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Well-differentiated extraskeletal osteosarcoma: report of 2 cases, 1 with dedifferentiation [Case Report]

Abramovici, Luigia C; Hytiroglou, Prodromos; Klein, Robert M; Karkavelas, Georgios; Drevelegas, Antonios; Panousi, Eugenia; Steiner, German C
Extraskeletal osteosarcoma (ESOS) is a rare soft tissue sarcoma, typically characterized by high-grade histological features and a grave prognosis. However, 4 cases of well-differentiated ESOS with a better prognosis have been documented in the literature within the last 40 years. We report 2 additional cases, 1 with multicentric presentation and dedifferentiation, and we emphasize the histological features that are useful in distinguishing this lesion from other soft tissue tumors. Well-differentiated ESOS seems to represent a rare but distinct low-grade variant of ESOS. The limited published experience suggests that although the biologic behavior of this tumor is better than that of classical ESOS, there are cases with progression to a higher grade, leading eventually to final demise
PMID: 15892008
ISSN: 0046-8177
CID: 55914

Bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation (Nora's lesion) in the hand

Michelsen, Heidi; Abramovici, Luigia; Steiner, German; Posner, Martin A
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to review our experience with a benign surface bone lesion referred to as bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation (BPOP) or Nora's lesion, named for the pathologist who described it in 1983. The lesion may be confused with a variety of tumors, particularly solitary osteochondromas, which are rare. METHODS: The files in the Department of Pathology at the Hospital for Joint Diseases were reviewed over a 21-year period for all surface bone lesions involving the tubular bones in the hand. There were a total of 10 cases of BPOP compared with only a single case of an osteochondroma. RESULTS: Radiographs generally showed a well-marginated uniformly dense mass arising from the surface of the affected bone without any disruption in its bony architecture. Surgical excision is the definitive treatment and included the fibrous pseudocapsule over the lesion, any periosteal tissue beneath the lesion, and any area of the cortex of the host bone that appeared abnormal. Although in the medical literature the recurrence rate for BPOP is high, we had only one recurrence in our series. CONCLUSIONS: BPOP is a benign surface bone lesion that may be confused with benign and malignant tumors. Although there is a cleavage plane between the lesion and host bone, we recommend excising the pseudocapsule over the lesion, any periosteal tissue beneath the lesion, and decorticating any abnormal-appearing areas in the underlying host bone. This may explain the low recurrence rate in our series
PMID: 15140499
ISSN: 0363-5023
CID: 79376

Tumorlike lesions and benign tumors of the hand and wrist

Plate, Ann-Marie; Lee, Steven J; Steiner, German; Posner, Martin A
A broad spectrum of tumorlike lesions and neoplasms can occur in the hand and wrist, although with somewhat less frequency than in other parts of the body. A thorough understanding of the differential diagnosis of these lesions and a comprehensive strategy for evaluation are central for effective care. Plain radiographs are diagnostic for most bony lesions, whereas magnetic resonance imaging may be necessary to help differentiate a benign soft-tissue lesion from the rare malignant neoplasm. In spite of the complex anatomy, adherence to proper oncologic principles most often will lead to a satisfactory outcome
PMID: 12670139
ISSN: 1067-151x
CID: 36173

The effects of radiofrequency bipolar thermal energy on human meniscal tissue

Jazrawi, Laith M; Chen, Andrew; Stein, Drew; Heywood, Christian S; Bernstein, Adam; Steiner, German; Rokito, Andrew
This study performed the first in vitro histological analysis of the effects of bipolar thermal energy on human meniscal tissue. Sixteen fresh human menisci were mounted on a cutting block and placed in a water bath simulating an arthroscopic environment. Each specimen was divided into four sections and randomized to one of four treatment options: 1. thermal ablation with a bipolar multielectrode 3 mm Covac wand (power 3 setting); 2. thermal ablation with a bipolar multielectrode 3 mm Covac wand (power setting 7); 3. resection with a scalpel blade; and 4. resection with a motorized 4.5 full-radius resector. Six micron sections were cut and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin and Masson's trichrome stain. Menisci were evaluated for the contour of the cut edge: straight, jagged, frayed, or combined. The zone of thermal necrosis and zone of thermal alteration were determined by examining the differential staining of the connective tissue and measuring the affected area. Menisci treated with the bipolar thermal probe were noted to have a smoother contoured edge in comparison to motorized cutters. The zone of thermal penetration for the Arthrocare power setting 3 averaged 0.18 mm (range: 0.09 to 0.20; SD 0.04) and for Arthrocare power setting 7 averaged 0.33 mm (range: 0.26 to 0.36; SD 0.03). The difference in thermal penetration between Arthrocare power settings 3 and 7 was 0.15 mm. This was statistically significant at p < 0.0001 (95% CI: 0.11 to 0.19 mm). The zone of thermal penetration was non-existent for the shaver and scalpel groups. This study provides the first histological description of the effects of bipolar radiofrequency energy on meniscal tissue. It demonstrates that there is intra-substance thermal penetration and alteration of the meniscal tissue. Its clinical significance is unclear and further in vivo studies are needed to address its clinical applicability
PMID: 15156808
ISSN: 0018-5647
CID: 45992

True bursal pigmented villonodular synovitis [Case Report]

Abdelwahab, Ibrahim Fikry; Kenan, Samuel; Steiner, German C; Abdul-Quader, Mohammed
We describe two cases of pigmented villonodular synovitis affecting true bursae. This study was also designed to discuss the term 'pigmented villonodular bursitis', not confined to true synovial bursae, sometimes creating misunderstanding
PMID: 12073120
ISSN: 0364-2348
CID: 94867

Osteoblastoma-like osteosarcoma of the distal tibia [Case Report]

Abramovici, Luigia; Kenan, Samuel; Hytiroglou, Prodromos; Rafii, Mahvash; Steiner, German C
We report a case of a 14-year-old boy with an intracompartmental lytic lesion with poorly defined margins in the right distal tibia that was originally treated with curettage and bone grafting. Histologic examination showed an osteoblastic tumor with unusual features, which was found on consultation to be an osteoblastoma-like osteosarcoma, a rare, low-grade variant of osteosarcoma. Subsequently, the patient underwent en bloc resection of the distal tibia, which was replaced with vascularized bone graft and followed by chemotherapy. Two years later, he is alive with lung metastases
PMID: 11935205
ISSN: 0364-2348
CID: 27571

Osteosarcoma arising in a desmoplastic fibroma of the proximal tibia [Case Report]

Abdelwahab, Ibrahim Fikry; Klein, Michael J; Hermann, George; Steiner, German C; Yang, David C
PMID: 11856684
ISSN: 0361-803x
CID: 94868

Osteopontin: an intrinsic inhibitor of inflammation in cartilage

Attur MG; Dave MN; Stuchin S; Kowalski AJ; Steiner G; Abramson SB; Denhardt DT; Amin AR
OBJECTIVE: To identify extracellular and intraarticular matrix components that are differentially expressed in normal and osteoarthritis (OA)-affected cartilage and to investigate their functions with respect to regulation of mediators of inflammation. METHODS: Differential-display reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of a pool of messenger RNA (mRNA) from 10 human OA cartilage samples and 5 normal cartilage samples was performed using arbitrary primers. Confirmatory analysis of the up-regulated transcripts of fibronectin (FN) and osteopontin (OPN) was performed by RT-PCR of individual RNA samples from a separate set of donors. The effect of recombinant OPN (or anti-OPN antiserum) on chondrocyte function was examined by analyzing the spontaneous or interleukin-1 (IL-1)-induced release of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) from human OA-affected cartilage under ex vivo conditions. RESULTS: Up-regulation (300-700%) of FN and OPN mRNA was observed in human OA-affected cartilage as compared with normal cartilage. Functional analysis of the role of OPN in OA cartilage showed that 1) Addition of 1 microg/ml (20 nM) of recombinant OPN to human OA-affected cartilage under ex vivo conditions inhibited spontaneous and IL-1beta-induced NO and PGE2 production, and 2) neutralization of intraarticular OPN with anti-OPN antiserum augmented NO production. CONCLUSION: The data indicate that one of the functions of intraarticular OPN, which is overexpressed in OA cartilage, is to act as an innate inhibitor of IL-1, NO, and PGE2 production. These findings suggest that the production of pleiotropic mediators of inflammation that influence cartilage homeostasis, such as NO and PGE2, is regulated by the interaction of chondrocytes with differentially expressed proteins within the extracellular matrix
PMID: 11263772
ISSN: 0004-3591
CID: 26765

Melorheostosis: case report with radiologic-pathologic correlation [Case Report]

Brown RR; Steiner GC
ensp;Melorheostosis is an unusual mesenchymal dysplasia, which commonly presents on radiographs as longitudinal bars of hyperostosis in osseous structures. We present a case of melorheostosis in the lower extremity of a 20-year-old woman for which detailed radiologic- pathologic correlation was achieved due to amputation of the involved limb
PMID: 11000303
ISSN: 0364-2348
CID: 11493

Interobserver variability among expert orthopedic pathologists for diagnosis, histologic grade, and determination of the necessity for chemotherapy in osteosarcoma

Kilpatrick, SE; Abdul-Karim, FW; Renner, JB; King, TS; Klein, MJ; Rosenberg, AE; Steiner, GC; Bullough, PG; Schiller, AL; Dorfman, HD
Eight expert orthopedic pathologists voluntarily reviewed the clinicoradiologic and histologic data from 12 selected cases coded as osteosarcoma over the past seven years ( procured from a total of 40 cases) from the files of the University of North Carolina and Wake Forest University. The study sample was chosen to include a full spectrum of histologic grades and subtypes including conventional, low-grade central, chondroblastoma-like, osteoblastoma-like, small cell, telangiectatic, parosteal, and periosteal variants. Participants were asked to render a diagnosis, provide a histologic grade (if applicable), and offer an opinion as to whether the patient could benefit from chemotherapy. Uniform agreement regarding the diagnosis of osteosarcoma was observed in 7 cases (58 hr %), including the most common, conventional subtypes, and the telangiectatic, parosteal, and periosteal variants. Among the remaining 5 cases, the consensus majority (greater than or equal to4) also was osteosarcoma. However, additional diagnoses ranged from osteoblastoma to high-grade osteosarcoma in two tumors, mesenchymal chondrosarcoma versus small cell osteosarcoma in one, fibrosarcoma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma versus fibroblastic osteosarcoma in another, and clear cell chondrosarcoma versus chondroblastoma versus chondroblastic osteosarcoma in a fifth. Among osteosarcoma diagnoses, histologic grading rang ed from low- to high-grade osteosarcoma in 6 tumors (50%). Regarding the necessity for chemotherapy, there was disagreement from at least one consultant in 7 cases (58 hr %). Evaluation of the intraclass correlation coefficient revealed modest agreement with respect to histologic grade and therapy but poor agreement for diagnosis, the latter reflecting the wide range of diagnoses in a minority of cases. Interobserver variability exists among expert orthopedic pathologists for determining the diagnosis, histologic grade, and necessity of chemotherapy in less common forms of osteosarcoma. A more objective histologic grading and scoring system for osteosarcoma should be established, followed by multi-institutional studies assessing the usefulness of the system as it relates to the necessity of chemotherapy and survival
ISSN: 1522-7952
CID: 54451