Do ACR TI-RADS scores demonstrate unique thyroid molecular profiles?
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The present study aimed to examine the molecular profiles of cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules stratified by American College of Radiology Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS) categories and to determine whether certain ultrasonographic features display particular molecular alterations. METHODS:A retrospective review was conducted of cases from January 1, 2016 to April 1, 2018. Cases with in-house ultrasonography, fine-needle aspiration Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBSRTC) diagnoses, molecular testing, and surgery were included. All cases were diagnosed as TBSRTC indeterminate categories. The ultrasound studies were retrospectively reviewed and assigned TI-RADS scores (TR1-TR5) by board-certified radiologists. The final diagnoses were determined based on the surgical resection pathology. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to study whether demographic characteristics, TI-RADS levels, and TBSRTC diagnoses were associated with ThyroSeq molecular results. RESULTS:Eighty-one cases met the inclusion criteria. RAS mutations were the most common alteration across all TI-RADS categories (TR2 2/2; TR3 10/19, TR4 13/44, and TR5 8/16), and did not stratify with any particular TI-RADS category. Only TR4 and TR5 categories displayed more aggressive mutations such as BRAFV600E and TERT. ThyroSeq results were positively correlated with thyroid malignancy when non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) was categorized in the malignant category (odds ratio [OR], 6.859; P<0.01), but not when NIFTP was removed from the malignancy category. Echogenicity scores were found to be negatively correlated with ThyroSeq results in thyroid nodules (OR, 0.162; P<0.01). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Higher-risk molecular alterations tended to stratify with the higher TI-RADS categories.
Evaluation of ACR TI-RADS cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules and molecular profiles: a single-institutional experience
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:The American College of Radiology (ACR) Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data Systems (TI-RADS) was developed to standardize thyroid ultrasound reports and predict the likelihood of malignancy. In our study, we aimed to correlate indeterminate thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology cases with preceding ultrasound (US) ACR TI-RADS scores and concurrent molecular testing results to examine how well the use of the ACR TI-RADS in our institution predicted which patients with indeterminate cytology might harbor molecular alterations. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:We performed a retrospective review of thyroid nodules. Patients with US reports that included TI-RADS scores, fine needle aspiration specimens with indeterminate cytology (Bethesda class III-V), and molecular testing results were included. RESULTS:A total of 46 indeterminate cytology cases had had preceding US reports with TI-RADS scores and molecular testing (Bethesda class III, n = 37; Bethesda class IV, n = 6; Bethesda class V, n = 3). Most of the indeterminate cases had had a TI-RADS score of TR4 (31 of 46; 67.39%) or TR5 (9 of 46; 19.57%). RAS mutations were the most common alteration (n = 12). Of the 46 cases, 22 (47.85%) showed no alterations. Ten cases proceeded to surgery, of which seven displayed malignancies. CONCLUSIONS:Molecular testing in cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules provided valuable information for TR4 and TR5 lesions; however, the TR2 and TR3 lesions often had no molecular alterations. These findings highlight the potential value of including US imaging features when assessing the significance of indeterminate cytology findings.
Multimodality Imaging after Liver Transplant: Top 10 Important Complications
Patients who have undergone liver transplant are now regularly seen in day-to-day radiology practice. All surgical techniques for liver transplant require arterial, portal venous, hepatic venous and caval, and biliary anastomoses. This review is focused on the 10 "not to be missed" complications of liver transplant that affect the health and life of the graft and graft recipient. Arterial complications are the most common and devastating. Early hepatic artery thrombosis may be catastrophic because the biliary tree is solely dependent on the hepatic artery after transplant and collateral vessels have not yet formed. In contrast, delayed hepatic artery thrombosis may be more insidious as collateral arteries develop. US findings of delayed hepatic artery thrombosis may be similar to those of hepatic artery stenosis and celiac artery stenosis. Splenic artery steal syndrome is an increasingly recognized cause of graft ischemia. Venous complications are much less common. Hepatic venous and caval complications are notable for their increased incidence in living-donor and pediatric transplants. Biliary complications often result from arterial ischemia. Biliary cast syndrome is a notable example in which ischemic biliary mucosa sloughs into and obstructs the duct lumens. Neoplasms also may occur within the hepatic graft and may be due to recurrent malignancy, posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder, or metastases. US is the initial imaging modality of choice, particularly in the acute postoperative setting. Further evaluation with contrast-enhanced US, CT, or MRI; catheter angiography; endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; and/or nuclear medicine studies is performed as needed. Online supplemental material is available for this article. Â©RSNA, 2022.
Back to the future: Looking back while looking ahead at changes to educational conferences in the COVID-19 era
Does a higher American College of Radiology Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (ACR TI-RADS) score forecast an increased risk of malignancy? A correlation study of ACR TI-RADS with FNA cytology in the evaluation of thyroid nodules
BACKGROUND:Ultrasound has become the initial approach to evaluating thyroid nodules, facilitating the distinction between benign and malignant nodules based on composition, echogenicity, nodule border or margin, shape, the presence of calcifications, and nodule dimensions. The American College of Radiology (ACR) recommended the Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS) as a classification system to standardize thyroid ultrasound reports and to predict the probability of malignancy in thyroid nodules using a scoring system (TR1-TR5) based on multiple ultrasound characteristics and nodule size. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is recommended as the next step for nodules that warrant further workup. The authors assessed the accuracy of the ACR TI-RADS based on the corresponding FNA cytology results (Bethesda system diagnoses I-VI). METHODS:ACR TI-RADS ultrasound reports and corresponding FNA cytology diagnoses from January 1, 2018 to August 30, 2018 were evaluated. RESULTS:From January 1, 2018 to August 30, 2018, 2306 thyroid ultrasound-guided FNAs were performed at our institution. Of 2306 cases, 361 had ACR TI-RADS reports available. The majority of FNAs were TR4 (180; 49.9%) or TR3 (108; 29.9%). No TR2 or TR3 nodules were associated with Bethesda category V or VI diagnoses. The majority of TR4 nodules (142 of 180; 78.9%) and TR5 nodules (42 of 65; 64.6%) exhibited benign (Bethesda category II) cytology. Fourteen TR5 cases (21.5%) had malignant (Bethesda category VI) cytology. CONCLUSIONS:Although there were no TR2 or TR3 malignant (Bethesda category VI) diagnoses, and there were only a few malignancies in the TR4 and TR5 categories, the current results reassert the notion that the ACR TI-RADS scoring system shows at least some correlation between benign or malignant cytology diagnoses, as illustrated by the greater number of malignant cases in the higher ACR TI-RADS categories.
Additional Surgery for Occult Risk Factors After Lobectomy in Solitary Thyroid Nodules is Predicted by Cytopathology Classification and Tumor Size
OBJECTIVE:Clinical practice for differentiated thyroid cancer is moving towards lobectomy rather than total thyroidectomy in patients at low risk of recurrence. However, recurrence risk assessment depends on post-operative findings, while the surgical decision is based on preoperative factors. We determined the preoperative predictors of occult higher-risk pathology and rates of completion thyroidectomy among surgical candidates with nonbenign thyroid nodules 10 to 40 mm and no evidence of extrathyroidal extension or metastasis on preoperative evaluation. METHODS:Thyroid surgery cases at a single institution from 2005-2015 were reviewed to identify those meeting American Thyroid Association (ATA) criteria for lobectomy. ATA-based risk stratification from postoperative surgical pathology was compared to preoperative cytopathology, ultrasound, and clinical findings. RESULTS:Of 1,995 thyroid surgeries performed for nonbenign thyroid nodules 10 to 40 mm, 349 met ATA criteria for lobectomy. Occult high-risk features such as tall cell variant, gross extrathyroidal invasion, or vascular invasion were found in 36 cases (10.7%), while intraoperative lymphadenopathy led to surgical upstaging in 13 (3.7%). Intermediate risk features such as moderate lymphadenopathy or minimal extrathyroidal extension were present in an additional 44 cases. Occult risk features were present twice as often in Bethesda class 6 cases (35%) as in lower categories (12 to 17%). In multivariable analysis, Bethesda class and nodule size, but not age, race, sex, or ultrasound features, were significant predictors of occult higher-risk pathology. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Most solitary thyroid nodules less than 4 cm and with cytology findings including atypia of undetermined significance through suspicious for papillary thyroid cancer would be sufficiently treated by lobectomy. ABBREVIATIONS/BACKGROUND:ATA = American Thyroid Association; CND = central neck dissection; DTC = differentiated thyroid cancer; ETE = extrathyroidal extension; FNA = fine needle aspiration; FTC/HCC = follicular thyroid carcinoma/Hurthle cell carcinoma; NIFTP = noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features; OR = odds ratio; PTC = papillary thyroid cancer; US = ultrasound.
Interreader Concordance of the TI-RADS: Impact of Radiologist Experience
OBJECTIVE. The objective of this article is to assess radiologist concordance in characterizing thyroid nodules using the American College of Radiology Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS), focusing on the effect of radiologist experience on reader concordance. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Three experienced and three less experienced radiologists assessed 150 thyroid nodules using the TI-RADS lexicon. Percent concordance was determined for various endpoints. RESULTS. Interreader concordance for the five TI-RADS categories was 87.2% for shape, 81.2% for composition, 76.1% for echogenicity, 72.9% for margins, and 69.8% for echogenic foci. Concordance for individual features was 96.3% for rim calcifications, 90.8% for macrocalcifications, 90.1% for spongiform, 83.5% for comet tail artifact, and 77.7% for punctate echogenic foci. Concordance for the TI-RADS level and recommendation for fine-needle aspiration (FNA) were 50.4% and 78.9%, respectively. Concordance was significantly (p < 0.05) higher for less experienced readers in identifying margins (84.3% vs 67.4%), echogenic foci (76.9% vs 69.3%), comet tail artifact (89.6% vs 79.2%), and punctate echogenic foci (85.3% vs 75.5%), and lower for peripheral rim calcifications (95.0% vs 97.8 %), but was not different (p > 0.05) for the remaining categories and features. CONCLUSION. A range of TI-RADS categories, features, and recommendations for FNA had generally moderate interreader agreement among six radiologists. Our results show that concordance for numerous characteristics was significantly higher for the less experienced versus the more experienced readers. These results suggest that less experienced readers relied more on the explicit TI-RADS criteria, whereas the experienced radiologists partially relied on their accumulated experience when forming impressions. However, the overall TI-RADS level and recommendation for FNA were unaffected, supporting the robustness of the TI-RADS lexicon and its continued use in practice.
The association between the ultrasonography TIRADS classification system and surgical pathology among indeterminate thyroid nodules
BACKGROUND:A high proportion of cytologically indeterminate, Afirma-suspicious thyroid nodules are benign. The Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System was proposed by the American College of Radiology in 2015 to determine appropriate management of thyroid nodules in a standardized fashion. Our aim was to determine the diagnostic value of the Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System in cytologically indeterminate and Afirma-suspicious nodules. METHODS:We retrospectively queried cytopathology archives for retrospectively for thyroid fine-needle aspiration specimens obtained between February 2012 and September 2016 that were associated with the following: (1) indeterminate diagnosis, (2) ultrasonographic imaging at our institution, (3) an Afirma Gene Expression Classifier-suspicious result, and (4) surgery at our institution. We then calculated the diagnostic value of the Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System in predicting surgical pathology. RESULTS:Our cohort consisted of 133 nodules among 131 patients who underwent thyroid surgery for cytologically indeterminate, Afirma-suspicious nodules. A total of 9 nodules (6.8%) were assigned TR2 "not suspicious," 25 (18.8%) TR3 "mildly suspicious," 81 (60.9%) TR4 "moderately suspicious," and 18 (13.5%) TR5 "highly suspicious." Among our cohort, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of the Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System was 71.4%, 38.1%, 40.2%, 69.6%, and 50.4%, respectively. CONCLUSION:Among cytologically indeterminate and Afirma-suspicious nodules, the Thyroid Imaging and Reporting and Data System was a poor predictor of final surgical pathology. Additional prospective studies are needed to validate these findings.
Reader performance in the ultrasonographic evaluation of oropharyngeal carcinoma
OBJECTIVE:To examine reader performance in evaluating oropharyngeal anatomy on ultrasonography. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:Ultrasound images of the oropharynx comprising normal and malignant anatomic variants were organized into slideshows. Slideshows were administered to 6 readers blinded to participant tumor status and with varying experience reading oropharyngeal sonograms. A training slideshow oriented readers to images of the oropharynx with and without malignant lesions. Readers then evaluated images in a test slideshow for tumor presence and marked orthogonal long and short dimensions of the tumor. Results were analyzed for accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, inter-reader agreement, and measurement error relative to prospectively-identified reference measurements. RESULTS:Eighty-seven percent of base of tongue (BOT) sonograms were identified correctly by a majority of readers. In identifying BOT tumors, median accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and Fleiss's kappa were 79%, 73%, 85%, and 0.51, respectively. Median measurement error in the long and short axes for BOT tumors was -2.6% (range: -40% to 29%) and -2.6% (range: -56% to 156%), respectively. Eighty-four percent of palatine tonsil sonograms were identified correctly by a majority of readers. In identifying tonsil tumors, median accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and Fleiss's kappa were 77%, 74%, 78%, and 0.41, respectively. Median measurement error in the long and short axes for tonsil tumors was 3.8% (range: -45% to 32%) and -6.5% (range: -83% to 42%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Overall, US has clinically useful sensitivity for identification of oropharyngeal carcinoma among readers of diverse clinical backgrounds and experience. US may be useful for the evaluation of features such as tumor dimensions.
From Academia to Government to Industry: A Strange Journey and Its Lessons