The in vitro generation of post-Golgi vesicles carrying viral envelope glycoproteins requires an ARF-like GTP-binding protein and a protein kinase C associated with the Golgi apparatus
We have developed a system that recreates in vitro the generation of post-Golgi vesicles from an isolated Golgi fraction prepared from vesicular stomatitis virus- or influenza virus-infected Madin-Darby canine kidney or HepG2 cells. In this system, vesicle generation is temperature- and ATP-dependent and requires a supply of cytosolic proteins, including an N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor distinct from NSF. Cytosolic proteins obtained from yeast were as effective as mammalian cytosolic proteins in supporting vesicle formation and had the same requirements. The vesicles produced (50-80 nm in diameter) are depleted of the trans Golgi marker sialyltransferase, contain the viral glycoprotein molecules with their cytoplasmic tails exposed, and do not show an easily recognizable protein coat. Vesicle generation was inhibited by brefeldin A, which indicates that it requires the activation of an Arf-like GTP-binding protein that promotes assembly of a vesicle coat. Vesicles formed in the presence of the nonhydrolyzable GTP analogue guanosine 5'-3-O-(thio)triphosphate retained a nonclathrin protein coat resembling that of COP-coated vesicles, and sedimented more rapidly in a sucrose gradient than the uncoated ones generated in its absence. This indicates that GTP hydrolysis is not required for vesicle generation but that it is for vesicle uncoating. The activity of a Golgi-associated protein kinase C (PKC) was found to be necessary for the release of post-Golgi vesicles, as indicated by the capacity of a variety of inhibitors and antibodies to PKC to suppress it, as well as by the stimulatory effect of the PKC activator 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate
Modulation of the immunosuppressive activity of CKS-17, a synthetic retroviral envelope peptide, by muramyl dipeptide
CKS-17, a heptadecapeptide corresponding to a region highly conserved in retroviral transmembrane proteins is known to be immunosuppressive both in vitro and in vivo when conjugated to a carrier protein. Here we examined the effect of the synthetic adjuvant muramyl dipeptide (MDP) on the immunosuppressive properties of CKS-17-BSA in vitro. MDP was found to abrogate CKS-17-BSA-induced inhibition of both IgM plaque-forming cell responses and antitetanus toxin IgG secretion by BALB/c mouse spleen cells immunized in vivo and in vitro by sheep red blood cells and tetanus toxoid, respectively. In contrast, the CKS-17-BSA suppression of concanavalin A-induced splenocyte proliferation was not abrogated by MDP. The data suggest that muramyl peptides could be useful as immunoadjuvants for vaccines against retrovirus-associated immunosuppressive diseases.
Proteolytic processing of chromogranin A in cultured chromaffin cells
The prohormone chromogranin A is the major soluble component of secretory granules in chromaffin cells of adrenal medulla and in many other different endocrine cell types. The proteolytic processing of chromogranin A was studied in cultured bovine chromaffin cells using [35S]methionine to label proteins and a specific antibody to immunoprecipitate the native protein and its breakdown products. In resting cells, it was found that the degradation of chromogranin A is a slow process, since no degradation was observed after a 40 h incubation with radiolabelled methionine. Stimulation of cells with a single pulse or with successive pulses of nicotine did not significantly enhance the degree of proteolytic processing of chromogranin A. As it has recently been shown (Simon, J.P., Bader, M.F. and Aunis, D. Biochem. J. (1989) 260, 915-922) that protein kinase C may be involved in the regulation of chromogranin A synthesis, the possibility that prohormone processing may also be controlled by protein kinase C was examined using the activator of protein kinase C, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). However, incubation of cells with TPA did not significantly modify chromogranin A processing, indicating that biosynthesis and proteolytic processing of chromogranin A are two distinctly regulated mechanisms. Glucocorticoids are known to exert regulatory control of chromaffin cell metabolism; however, incubation of cells with dexamethasone did not alter slow chromogranin A processing. Stimulation of labelled cells rapidly released newly synthesized chromogranin A into external medium. In addition, released chromogranin A was found to be actively processed into its 60 kDa and 43 kDa breakdown products. This extracellular proteolytic degradation mechanism may be of importance with regard to the function of chromogranin A as a prohormone.