral valve and LVOTO in a cohort of 304 patients with HCM aged â‰¥ 60Â years (mean [SD] age 71.6 [7.7] years, 52% women). RESULTS:MAC was present in 141 (46%) patients. The mean (SD) MAC offset distance was 9.8 (4.8) mm. A higher proportion of those with MAC compared to those without MAC had SAM (84.2 vs. 63.8%, pÂ <Â 0.001) and LVOTO (80.9 vs. 57.9%, pÂ <Â 0.001). In patients with MAC, the septal-mitral valve distance was shorter compared to those without (19.4 [4.0] vs 21.5 [4.9] mm, pÂ <Â 0.001). The mitral valve position ratio was greater in those with MAC compared to those without (1.00 [0.79, 1.22] vs. 0.86 [0.67, 1.05], pÂ <Â 0.001) denoting greater anterior displacement, especially in those with MAC and LVOTO. After multivariable adjustment, MAC offset distance was associated with LVOTO (OR 1.16 [95% CI 1.07, 1.28] per mm, pÂ =Â 0.001). Over a median follow-up of 2.7Â years, 42 (29.8%) patients with MAC underwent surgery to relieve LVOTO, with no deaths. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:This study adds MAC to the known geometrical alterations of the mitral valve that predispose to LVOTO and suggests that surgical relief of LVOTO in the presence of MAC is safe when performed by an experienced surgeon.
Diagnosis and Evaluation of HypertrophicÂ Cardiomyopathy: JACC State-of-the-Art Review
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a relatively common often inherited global heart disease, with complex phenotypic and genetic expression and natural history, affecting both genders and many races and cultures. Prevalence is 1:200-1:500, largely based on the disease phenotype with imaging, inferring that 750,000 Americans may be affected by HCM. However, cross-sectional data show that only a fraction are clinically diagnosed, suggesting under-recognition, with most clinicians exposed to small segments of the broad disease spectrum. Highly effective HCM management strategies have emerged, altering clinical course and substantially lowering mortality and morbidity rates. These advances underscore the importance of reliable HCM diagnosis with echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance. Family screening with noninvasive imaging will identify relatives with the HCM phenotype, while genetic analysis recognizes preclinical sarcomere gene carriers without left ventricular hypertrophy, but with the potential to transmit disease. Comprehensive initial patient evaluations are important for reliable diagnosis, accurate portrayal of HCM and family history, risk stratification, and distinguishing obstructive versus nonobstructive forms.
Management of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: JACC State-of-the-Art Review
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), a relatively common, globally distributed, and often inherited primary cardiac disease, has now transformed into a contemporary highly treatable condition with effective options that alter natural history along specific personalized adverse pathways at all ages. HCM patients with disease-related complications benefit from: matured risk stratification in which major markers reliably select patients for prophylactic defibrillators and prevention of arrhythmic sudden death; low risk to high benefit surgical myectomy (with percutaneous alcohol ablation a selective alternative) that reverses progressive heart failure caused by outflow obstruction; anticoagulation prophylaxis that prevents atrial fibrillation-related embolic stroke and ablation techniques that decrease the frequency of paroxysmal episodes; and occasionally, heart transplant for end-stage nonobstructive patients. Those innovations have substantially improved outcomes by significantly reducing morbidity and HCM-related mortality to 0.5%/y. Palliative pharmacological strategies with currently available negative inotropic drugs can control symptoms over the short-term in some patients, but generally do not alter long-term clinical course. Notably, a substantial proportion of HCM patients (largely those identified without outflow obstruction) experience a stable/benign course without major interventions. The expert panel has critically appraised all available data and presented management insights and recommendations with concise principles for clinical decision-making.
Syndrome of Reversible Cardiogenic Shock and Left Ventricular Ballooning in Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
Background Cardiogenic shock from most causes has unfavorable prognosis. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) can uncommonly present with apical ballooning and shock in association with sudden development of severe and unrelenting left ventricular (LV) outflow obstruction. Typical HCM phenotypic features of mild septal thickening, outflow gradients, and distinctive mitral abnormalities differentiate these patients from others with Takotsubo syndrome, who have normal mitral valves and no outflow obstruction. Methods and Results We analyzed 8 patients from our 4 HCM centers with obstructive HCM and abrupt presentation of cardiogenic shock with LV ballooning, and 6 cases reported in literature. Of 14 patients, 10 (71%) were women, aged 66Â±9Â years, presenting with acute symptoms: LV ballooning; depressed ejection fraction (25Â±5%); refractory systemic hypotension; marked LV outflow tract obstruction (peak gradient, 94Â±28Â mmÂ Hg); and elevated troponin, but absence of atherosclerotic coronary disease. Shock was managed with intravenous administration of phenylephrine (n=6), norepinephrine (n=6), Î²-blocker (n=7), and vasopressin (n=1). Mechanical circulatory support was required in 8, including intra-aortic balloon pump (n=4), venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (n=3), and Impella and Tandem Heart in 1 each. In refractory shock, urgent relief of obstruction by myectomy was performed in 5, and alcohol ablation in 1. All patients survived their critical illness, with full recovery of systolic function. Conclusions When cardiogenic shock and LV ballooning occur in obstructive HCM, they are marked by distinctive anatomic and physiologic features. Relief of obstruction with targeted pharmacotherapy, mechanical circulatory support, and myectomy, when necessary for refractory shock, may lead to survival and normalization of systolic function.
Disease Expression and Outcomes in Black and White Adults With Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
Background There is limited research on hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), which is the most common inherited cardiac disorder, in diverse populations, including Black individuals. Current literature lacks comprehensive data on HCM disease expression, comorbidities, and outcomes in this historically disadvantaged group. The purpose of this study was to examine structural HCM characteristics, comorbidities, and outcomes in a Black and White cohort with HCM. Methods and Results The study was a subgroup analysis from a longitudinal, prospective study on HCM, with supplemental chart review. The sample included adults (â‰¥18Â years) with a clinical diagnosis of HCM, who self-identified as Black/African American or White. The study sample comprised 434 individuals; 57 (13.1%) were Black, and 180 (41.5%) were women. Black patients were younger than White patients, 54.6 (13.4) versus 62.5 (14.8) years, P=0.001. Black patients were more likely to have sub-basal and diffuse hypertrophy, 22 (38.6%) versus 56 (14.9%), P<0.001, 6 (10.5%) versus 15 (4%), P=0.017, mid-LV obstruction, 7 (12.3%) versus 21 (5.5%), P=0.025, and cardiac fibrosis â‰¥15%, 10 (22.2%) versus 19 (8.8%), P=0.009, than White patients. Black patients were more likely to experience appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator interventions, 5 (38.5) versus 5 (6.8), P<0.001 and were more likely to have â‰¥2 sudden death risk factors. Comorbidities were largely similar between groups, though more Black participants had Class II obesity, 12 (21.8) versus 30 (8.1), P<0.001. Both groups had similar rates of genetic testing usage. Conclusions This study underscores the need for continued research of HCM in Black populations, including tailored approaches to diagnosis and precise evaluation of cardiac anatomy.