TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR 9 INFLUENCES INFLAMMATORY ARTHRITIS AND OSTEOCLASTOGENESIS [Meeting Abstract]
Fischer, A.; Abdollahi-Rodsaz, S.; Yau, A. C. Y.; Lonnblom, E.; Holmdahl, R.; Steiner, G.
Myofibroblastic differentiation of stromal cells in giant cell tumor of bone: an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study
Garcia, Roberto A; Platica, Corneliu D; Alba Greco, M; Steiner, German C
Abstract The nature of the mononuclear stromal cells (MSCs) in giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) has not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the degree and significance of myofibroblastic differentiation in 18 cases of GCTB by immunohistochemistry (IH) and/or electron microscopy (EM). All immunostained cases were found positive for smooth muscle actin (SMA) and/or muscle specific actin (MSA), most in 1-33% of the MSCs. Ultrastructurally, most MSCs were fibroblasts, and a significant number of cells displayed myofibroblastic differentiation. Myofibroblasts are an important component of MSCs in GCTB. The myofibroblastic population may be responsible in part for the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which probably play a role in bone destruction, tumor aggression, and recurrence.
Erdheim-chester disease - clinical pathological case discussion
Rivera, Tania L; Irish, Robert D; Hoda, Syed A; Steiner, German C; Rackoff, Paula J; Fischer, Harry D
Mesenchymal-epithelial differentiation of adamantinoma of long bones: an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study
Sarita-Reyes, Carmen D; Greco, M Alba; Steiner, German C
Three cases of adamantinoma were studied by electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. In the tubular pattern, well-differentiated epithelial cells and glandular structures were present, in addition to ill-defined glands. In the basaloid pattern, less differentiated epithelial cells with discohesion were seen in the central epithelial masses. This study established the epithelial nature of some tubular structures with slit-like lumina, easily misinterpreted as capillaries by light microscopy. Results also showed that the irregular spaces observed within the basaloid pattern probably result from cell discohesion. Moreover, this investigation demonstrates the epithelial nature of a subset of spindle cells within the stroma of adamantinoma and offers ultrastructural evidence for a probable mesenchymal-epithelial transformation as its histogenesis.
Retrospective analysis of total knee arthroplasty cases for visual, histological, and clinical eligibility of unicompartmental knee arthroplasties
Arno, Sally; Maffei, Diana; Walker, Peter S; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Desai, Panna; Steiner, German C
We retrospectively analyzed 97 total knee arthroplasty cases with medial osteoarthritis from seven participating surgeons in our teaching hospital to determine the percentage of patients who met the following eligibility criteria for unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA): healthy cartilage in the lateral compartment based on (1) visual analysis, (2) histological analysis and (3) absence of UKA contraindications based on clinical analysis. The cases with healthy lateral cartilage, intact anterior cruciate ligament and posterior cruciate ligament, lack of patello-femoral arthritis, preoperative range of motion (ROM) greater than 90, and genu varum less than 10 degrees represented 21% of the 97 cases studied. This percentage would likely have been higher had the cases been assessed earlier in the disease process. It was concluded that there is the potential to utilize UKA more frequently in the future
Primary synovial chondrosarcoma of the hip joint in a 45-year-old male: case report and literature review
Rybak, Leon David; Khaldi, Lubna; Wittig, James; Steiner, German C
Synovial chondrosarcoma is a rare tumor, seen most commonly arising from antecedent synovial chondromatosis, the more common benign entity. The distinction between the two can be difficult on the basis of clinical, imaging, and histologic criteria. The authors report a case of pathologically proven synovial chondrosarcoma of the hip in a 45-year-old male initially treated for presumed synovial chondromatosis. The case is made more unusual by the fact that no evidence of co-existent synovial chondromatosis was noted at histology. The literature as regards synovial chondrosarcoma, both de novo and secondary cases, is reviewed
The Spring Ligament Recess of the Talocalcaneonavicular Joint: Depiction on MR Images With Cadaveric and Histologic Correlation
Desai, Kapil R; Beltran, Luis S; Bencardino, Jenny T; Rosenberg, Zehava S; Petchprapa, Catherine; Steiner, German
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe the anatomy and MR appearance of the spring ligament recess of the talocalcaneonavicular joint. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Forty-nine MR examinations of the ankle with a spring ligament recess were prospectively collected. The size of the recess was measured. The presence of the following variables was recorded: talocalcaneonavicular joint effusion, ankle joint effusion, talar head impaction, acute lateral ankle sprain, chronic lateral ankle sprain, spring ligament tear, sinus tarsi ligament tear, talar dome osteochondral injury, and talonavicular osteoarthrosis. The Fisher exact test was performed to quantify the association of the talocalcaneonavicular effusion with the other variables. MR arthrography and dissection with histologic analysis were performed in two cadaveric ankles. RESULTS: Twenty-four men and 25 women (average age, 39 years; range, 21-77 years) were included in the study. The average size of the fluid collection was 0.4 x 0.8 cm (range, 0.2-0.9 x 0.4-1.5 cm). The prevalence of the measured variables was talocalcaneonavicular joint effusion, 67.3%; ankle joint effusion, 61.2%; talar head impaction, 32.7%; acute lateral ankle sprain, 28.6%; chronic lateral ankle sprain, 59.2%; spring ligament tear, 14.3%; sinus tarsi ligament tear, 12.2%; talar dome osteochondral lesion, 20.4%; and talonavicular osteoarthrosis, 18.4%. There was a higher prevalence of talar head impaction among individuals with talocalcaneonavicular joint effusion (p = 0.0522). Cadaveric study revealed communication between the talocalcaneonavicular joint and the spring ligament recess. CONCLUSION: The spring ligament recess is a synovium-lined, fluid-filled space that communicates with the talocalcaneonavicular joint. The recess should be distinguished from a tear of the plantar components of the spring ligament
Chondrosarcoma of the femur with histology-imaging correlation of tumor growth - preliminary observations concerning periosteal new bone formation and soft tissue extension
Steiner, German C; Schweitzer, Mark E; Kenan, Samuel; Abdelwahab, Ibrahim F
The objective of this study was, in chondrosarcoma (CHS) of the femur, to evaluate by radiologic-pathologic correlation, the degree of tumor growth, cortical destruction, periosteal reaction, and soft tissue extension present. Materials and Methods: Eight cases of histologically proven CHS of the femur were studied. All cases were resected, evaluated histologically with coronal slabs, and compared with radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. In two resected specimens, the tumors were studied in more detail; along with coronal slabs, axial sections of the remaining anterior and posterior halves of both tumors were taken, and the bone specimens were X-rayed and examined histologically. Results: CHS initially involved the medullary cavity and subsequently destroyed the cortex; first, by endosteal scalloping and, second, by subsequent invasion and destruction of the cortex. During this process, there was periosteal new bone formation (PNBF), with increased cortical thickness, the degree of which often correlated with the degree of cortical destruction. In the areas of cortical thickening of three cases, a 'grey line' was seen on MRI that separated the cortex from the periosteal new bone; the line, in reality,is a space between the two structures. The presence of this line suggests that the tumor does not extend beyond the cortex. PNBF occurred in all cases and varied in thickness. It frequently developed independent of direct periosteal tumor involvement. The periosteum of one case contained porotic bone with interposed marrow fat, which was easily misinterpreted as tumor extension on MRI. Expansion and remodeling of the femoral diaphysis in CHS, with widening of the medullary cavity, is usually due to extensive cortical destruction with PNBF. Soft tissue extension was present in five cases and apparently occurred by two different mechanisms: direct tumor destruction of the cortex and periosteum, with extension into the soft tissues; and subtle MRI occult tumor permeation through the periosteum. As far as we know, a first literature histologic description of the thickened CHS periosteum also was accomplished. Conclusion: PNBF is a common imaging manifestation of CHS of the femur, which correlated with the degree of cortical destruction. A grey line between the cortex and periosteum is an MRI finding described in this study and may facilitate the evaluation of periosteal thickening and tumor invasion in CHS. PNBF often occurs in the absence of direct periosteal involvement. Periosteal imaging abnormalities suggestive of tumor infltration should be interpreted with caution on MRI, and early soft tissue extension in CHS may be difficult to determine on MRI
Digital intraosseous epidermoid inclusion cyst of the distal phalanx
Ruchelsman, David E; Laino, Daniel K; Chhor, Kimberlly S; Steiner, German C; Kenan, Samuel
Epidermoid inclusion cysts (EIC) of the bone are exceedingly rare. We present a case of an atypical EIC originating at the base of the distal phalanx of the index finger following a remote history of crush injury to the finger. The differential diagnosis of expansile, lytic lesions of the phalanges remains broad, and definitive diagnosis requires tissue histopathological analysis. At latest follow-up, the patient was pain-free and obtained an excellent clinical and radiographic outcome following intra-lesional curettage and bone grafting. Differentiation of EIC from other radiolucent digital lesions remains challenging, especially when classic radiographic findings are not seen. We review the clinical, radiographic, and pathologic diagnostic features of this lesion, as well as our current treatment algorithm.
Osteoblastoma of the sternum--case report and review of the literature
Villalobos, Camilo E; Rybak, Leon D; Steiner, German C; Wittig, James C
Osteoblastoma is an extremely rare entity that represents less than 1% of all bone tumors, and affects twice as many males as females with peak incidence between 15 and 20 years. Osteoblastomas commonly affect axial bones, long bones, bones of the foot and hand, and less commonly the pelvis, scapula, ribs, and clavicle. Osteoblastoma does not have a classic presentation, but can vary with the location and size of the tumor. The main complaint is often progressive pain localized at the tumor site. Osteoblastoma is a benign tumor with an aggressive behavior. The treatment is wide surgical resection, otherwise it continues to enlarge and destroy the bone and surrounding structures. We report a 32-year-old male with an osteoblastoma of this sternum who was treated with an en-bloc resection and reconstruction with Marlex((R)) and a methylmethacrylate plate