Sequential and compartmentalized action of Rabs, SNAREs and MAL in the apical delivery of fusiform vesicles in urothelial umbrella cells
Uroplakins (UPs) are major differentiation products of urothelial umbrella cells, playing important roles in forming the permeability barrier, and in the expansion/stabilization of the apical membrane. Further, UPIa serves as a uropathogenic E. coli receptor. While it is understood that UPs are delivered to the apical membrane via fusiform vesicles (FVs), the mechanisms that regulate this exocytic pathway remain poorly understood. Immuno-microscopy of normal and mutant mouse urothelia showed that the UP-delivering FVs contained Rab8/11 and Rab27b/Slac2-a, which mediate apical transport along actin filaments. Subsequently, a Rab27b/Slp2-a complex mediated FV-membrane anchorage before SNARE-mediated and MAL-facilitated apical fusion. We also showed that keratin 20 (K20), which formed a chicken-wire network 150-300 nm below the apical membrane and had hole sizes allowing FV passage, defined a subapical compartment containing FVs primed and strategically located for fusion. Finally, we showed that Rab8/11 and Rab27b function in the same pathway, that Rab27b-knockout leads to uroplakin and Slp2-a destabilization, and that Rab27b works upstream from MAL. These data support a unifying model in which UP cargoes are targeted for apical insertion via sequential interactions with Rabs and their effectors, SNAREs and MAL, and in which K20 plays a key role in regulating vesicular trafficking.
SNX31: A Novel Sorting Nexin Associated with the Uroplakin-Degrading Multivesicular Bodies in Terminally Differentiated Urothelial Cells
Uroplakins (UP), a group of integral membrane proteins, are major urothelial differentiation products that form 2D crystals of 16-nm particles (urothelial plaques) covering the apical surface of mammalian bladder urothelium. They contribute to the urothelial barrier function and, one of them, UPIa, serves as the receptor for uropathogenic Escherichia coli. It is therefore important to understand the mechanism by which these surface-associated uroplakins are degraded. While it is known that endocytosed uroplakin plaques are targeted to and line the multivesicular bodies (MVBs), it is unclear how these rigid-looking plaques can go to the highly curved membranes of intraluminal vesicles (ILVs). From a cDNA subtraction library, we identified a highly urothelium-specific sorting nexin, SNX31. SNX31 is expressed, like uroplakins, in terminally differentiated urothelial umbrella cells where it is predominantly associated with MVBs. Apical membrane proteins including uroplakins that are surface biotin-tagged are endocytosed and targeted to the SNX31-positive MVBs. EM localization demonstrated that SNX31 and uroplakins are both associated not only with the limiting membranes of MVBs containing uroplakin plaques, but also with ILVs. SNX31 can bind, on one hand, the PtdIns3P-enriched lipids via its N-terminal PX-domain, and, on the other hand, it binds uroplakins as demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assay, and by its reduced membrane association in uroplakin II-deficient urothelium. The fact that in urothelial umbrella cells MVBs are the only major intracellular organelles enriched in both PtdIns3P and uroplakins may explain SNX31's MVB-specificity in these cells. However, in MDCK and other cultured cells transfected SNX31 can bind to early endosomes possibly via lipids. These data support a model in which SNX31 mediates the endocytic degradation of uroplakins by disassembling/collapsing the MVB-associated uroplakin plaques, thus enabling the uroplakin-containing (but 'softened') membranes to bud and form the ILVs for lysosomal degradation and/or exosome formation.
In vitro generation from the trans-Golgi network of coatomer-coated vesicles containing sialylated vesicular stomatitis virus-G protein
We describe an in vitro system in which post-Golgi vesicles containing metabolically labeled, sialylated, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) G protein molecules (VSV-G) are produced from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) of an isolated Golgi membrane fraction. This fraction is prepared from VSV-infected Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells in which the (35)S-labeled viral envelope glycoprotein was allowed to accumulate in the trans-Golgi network during a prolonged incubation at 20 degrees C. The vesicles produced in this system are separated from the remnant Golgi membranes by differential centrifugation or by velocity sedimentation in a sucrose gradient. Vesicle production, quantified as the percentage of labeled VSV-G released from the Golgi membranes, is optimal at 37 degrees C and does not occur below 20 degrees C. It requires GTP and the small GTP-binding protein Arf (ADP-ribosylation factor), as well as coat protein type I (COPI) coat components (coatomer) and vesicle scission factors-one of which corresponds to the phosphatidylinositol transfer protein (PITP). Formation of the vesicles does not require GTP hydrolysis which, however, is necessary for their uncoating. Thus, vesicles generated in the presence of the nonhydrolyzable GTP analogs, GTPgammaS or GMP-PNP, retain a coatomer coat visible in the electron microscope, sediment more rapidly in sucrose density gradients than those generated with ATP or GTP, and can be captured with anticoatomerantibodies. The process of coatomer-coated vesicle formation from the TGN can be dissected into two distinct sequential phases, corresponding to coat assembly/bud formation and vesicle scission. The first phase is completed when Golgi fractions are incubated with cytosolic proteins and nonhydrolyzable GTP analogs at 20 degrees C. The scission phase, which leads to vesicle release, takes place when coated Golgi membranes, recovered after phase I, are incubated at higher temperatures in the presence of cytosolic proteins. The scission phase does not take place if protein kinase C inhibitors are added during the first phase, even though these inhibitors do not prevent membrane coating and bud formation. The phosphorylating activity of a protein kinase C, however, plays no role in vesicle formation, since this process does not require ATP.
Identification of a new Pyk2 target protein with Arf-GAP activity
Protein tyrosine kinase Pyk2 is activated by a variety of G-protein-coupled receptors and by extracellular signals that elevate intracellular Ca2+ concentration. We have identified a new Pyk2 binding protein designated Pap. Pap is a multidomain protein composed of an N-terminal alpha-helical region with a coiled-coil motif, followed by a pleckstrin homology domain, an Arf-GAP domain, an ankyrin homology region, a proline-rich region, and a C-terminal SH3 domain. We demonstrate that Pap forms a stable complex with Pyk2 and that activation of Pyk2 leads to tyrosine phosphorylation of Pap in living cells. Immunofluorescence experiments demonstrate that Pap is localized in the Golgi apparatus and at the plasma membrane, where it is colocalized with Pyk2. In addition, in vitro recombinant Pap exhibits strong GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity towards the small GTPases Arf1 and Arf5 and weak activity towards Arf6. Addition of recombinant Pap protein to Golgi preparations prevented Arf-dependent generation of post-Golgi vesicles in vitro. Moreover, overexpression of Pap in cultured cells reduced the constitutive secretion of a marker protein. We propose that Pap functions as a GAP for Arf and that Pyk2 may be involved in regulation of vesicular transport through its interaction with Pap
An essential role for the phosphatidylinositol transfer protein (PITP) in the scission of COPI-coated vesicles from the TGN [Meeting Abstract]
An essential role for the phosphatidylinositol transfer protein in the scission of coatomer-coated vesicles from the trans-Golgi network
We identified the phosphatidylinositol transfer protein (PITP) as being responsible for a powerful latent, nucleotide-independent, Golgi-vesiculating activity that is present in the cytosol but is only manifested as an uncontrolled activity in a cytosolic protein subfraction, in which it is separated from regulatory components that appear to normally limit its action to the scission of COPI-coated buds from trans-Golgi network membranes. A specific anti-PITP antibody that recognizes the two mammalian PITP isoforms fully inhibited the capacity of the cytosol to support normal vesicle generation as well as the uncontrolled vesiculating activity manifested by the cytosolic protein subfraction. The phosphatidylinositol- (PI) loaded form of the yeast PITP, Sec14p, but not the phosphatidylcholine- (PC) loaded form of the protein, was capable of substituting for the cytosolic subfraction in promoting the scission of coated buds from the trans-Golgi network. At higher concentration, however, Sec14p, when loaded with PI, but not with PC or phosphatidylglycerol, caused by itself an indiscriminate vesiculation of uncoated Golgi membranes that could be suppressed by PC-Sec14p, which also suppresses the uncontrolled vesiculation caused by the cytosolic subfraction. We propose that, by delivering PI to specific sites in the Golgi membrane near the necks of coated buds, PITP induces local changes in the organization of the lipid bilayer, possibly involving PI metabolites, that triggers the fusion of the ectoplasmic faces of the Golgi membrane necessary for the scission of COPI-coated vesicles
Coatomer, but not P200/myosin II, is required for the in vitro formation of trans-Golgi network-derived vesicles containing the envelope glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus
Using a cytosol and nucleotide dependent assay that we previously developed, we have investigated the requirement for coat proteins in the in vitro production of trans-Golgi network (TGN)-derived vesicles from a Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell Golgi fraction that contains the 35S-labeled, terminally glycosylated, envelope glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV-G) accumulated in the TGN. We found that the TGN-derived vesicles, like those involved in intra-Golgi transport and in retrograde transport to the endoplasmic reticulum, contain a coatomer coat and that coatomer is required for their formation. Thus, after they are produced with GTPgammaS, the coated vesicles could be captured on beads containing anticoatomer antibody. Moreover, a cytosolic protein fraction depleted of coatomer could not support vesicle formation but it did so after purified coatomer was added. We also determined that P200/myosin II does not play an essential role in the in vitro generation of TGN-derived vesicles. Thus, removal of this protein from the cytosol, by differential salt precipitation or binding to phalloidin-induced actin filaments, had no effect on vesicle generation. Nevertheless, immunodepletion of cytosol using the anti-P200/myosin II AD7 antibody abolished vesicle generation and that antibody was capable of effectively immunocapturing coated vesicles, even when these were generated in the absence of P200/myosin II. These effects, however, are explained by the unexpected finding that the AD7 antibody interacts with undenatured coatomer
Coatomer is required for the in vitro formation of TGN-derived vesicles containing VSV-G protein [Meeting Abstract]
Mechanism of formation of post Golgi vesicles from TGN membranes: Arf-dependent coat assembly and PKC-regulated vesicle scission
We have developed an experimental system that utilizes purified Golgi fractions obtained from virus infected infected MDCK cells to reproduce in vitro the process of vesicle generation in the trans Golgi network, an important site for the sorting of proteins addressed to the plasma membrane, secretory vesicles, or lysosomes. Using an integrated biochemical and electron microscopic approach, we have shown that the formation of post Golgi vesicles carrying proteins destined to both plasma membrane domains of epithelial cells requires the activation of an ArF-like GTP-binding protein that serves to promote the assembly of the protein coat necessary to deform the donor membrane and generate a vesicle. The formation of the post Golgi vesicles also requires the participation of a Golgi membrane-associated Protein Kinase C, but not its phosphorylating activity. Other authors have shown that this is also the case for the PKC activation of the enzyme phospholipase D, which generates phosphatidic acid from phosphatidyl choline and may be involved in remodeling of membranes. We have been able to dissect the process of post Golgi vesicle generation into two sequential stages, one of coat assembly and bud formation, and a subsequent one of vesicle scission. The first stage can occur at 20 degrees C and requires the activation of the Arf protein necessary for coat assembly. The second stage does not require nucleotides or an energy supply, but requires cytosolic proteins, and in particular, an NEM sensitive membrane scission promoting activity that operates only at a higher temperature of incubation. Because various PKC inhibitors blocked vesicle scission without preventing bud formation, we propose that the PKC is required for the activation of a PLD in the TGN, which leads to remodeling of the donor membrane and the severing of connections between the emerging vesicles and the membranes
The production of post-Golgi vesicles requires a protein kinase C-like molecule, but not its phosphorylating activity
We have recently described a system that recreates in vitro the generation of post-Golgi vesicles from purified Golgi fractions obtained from virus-infected MDCK cells in which the vesicular stomatitis virus-G envelope glycoprotein had been allowed to accumulate in vivo in the TGN. Vesicle formation, monitored by the release of the viral glycoprotein, was shown to require the activation of a GTP-binding ADP ribosylation factor (ARF) protein that promotes the assembly of a vesicle coat in the TGN, and to be regulated by a Golgi-associated protein kinase C (PKC)-like activity. We have now been able to dissect the process of post-Golgi vesicle generation into two sequential stages, one of coat assembly and bud formation, and another of vesicle scission, neither of which requires an ATP supply. The first stage can occur at 20 degrees C, and includes the GTP-dependent activation of the ARF protein, which can be effected by the nonhydrolyzable nucleotide analogue GTP gamma S, whereas the second stage is nucleotide independent and can only occur at a higher temperature of incubation. Cytosolic proteins are required for the vesicle scission step and they cannot be replaced by palmitoyl CoA, which is known to promote, by itself, scission of the coatomer-coated vesicles that mediate intra-Golgi transport. We have found that PKC inhibitors prevented vesicle generation, even when this was sustained by GTP gamma S and ATP levels reduced far below the K(m) of PKC. The inhibitors suppressed vesicle scission without preventing coat assembly, yet to exert their effect, they had to be added before coat assembly took place. This indicates that a target of the putative PKC is activated during the bud assembly stage of vesicle formation, but only acts during the phase of vesicle release. The behavior of the PKC target during vesicle formation resembles that of phospholipase D (PLD), a Golgi-associated enzyme that has been shown to be activated by PKC, even in the absence of the latter's phosphorylating activity. We therefore propose that during coat assembly, PKC activates a PLD that, during the incubation at 37 degrees C, promotes vesicle scission by remodeling the phospholipid bilayer and severing connections between the vesicles and the donor membrane