Implementation of an Ambulatory Cleft Lip Repair Protocol: Surgical Outcomes
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Cleft lip repair has traditionally been performed as an inpatient procedure. There has been an interest toward outpatient cleft lip repair to reduce healthcare costs and avoid unnecessary hospital stay. We report surgical outcomes following implementation of an ambulatory cleft lip repair protocol and hypothesize that an ambulatory repair results in comparable safety outcomes to inpatient repair. DESIGN/SETTING/METHODS:This is a single-institution, retrospective study. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS/METHODS:Patients undergoing primary unilateral (UCL) and bilateral (BCL) cleft lip repair from 2012 to 2021 with a minimum 30-day follow-up. A total of 226 patients with UCL and 58 patients with BCL were included. INTERVENTION/METHODS:Ambulatory surgery protocol in 2016. OUTCOME MEASURES/METHODS:Variables include demographics and surgical data including 30-day readmission, 30-day reoperation, and postoperative complications. RESULTS:There were no differences in rates of 30-day readmission, reoperation, wound complications, or postoperative complications between the pre- and post-protocol groups. Following ambulatory protocol implementation, 80% of the UCL group and 56% of the BCL group received ambulatory surgery. Average length of stay dropped from 24â€…h pre-protocol to 8â€…h post-protocol. The 20% of the UCL group and 44% of the BCL group chosen for overnight stay had a significantly higher proportion of congenital abnormalities and higher American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) class. Reasons for overnight stay included cardiac/airway monitoring, prematurity, and monitoring of comorbidities. There were no differences in surgical outcomes between the ambulatory and overnight stay groups. CONCLUSIONS:An ambulatory cleft lip repair protocol can significantly reduce average length of stay without adversely affecting surgical outcomes.
Longitudinal Skeletal Growth Analysis of Mandibular Asymmetry in Unoperated Patients With Unilateral Craniofacial Microsomia (UCFM)
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To examine the growth rate discrepancy of the affected and unaffected ramus heights in Pruzansky Type I and Type II mandibles. METHODS:This is a serial retrospective longitudinal growth study of 30 untreated patients (21 males and 9 females) with UCMF (age range from 5 years to 14 years). The mean age of patients was 8.5 years, and the mean follow-up records were 3.7 years. There were 13 patients in group I with a Pruzansky Type I mandible and 17 patients in group II with a Pruzansky Type II. The unaffected side of the mandible served as a control. Eighteen cephalometric parameters were examined at each of the two-time intervals. RESULTS:In patients with Pruzansky Type I mandible, the affected ramus grew on average 1.41â€…mm per year; the unaffected ramus grew 1.66â€…mm per year during the same period. In patients with Pruzansky Type II mandible, the affected ramus grew on average 0.84â€…mm per year; during the same period, unaffected ramus grew 1.79 per year. When the growth rate of the ramus height on the affected side was compared to the unaffected side, there was no statistically significant difference in Pruzansky Type I mandibles (pâ€‰>â€‰.05); however, there was a statistically significant difference in the Pruzansky Type II mandibles (pâ€‰<â€‰.05). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The growth rate discrepancy of the affected and unaffected ramus heights was more severe in Pruzansky Type II mandibles than Pruzansky Type I mandibles explaining the progressive nature of facial asymmetry in Pruzansky II mandibles.
One-Year Stability of LeFort I Advancement in Patients With Complete Cleft Lip and Palate Using a Standardized Clinical and Surgical Protocol
AIM/OBJECTIVE:To assess treatment outcome and 1-year stability of LeFort I advancement in patients with complete cleft lip and palate. METHODS:Thirty-five patients (age 20.65â€ŠÂ±â€Š2.20â€Šyears) with unilateral (nâ€Š=â€Š25) or bilateral (nâ€Š=â€Š10) complete cleft lip and palate who underwent LeFort I advancement were included.Lateral cephalograms before surgery (T1), immediately postsurgery (T2), and at 1-year follow-up (T3) were superimposed, and the position of anterior nasal spine (ANS), A-point, and U1 Tip assessed using an x, y coordinate system. Differences between landmark positions at the 3-time points were analyzed using paired sample t-tests, with a significance defined as Î± â‰¤ 0.05. RESULTS:The mean surgical advancement in the horizontal direction (T2-T1) was 6.50â€ŠÂ±â€Š2.62â€Šmm at ANS (Pâ€Š<â€Š0.001) and 7.05â€ŠÂ±â€Š2.51â€Šmm at A-point (Pâ€Š<â€Š0.001). At a 1-year follow-up (T3-T2), the mean horizontal relapse at ANS was -1.41â€ŠÂ±â€Š1.89â€Šmm (Pâ€Š<â€Š0.001) and -0.79â€ŠÂ±â€Š1.48â€Šmm at A-point (P 0.003). Mean horizontal relapse was 21.7% and 11% of surgical advancement when assessed at ANS and A-point, respectively. The central incisor tip position remained stable during the postsurgical period (0.12â€ŠÂ±â€Š2.11â€Šmm, P 0.732). At A-point, the mean vertical surgical change (T2-T1) was -0.96â€ŠÂ±â€Š2.57â€Šmm (Pâ€Š<â€Š0.001). No significant post-treatment (T3-T2) vertical changes were detected at ANS or A-point. Phenotypic stability was excellent, with all patients maintaining positive overjet at 1-year follow-up. CONCLUSIONS:LeFort I advancement in complete cleft lip and palate is stable, with less than a 2â€Šmm relapse after 1-year. Surgical overcorrection by 10% to 20% is recommended to compensate for the expected skeletal relapse.
Correction of Severe Facial Asymmetry in Patients With Unilateral Craniofacial Microsomia Using Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing Technology: An Evaluation of Postsurgical Results
ABSTRACT/UNASSIGNED:This is a retrospective study to evaluate the postsurgical position of the maxilla and mandible in 5 matured craniofacial patients with unilateral craniofacial microsomia who underwent 2 jaw surgical procedures using computerized surgical planning. The craniofacial surgeon and orthodontist completed the virtual surgical treatment plan with a biomedical engineer's assistance via a web meeting. The treatment plan of each patient included 2 jaw surgery with genioplasty. At the maxillary dental midline, the planned mean advancement was 4â€Šmm; yaw, a rotational correction towards the unaffected side was 4.96â€Šmm; and impaction was 2.74â€Šmm. The mean advancement measured at point B was 10.5â€Šmm, and the rotational correction towards the unaffected side was 6.58â€Šmm. The mean advancement following genioplasty was 8.43â€Šmm, and the mean transverse correction was 6.33â€Šmm towards the midsagittal plane. The intermediate surgical splint, final surgical splint, bone graft templates, and cutting guides were constructed utilizing computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technology. The surgeon executed the treatment plan in the operating room using appropriate computer-generated guides and splints. A postsurgical cone-beam computed tomography scan was obtained and superimposed on the surgical treatment plan using Simplant OMS 10.1 software. The cranial base was used as a reference for superimposition. Three-dimensional color-coded displacement maps were generated to visually and quantitatively assess the surgical outcome. There was a mean error of 0.88â€Šmm (+0.30) for the position of the maxillary anatomical structures from the planned position, and the anterior mandibular anatomical structures were on average 0.96â€Šmm (+0.26) from the planned position.
Skeletal and Dental Stability Following Different Magnitude of Le Fort I Advancement in Patients With Cleft Lip and Palate
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to measure the association between the magnitude of advancement and dental and skeletal relapse in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP). METHODS:A single-institution retrospective cohort study of skeletally matured patients with CLP who underwent isolated Le Fort I advancement surgery between 2013 and 2019 was studied. Patients were included if they had lateral cephalograms or cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) at preoperative (T1), immediately postoperative (T2), and 1-year follow-up (T3). Lateral cephalometric landmarks were digitized and measured. The sample was divided on the basis of the magnitude of skeletal advancement: minor (<5 mm), moderate (â‰¥5 but <10 mm), and major (â‰¥10 mm) advancement groups. The mean advancement and relapse were compared between groups using 1-way ANOVA. Correlation between the amount of surgical advancement and relapse was evaluated. RESULTS:Forty-nine patients with nonsyndromic CLP with hypoplastic maxilla met inclusion criteria and the sample consisted of 36 males and 13 females with the mean age of 19.5 years. In the minor, moderate, and major advancement groups, the mean advancement at point A was +4.1 Â± 0.4,â€¯+â€¯7.5 Â± 1.4, and +11.3 Â± 1.3 mm, respectively. At 1-year follow-up, the mean relapse at point A was -1.3 Â± 1.2, -1.1 Â± 1.2, and -1.7 Â± 1.5 mm, respectively. There was no significant difference in the relapse amount between all surgical groups. No correlation between the magnitude of advancement and relapse was found. CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrated no statistically significant difference in skeletal stability between a minor (<5 mm), moderate (â‰¥5 but <10 mm), and major (â‰¥10 mm) Le Fort I advancement groups in patients with clefts. Regardless of the degree of advancement, mild skeletal relapse was observed in all 3 groups.
Prevalence of Dental Anomalies in Patients With Unilateral Cleft Lip and Alveolus Treated With Gingivoperiosteoplasty
OBJECTIVE/UNASSIGNED:To compare the prevalence of dental malformations and agenesis in patients who received or did not receive gingivoperiosteoplasty (GPP). DESIGN/UNASSIGNED:Retrospective cohort study. PATIENTS/UNASSIGNED:Review of patients born January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2007, with unilateral cleft lip and alveolus, with or without clefting of the secondary palate, who received GPP and/or secondary alveolar bone grafting (ABG). Patients were included if they had clinical images and dental radiographs available at ages 5 to 9 and 10 to 12 years. Ninety-four patients met the inclusion criteria; 46 treated with GPP, and 48 who did not receive GPP. OUTCOME MEASURES/UNASSIGNED:tests. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:Cleft side lateral incisors were absent in 54% of GPP patients, compared to 50% in the no-GPP group. Two patients in the GPP group and 1 in the no-GPP group had supernumerary lateral incisors. Most lateral incisors were undersized or peg shaped in both the no-GPP (83.3%) and GPP (71.4%) groups. In the GPP group, 5 (10.9%) patients exhibited central incisor agenesis, and 3 had significant hypoplasia. In the no-GPP group, 4 (8.3%) patients exhibited central incisor agenesis, and 5 (10.5%) significant hypoplasia. These differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:Gingivoperiosteoplasty was not associated with increased prevalence of dental malformation or agenesis. When performed appropriately, GPP is a safe treatment technique that does not increase the risk of dental anomalies.
Effect of One-Stage Bilateral Cleft Lip, Nose, and Alveolus Repair Following Nasoalveolar Molding on the Premaxilla Position at Preadolescence: An 8-Year Retrospective Study
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:This paper describes the changes in maxillary arch morphology in infants with bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP) following nasoalveolar molding (NAM) and with follow up to assess the need for secondary alveolar bone grafting (ABG) and premaxillary repositioning surgery at preadolescence. METHODS/DESCRIPTION/UNASSIGNED:Treatment records of infants with BCLP treated with NAM between 2003 and 2013 were reviewed. Patients with complete BCLP who underwent NAM and had complete sets of maxillary casts at T 0 pre-NAM (meanâ€Š=â€Š27â€Šdays), T 1 post-NAM (meanâ€Š=â€Š6â€Šmonths and 5â€Šdays), and T 2 before palate surgery (meanâ€Š=â€Š11â€Šmonths and 15â€Šdays) were included. The sample comprised 23 infants (18 male, 5 female). Casts were digitized and analyzed using three dimensional software. The need for secondary ABG and premaxillary repositioning surgery was assessed at preadolescent follow-up (meanâ€Š=â€Š8.3â€Šyears). RESULTS:Cleft width was reduced on average by 4.73â€Šmm (SDâ€ŠÂ±â€Š3.15â€Šmm) and 6.56â€Šmm (SDâ€ŠÂ±â€Š4.65) on the right and left sides, respectively. At T 1, 13 (56.52%) patients underwent bilateral gingivoperiosteoplasty (GPP), 8 (34.78%) patients unilateral GPP, and 2 patients (8.7%) did not undergo GPP. 34/46 clefts sites (73.91%) underwent GPP while 12 (26.08%) did not. At preadolescent follow-up of 19 patients, 7 patients (36.84%) did not need ABG on either side, 8 (42.10%) needed ABG on 1 side, and 4 (21.05%) needed ABG on both sides. None of the patients needed premaxillary repositioning surgery. CONCLUSIONS:Nasoalveolar molding treatment significantly improves the position of the premaxilla before primary repair, and there is a significant reduction in the need for secondary ABG and premaxillary repositioning surgery at preadolescence.
Craniofacial Distraction: Orthodontic Considerations
A combined surgical and orthodontic approach to midface and mandibular distraction optimizes stability and outcomes. Orthodontic considerations include proper planning of the distraction vector, appropriate device use, and thorough follow-up through the consolidation and postoperative period. The dental occlusion must be managed throughout treatment in order to achieve ideal results.
Three-Dimensional Nasolabial Changes After Nasoalveolar Molding and Primary Lip/Nose Surgery in Infants With Bilateral Cleft Lip and Palate
OBJECTIVE/UNASSIGNED:Utilize 3-dimensional (3D) photography to evaluate the nasolabial changes in infants with bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP) who underwent nasoalveolar molding (NAM) and primary reconstructive surgery. DESIGN/UNASSIGNED:coordinates to obtain the linear and angular measurements. Nasal form changes were measured and analyzed between T1 (0.5 months old), T2 (5 months old), and T3 (6 months old). Intraclass correlation coefficient was performed for intrarater reliability. Averaged data from the 3D images was statistically analyzed from T1 to T2 and T2 to T3 with Wilcoxon tests. Unaffected infant norms from the Farkas publication were used as a control sample. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:After NAM therapy, statistically significant changes in the position of subnasale and labius superius improved nasolabial symmetry. Both retruded after NAM were displaced downward after NAM and surgical correction with respect to soft tissue nasion. The nasal tip's projection was maintained with NAM and surgical correction. The columella lengthened from 1.4 to 4.71 mm following NAM. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:There was a significant improvement in the nasolabial anatomy after NAM, and this was further enhanced after primary reconstructive surgery.
The Nasoalveolar Molding Cleft Protocol: Long-Term Treatment Outcomes from Birth to Facial Maturity
BACKGROUND:The authors present outcomes analysis of the nasoalveolar molding treatment protocol in patients with a cleft followed from birth to facial maturity. METHODS:A single-institution retrospective review was conducted of cleft patients who underwent nasoalveolar molding between 1990 and 2000. Collected data included surgical and orthodontic outcomes and incidence of gingivoperiosteoplasty, alveolar bone grafting, surgery for velopharyngeal insufficiency, palatal fistula repair, orthognathic surgery, nose and/or lip revision, and facial growth. RESULTS:One hundred seven patients met inclusion criteria (69 with unilateral and 38 with bilateral cleft lip and palate). Eighty-five percent (91 of 107) underwent gingivoperiosteoplasty (unilateral: 78 percent, 54 of 69; bilateral: 97 percent, 37 of 38). Of those patients, 57 percent (52 of 91) did not require alveolar bone grafting (unilateral: 59 percent, 32 of 54; bilateral: 54 percent, 20 of 37). Twelve percent (13 of 107) of all study patients underwent revision surgery to the lip and/or nose before facial maturity (unilateral: 9 percent, six of 69; bilateral: 18 percent, seven of 38). Nineteen percent (20 of 107) did not require a revision surgery, alveolar bone grafting, or orthognathic surgery (unilateral: 20 percent, 14 of 69; bilateral: 16 percent, six of 38). Cephalometric analysis was performed on all patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate. No significant statistical difference was found in maxillary position or facial proportion. Average age at last follow-up was 20 years (range, 15 years 4 months to 26 years 10 months). CONCLUSIONS:Nasoalveolar molding demonstrates a low rate of soft-tissue revision and alveolar bone grafting, and a low number of total operations per patient from birth to facial maturity. Facial growth analysis at facial maturity in patients who underwent gingivoperiosteoplasty and nasoalveolar molding suggests that this proposal may not hinder midface growth. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Therapeutic, IV.