Disruption in Pavlovian-Instrumental Transfer as a Function of Depression and Anxiety
Novel Spaced Repetition Flashcard System for the In-training Examination for Obstetrics and Gynecology
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Electronic flashcards allow repeated information exposure over time along with active recall. It is increasingly used for self-study by medical students but remains poorly implemented for graduate medical education. The primary goal of this study was to determine whether a flashcard system enhances preparation for the in-training examination in obstetrics and gynecology (ob-gyn) conducted by the Council on Resident Education in Obstetrics and Gynecology (CREOG). METHODS:Ob-gyn residents at Duke University were included in this study. A total of 883 electronic flashcards were created and distributed. CREOG scores and flashcard usage statistics, generated internally by interacting with the electronic flashcard system, were collected after the 2019 exam. The primary outcome was study aid usage and satisfaction. The secondary outcome was the impact of flashcard usage on CREOG exam scores. RESULTS:â€‰=â€‰0.06). DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:This flashcard resource was well received by ob-gyn residents for in-training examination preparation, though it was not significantly correlated with improvement in CREOG scores after adjusting for post-graduate year.
Correction to: Novel Spaced Repetition Flashcard System for the In-training Examination for Obstetrics and Gynecology
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1007/s40670-021-01320-z.].
Spaced Repetition Flashcards for Teaching Medical Students Psychiatry
OBJECTIVE:Retrieval practice, often using electronic flashcards, is increasingly utilized among medical students for self-study. In this study, the authors evaluated usage and satisfaction with electronic flashcards based on a medical school psychiatry curriculum. METHODS:First-year medical students at one institution consented to participate and received access to a set of pre-made flashcards. Surveys were distributed that collected demographic information along with measures of prior performance, test anxiety, and prior experience with electronic flashcards. The total number of flashcard reviews and time spent on the platform for each student were collected using statistics internally generated by the platform. Each student's final exam score was also collected. RESULTS:A total of 114 of 129 first year medical students (88%) consented to participate, and 101 students were included in the final analysis. Fifty-eight (56%) were flashcard users with a median of 660 flashcards studied over 2.95Â h. A total of 87% of flashcard users found the flashcards to be helpful, and 83% of flashcard users would recommend the flashcards to someone else. Flashcard usage was not associated with final exam scores. CONCLUSIONS:This novel electronic study resource was well-received by first-year medical students for psychiatric instruction in medical school, though usage was not associated with higher exam scores.
Dimension- and context-specific expression of preschoolers' disruptive behaviors associated with prenatal tobacco exposure
OBJECTIVE:Precise phenotypic characterization of prenatal tobacco exposure (PTE)-related disruptive behavior (DB) that integrates nuanced measures of both exposures and outcomes is optimal for elucidating underlying mechanisms. Using this approach, our goals were to identify dimensions of DB most sensitive to PTE prior to school entry and assess contextual variation in these dimensions. METHODS:A community obstetric sample of NÂ =Â 369 women (79.2% lifetime smokers; 70.2% pregnancy smokers) from two Midwestern cities were assessed for PTE using cotinine-calibrated interview-based reports at 16, 28, and 40Â weeks of gestation. A subset of nÂ =Â 244 who completed observational assessments with their 5-year-old children in a subsequent preschool follow-up study constitute the analytic sample. Using two developmentally-meaningful dimensions previously associated with emergent clinical risk for DB-irritability and noncompliance-we assessed children with 2 parent-report scales: the Multidimensional Assessment Profile of Disruptive Behavior (MAP-DB) and the Early Childhood Inventory (ECI). We also assessed children by direct observation across 3 interactional contexts with the Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS). We used generalized linear models to examine between-child variability across behavioral dimensions, and mixed effects models to examine directly observed within-child variability by interactional context. RESULTS:Increasing PTE predicted increasing impairment in preschoolers' modulation of negative affect (irritability), but not negative behavior (noncompliance) across reported (MAP-DB) and observed (DB-DOS) dimensional measures. Moreover, children's PTE-related irritability was more pronounced when observed with parents than with the examiner. The ECI did not detect PTE-related irritability nor noncompliance. CONCLUSIONS:Nuanced, dimension- and context-specific characterization of PTE-related DB described can optimize early identification of at-risk children.
Neuroticism and interpretive bias as risk factors for anxiety and depression
Neuroticism has been associated with depression and anxiety both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Interpretive bias has been associated with depression and anxiety, primarily in cross-sectional and bias induction studies. The purpose of the current study was to examine the role of interpretive bias as a prospective risk factor and a mediator of the relation between neuroticism and depressive and anxious symptoms in young adults assessed longitudinally. Neuroticism significantly predicted a broad general distress dimension, but not intermediate fears and anhedonia-apprehension dimensions, nor a narrow social fears dimension. Neuroticism also significantly predicted negative interpretive bias for social scenarios. Negative interpretive bias for social scenarios did not significantly predict dimension scores, nor did it mediate the relation between neuroticism and general distress or social fears. These results suggest that although neuroticism relates to negative interpretive bias, its risk for symptoms of depression and anxiety is at most weakly conferred through negative interpretive bias.
Virtual Reality Reward Training for Anhedonia: A Pilot Study
Anhedonia is a risk factor for suicide and poor treatment response in depressed individuals. Most evidence-based psychological therapies target symptoms of heightened negative affect (e.g., negative inferential style) instead of deficits in positive affect (e.g., attenuated reward response) and typically show little benefit for anhedonia. Viewing positive scenes through virtual reality (VR) has been shown to increase positive affect and holds great promise for addressing anhedonic symptoms. In this pilot study, six participants with clinically significant depression completed 13 sessions of exposure to positive scenes in a controlled VR environment. Significant decreases were found in self-reported anhedonia, depression, anxiety, and impairments in functioning from baseline to 1-month follow-up. Negative affect decreased over all 13 sessions, and positive affect increased over sessions 8-13. Results suggest that positive experiences in VR may be a novel avenue for the treatment of anhedonia in depressed individuals.
Posttraumatic stress symptomatology and abnormal neural responding during emotion regulation under cognitive demands: mediating effects of personality
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often complicated by the after-effects of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). The mixture of brain conditions results in abnormal affective and cognitive functioning, as well as maladaptive behavior. To better understand how brain activity explains cognitive and emotional processes in these conditions, we used an emotional N-back task and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study neural responses in US military veterans after deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan. Additionally, we sought to examine whether hierarchical dimensional models of maladaptive personality could account for the relationship between combat-related brain conditions and fMRI responses under cognitive and affective challenge. FMRI data, measures of PTSD symptomatology (PTSS), blast-induced mTBI (bmTBI) severity, and maladaptive personality (MMPI-2-RF) were gathered from 93 veterans. Brain regions central to emotion regulation were selected for analysis, and consisted of bilateral amygdala, bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal (dlPFC), and ventromedial prefrontal/subgenual anterior cingulate (vmPFC-sgACC). Cognitive load increased activity in dlPFC and reduced activity in emotional responding brain regions. However, individuals with greater PTSS showed blunted deactivations in bilateral amygdala and vmPFC-sgACC, and weaker responses in right dlPFC. Additionally, we found that elevated emotional/internalizing dysfunction (EID), specifically low positive emotionality (RC2), accounted for PTSS-related changes in bilateral amygdala under increased cognitive load. Findings suggest that PTSS might result in amygdala and vmPFC-sgACC activity resistant to moderation by cognitive demands, reflecting emotion dysregulation despite a need to marshal cognitive resources. Anhedonia may be an important target for interventions that improve the affective and cognitive functioning of individuals with PTSD.
Validating the use of a smartphone app for remote administration of a fear conditioning paradigm
Fear conditioning models key processes related to the development, maintenance and treatment of anxiety disorders and is associated with group differences in anxiety. However, laboratory administration of tasks is time and cost intensive, precluding assessment in large samplesnecessary for the analysis of individual differences. This study introduces a newly developed smartphone app that delivers a fear conditioning paradigm remotely using a loud human scream as an aversive stimulus. Three groups of participants (total nâ€¯=â€¯152) took part in three studies involving a differential fear conditioning experiment to assess the reliability and validity of a smartphone administered fear conditioning paradigm. This comprised of fear acquisition, generalisation, extinction, and renewal phases during which online US-expectancy ratings were collected during every trial with evaluative ratings of negative affect at three time points. We show that smartphone app delivery of a fear conditioning paradigm results in a pattern of fear learning comparable to traditional laboratory delivery and is able to detect individual differences in performance that show comparable associations with anxiety to the prior group differences literature.
Durability of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Effects for Youth and Adolescents With Anxiety, Depression, or Traumatic Stress:A Meta-Analysis on Long-Term Follow-Ups
Cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT) for youth with anxiety, traumatic stress, and depression have demonstrated strong effects in individual studies and meta-analyses. Relatively more attention has been given to posttreatment effects, though, and assessment of follow-up effects has been limited at the meta-analytic level. The current meta-analysis aimed to (a) examine the effects of youth CBT at posttreatment, 1-month, 3-month, 6-month, 1-year, and long-term (2+ years) follow-up as well as (b) identify research-related variables (e.g., measure respondent type) that relate to effects. Using a random effects model across 110 child and adolescent CBT groups, within-group effect sizes were large at posttreatment (g = 1.24) and from 1-month through long-term follow-up (g = 1.23-1.82), and effect sizes did not significantly differ by treatment target (i.e., anxiety, traumatic stress, depression). However, availability of outcome data for effect sizes diminished across later follow-up assessments. Moreover, effect sizes were significantly associated with outcome respondent type across assessment timing, with outcome measures from caregiver and youth respondents associated with smaller effect sizes (B = -0.97, p < 0.001) relative to outcome measures that were evaluator-reported. Results provide initial support for the durability of treatment effects for youth CBTs and highlight the importance of some confounding variables. Implications for improving treatment research standards and prioritizing assessment of long-term follow-up assessment are discussed.