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Depatuxizumab mafodotin in EGFR-amplified newly diagnosed glioblastoma: A phase III randomized clinical trial

Lassman, Andrew B; Pugh, Stephanie L; Wang, Tony J C; Aldape, Kenneth; Gan, Hui K; Preusser, Matthias; Vogelbaum, Michael A; Sulman, Erik P; Won, Minhee; Zhang, Peixin; Moazami, Golnaz; Macsai, Marian S; Gilbert, Mark R; Bain, Earle E; Blot, Vincent; Ansell, Peter J; Samanta, Suvajit; Kundu, Madan G; Armstrong, Terri S; Wefel, Jeffrey S; Seidel, Clemens; de Vos, Filip Y; Hsu, Sigmund; Cardona, Andrés F; Lombardi, Giuseppe; Bentsion, Dmitry; Peterson, Richard A; Gedye, Craig; Bourg, Véronique; Wick, Antje; Curran, Walter J; Mehta, Minesh P
BACKGROUND:Approximately 50% of newly diagnosed glioblastomas (GBMs) harbor epidermal growth factor receptor gene amplification (EGFR-amp). Preclinical and early-phase clinical data suggested efficacy of depatuxizumab mafodotin (depatux-m), an antibody-drug conjugate comprised of a monoclonal antibody that binds activated EGFR (overexpressed wild-type and EGFRvIII-mutant) linked to a microtubule-inhibitor toxin in EGFR-amp GBMs. METHODS:In this phase III trial, adults with centrally confirmed, EGFR-amp newly diagnosed GBM were randomized 1:1 to radiotherapy, temozolomide, and depatux-m/placebo. Corneal epitheliopathy was treated with a combination of protocol-specified prophylactic and supportive measures. There was 85% power to detect a hazard ratio (HR) ≤0.75 for overall survival (OS) at a 2.5% 1-sided significance level (ie traditional two-sided p ≤ 0.05) by log-rank testing. RESULTS:There were 639 randomized patients (median age 60, range 22-84; 62% men). Prespecified interim analysis found no improvement in OS for depatux-m over placebo (median 18.9 vs. 18.7 months, HR 1.02, 95% CI 0.82-1.26, 1-sided p = 0.63). Progression-free survival was longer for depatux-m than placebo (median 8.0 vs. 6.3 months; HR 0.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70-1.01, p = 0.029), particularly among those with EGFRvIII-mutant (median 8.3 vs. 5.9 months, HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.56-0.93, 1-sided p = 0.002) or MGMT unmethylated (HR 0.77, 95% CI 0.61-0.97; 1-sided p = 0.012) tumors but without an OS improvement. Corneal epitheliopathy occurred in 94% of depatux-m-treated patients (61% grade 3-4), causing 12% to discontinue. CONCLUSIONS:Interim analysis demonstrated no OS benefit for depatux-m in treating EGFR-amp newly diagnosed GBM. No new important safety risks were identified.
PMID: 35849035
ISSN: 1523-5866
CID: 5426122

Extended Survival in Patients With Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer-Associated Brain Metastases in the Modern Era

Berger, Assaf; Mullen, Reed; Bernstein, Kenneth; Alzate, Juan Diego; Silverman, Joshua S; Sulman, Erik P; Donahue, Bernadine R; Chachoua, Abraham; Shum, Elaine; Velcheti, Vamsidhar; Sabari, Joshua; Golfinos, John G; Kondziolka, Douglas
BACKGROUND:Brain metastases (BM) have long been considered a terminal diagnosis with management mainly aimed at palliation and little hope for extended survival. Use of brain stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and/or resection, in addition to novel systemic therapies, has enabled improvements in overall and progression-free (PFS) survival. OBJECTIVE:To explore the possibility of extended survival in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) BM in the current era. METHODS:During the years 2008 to 2020, 606 patients with NSCLC underwent their first Gamma Knife SRS for BM at our institution with point-of-care data collection. We reviewed clinical, molecular, imaging, and treatment parameters to explore the relationship of such factors with survival. RESULTS:The median overall survival was 17 months (95% CI, 13-40). Predictors of increased survival in a multivariable analysis included age <65 years (P < .001), KPS ≥80 (P < .001), absence of extracranial metastases (P < .001), fewer BM at first SRS (≤3, P = .003), and targeted therapy (P = .005), whereas chemotherapy alone was associated with shorter survival (P = .04). In a subgroup of patients managed before 2016 (n = 264), 38 (14%) were long-term survivors (≥5 years), of which 16% required no active cancer treatment (systemic or brain) for ≥3 years by the end of their follow-up. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Long-term survival in patients with brain metastases from NSCLC is feasible in the current era of SRS when combined with the use of effective targeted therapeutics. Of those living ≥5 years, the chance for living with stable disease without the need for active treatment for ≥3 years was 16%.
PMID: 36722962
ISSN: 1524-4040
CID: 5420082

Editorial: Insights in neuro-oncology and neurosurgical oncology: 2021

Sulman, Erik P.; Eisenstat, David D.
ISSN: 2234-943x
CID: 5424342

Comparison of pharmacological inhibitors of lysine-specific demethylase 1 in glioblastoma stem cells reveals inhibitor-specific efficacy profiles

Stitzlein, Lea M; Gangadharan, Achintyan; Walsh, Leslie M; Nam, Deokhwa; Espejo, Alexsandra B; Singh, Melissa M; Patel, Kareena H; Lu, Yue; Su, Xiaoping; Ezhilarasan, Ravesanker; Gumin, Joy; Singh, Sanjay; Sulman, Erik; Lang, Frederick F; Chandra, Joya
INTRODUCTION/UNASSIGNED:Improved therapies for glioblastoma (GBM) are desperately needed and require preclinical evaluation in models that capture tumor heterogeneity and intrinsic resistance seen in patients. Epigenetic alterations have been well documented in GBM and lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1/KDM1A) is amongst the chromatin modifiers implicated in stem cell maintenance, growth and differentiation. Pharmacological inhibition of LSD1 is clinically relevant, with numerous compounds in various phases of preclinical and clinical development, but an evaluation and comparison of LSD1 inhibitors in patient-derived GBM models is lacking. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:To assess concordance between knockdown of LSD1 and inhibition of LSD1 using a prototype inhibitor in GBM, we performed RNA-seq to identify genes and biological processes associated with inhibition. Efficacy of various LSD1 inhibitors was assessed in nine patient-derived glioblastoma stem cell (GSC) lines and an orthotopic xenograft mouse model. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:LSD1 inhibitors had cytotoxic and selective effects regardless of GSC radiosensitivity or molecular subtype. In vivo, LSD1 inhibition via GSK-LSD1 led to a delayed reduction in tumor burden; however, tumor regrowth occurred. Comparison of GBM lines by RNA-seq was used to identify genes that may predict resistance to LSD1 inhibitors. We identified five genes that correlate with resistance to LSD1 inhibition in treatment resistant GSCs, in GSK-LSD1 treated mice, and in GBM patients with low LSD1 expression. CONCLUSION/UNASSIGNED:Collectively, the growth inhibitory effects of LSD1 inhibition across a panel of GSC models and identification of genes that may predict resistance has potential to guide future combination therapies.
PMID: 37082446
ISSN: 1664-2295
CID: 5466332

Lineage-coupled clonal capture identifies clonal evolution mechanisms and vulnerabilities of BRAFV600E inhibition resistance in melanoma

Zhang, Ze-Yan; Ding, Yingwen; Ezhilarasan, Ravesanker; Lhakhang, Tenzin; Wang, Qianghu; Yang, Jie; Modrek, Aram S; Zhang, Hua; Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Futreal, Andrew; Draetta, Giulio F; Verhaak, Roel G W; Sulman, Erik P
Targeted cancer therapies have revolutionized treatment but their efficacies are limited by the development of resistance driven by clonal evolution within tumors. We developed "CAPTURE", a single-cell barcoding approach to comprehensively trace clonal dynamics and capture live lineage-coupled resistant cells for in-depth multi-omics analysis and functional exploration. We demonstrate that heterogeneous clones, either preexisting or emerging from drug-tolerant persister cells, dominated resistance to vemurafenib in BRAFV600E melanoma. Further integrative studies uncovered diverse resistance mechanisms. This includes a previously unrecognized and clinically relevant mechanism, chromosome 18q21 gain, which leads to vulnerability of the cells to BCL2 inhibitor. We also identified targetable common dependencies of captured resistant clones, such as oxidative phosphorylation and E2F pathways. Our study provides new therapeutic insights into overcoming therapy resistance in BRAFV600E melanoma and presents a platform for exploring clonal evolution dynamics and vulnerabilities that can be applied to study treatment resistance in other cancers.
PMID: 36202798
ISSN: 2056-5968
CID: 5361762

Modern Hearing Preservation Outcomes After Vestibular Schwannoma Stereotactic Radiosurgery

Berger, Assaf; Alzate, Juan Diego; Bernstein, Kenneth; Mullen, Reed; McMenomey, Sean; Jethanemest, Daniel; Friedmann, David R; Smouha, Eric; Sulman, Erik P; Silverman, Joshua S; Roland, J Thomas; Golfinos, John G; Kondziolka, Douglas
BACKGROUND:For patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS), stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has proven effective in controlling tumor growth while hearing preservation remains a key goal. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate hearing outcomes in the modern era of cochlear dose restriction. METHODS:During the years 2013 to 2018, 353 patients underwent Gamma knife surgery for VS at our institution. We followed 175 patients with pre-SRS serviceable hearing (Gardner-Robertson Score, GR 1 and 2). Volumetric and dosimetry data were collected, including biological effective dose, integral doses of total and intracanalicular tumor components, and hearing outcomes. RESULTS:The mean age was 56 years, 74 patients (42%) had a baseline GR of 2, and the mean cochlear dose was 3.5 Gy. The time to serviceable hearing loss (GR 3-4) was 38 months (95% CI 26-46), with 77% and 62% hearing preservation in the first and second years, respectively. Patients optimal for best hearing outcomes were younger than 58 years with a baseline GR of 1, free canal space ≥0.041 cc (diameter of 4.5 mm), and mean cochlear dose <3.1 Gy. For such patients, hearing preservation rates were 92% by 12 months and 81% by 2 years, staying stable for >5 years post-SRS, significantly higher than the rest of the population. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Hearing preservation after SRS for patients with VS with serviceable hearing is correlated to the specific baseline GR score (1 or 2), age, cochlear dose, and biological effective dose. Increased tumor-free canal space correlates with better outcomes. The most durable hearing preservation correlates with factors commonly associated with smaller tumors away from the cochlea.
PMID: 35973088
ISSN: 1524-4040
CID: 5299902

DNA methylation-based epigenetic signatures predict somatic genomic alterations in gliomas

Yang, Jie; Wang, Qianghu; Zhang, Ze-Yan; Long, Lihong; Ezhilarasan, Ravesanker; Karp, Jerome M; Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Snuderl, Matija; Wiestler, Benedikt; Wick, Wolfgang; Miao, Yinsen; Huse, Jason T; Sulman, Erik P
Molecular classification has improved diagnosis and treatment for patients with malignant gliomas. However, classification has relied on individual assays that are both costly and slow, leading to frequent delays in treatment. Here, we propose the use of DNA methylation, as an emerging clinical diagnostic platform, to classify gliomas based on major genomic alterations and provide insight into subtype characteristics. We show that using machine learning models, DNA methylation signatures can accurately predict somatic alterations and show improvement over existing classifiers. The established Unified Diagnostic Pipeline (UniD) we develop is rapid and cost-effective for genomic alterations and gene expression subtypes diagnostic at early clinical phase and improves over individual assays currently in clinical use. The significant relationship between genetic alteration and epigenetic signature indicates broad applicability of our approach to other malignancies.
PMID: 35906213
ISSN: 2041-1723
CID: 5277052

Significant survival improvements for patients with melanoma brain metastases: can we reach cure in the current era?

Berger, Assaf; Bernstein, Kenneth; Alzate, Juan Diego; Mullen, Reed; Silverman, Joshua S; Sulman, Erik P; Donahue, Bernadine R; Pavlick, Anna C; Gurewitz, Jason; Mureb, Monica; Mehnert, Janice; Madden, Kathleen; Palermo, Amy; Weber, Jeffrey S; Golfinos, John G; Kondziolka, Douglas
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:New therapies for melanoma have been associated with increasing survival expectations, as opposed to the dismal outcomes of only a decade ago. Using a prospective registry, we aimed to define current survival goals for melanoma patients with brain metastases (BM), based on state-of-the-art multimodality care. METHODS:We reviewed 171 melanoma patients with BM receiving stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) who were followed with point-of-care data collection between 2012 and 2020. Clinical, molecular and imaging data were collected, including systemic treatment and radiosurgical parameters. RESULTS:SRS were predictors of long-term survival ([Formula: see text] 5 years) from initial SRS (p = 0.023 and p = 0.018, respectively). Five patients (16%) of the long-term survivors required no active treatment for [Formula: see text] 5 years. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Long-term survival in patients with melanoma BM is achievable in the current era of SRS combined with immunotherapies. For those alive [Formula: see text] 5 years after first SRS, 16% had been also off systemic or local brain therapy for over 5 years. Given late recurrences of melanoma, caution is warranted, however prolonged survival off active treatment in a subset of our patients raises the potential for cure.
PMID: 35665462
ISSN: 1573-7373
CID: 5248172

Risk of Second Primary Neoplasms of the Central Nervous System

Liu, Elisa K; Oh, Cheongeun; Kondziolka, Douglas; Sulman, Erik P
Purpose/UNASSIGNED:Second primary (SP) neoplasms of the central nervous system (CNS) among cancer survivors are devastating but poorly understood processes. The absolute risk, or true incidence, of developing an SP CNS tumor among cancer survivors is not well characterized. Methods and Materials/UNASSIGNED:Patients diagnosed with cancer between 1975 and 2016 were queried using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. Cumulative incidence rates (CIRs) were estimated using competitive risk analysis. The effects of covariates were assessed using multivariate competitive risk regression. Results/UNASSIGNED: = 7e-5). Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:The risk of developing a second primary CNS neoplasm is elevated in patients with a prior CNS cancer independent of treatment history. The association between cranial radiation therapy and risk for subsequent cancers may be limited to the pediatric population.
PMID: 35814854
ISSN: 2452-1094
CID: 5279782

Radiation Therapy for Brain Metastases: ASCO Guideline Endorsement of ASTRO Guideline

Schiff, David; Messersmith, Hans; Brastianos, Priscilla K; Brown, Paul D; Burri, Stuart; Dunn, Ian F; Gaspar, Laurie E; Gondi, Vinai; Jordan, Justin T; Maues, Julia; Mohile, Nimish; Redjal, Navid; Stevens, Glen H J; Sulman, Erik P; van den Bent, Martin; Wallace, H James; Zadeh, Gelareh; Vogelbaum, Michael A
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:American Society of Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) has developed a guideline on appropriate radiation therapy for brain metastases. ASCO has a policy and set of procedures for endorsing clinical practice guidelines that have been developed by other professional organizations. METHODS:was reviewed for developmental rigor by methodologists. An ASCO Endorsement Panel subsequently reviewed the content and the recommendations. RESULTS:. RECOMMENDATIONS/CONCLUSIONS:is conditionally recommended.Additional information is available at
PMID: 35561283
ISSN: 1527-7755
CID: 5214992