Surveillance after resection of non-invasive intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN). A systematic review
Correa-Gallego, Camilo; Miyasaka, Yoshihiro; Hozaka, Yuto; Nishino, Hitoe; Kawamoto, Makoto; Vieira, Dorice L; Ohtsuka, Takao; Wolfgang, Christopher
BACKGROUND:The ideal surveillance strategy after partial pancreatectomy for non-invasive IPMN remains undefined and existing guidelines provide conflicting recommendations. The present study was developed in anticipation of the joint meeting of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) and the Japan Pancreas Society (JPS) held in Kyoto in July 2022. METHODS:An international team of experts developed the four clinical questions (CQ) to operationalize issues pertaining to surveillance of patients in this context. A systematic review was designed following the PRISMA guidelines and registered in PROSPERO. The search strategy was executed in PubMed/Medline (Ovid), Embase, the Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases. Four investigators individually extracted data from the selected studies and drafted recommendations for each CQ. These were subsequently discussed and agreed upon that the IAP/JPS meeting. RESULTS:From a total of 1098 studies identified through the initial search, 41 studies were included in the review and informed the recommendations. No studies providing level one data were identified in this systematic review, all studies included were cohort or case-control studies. CONCLUSIONS:There is a lack of level 1 data addressing the issue of surveillance of patients following partial pancreatectomy for non-invasive IPMN. The definition of remnant pancreatic lesion in this setting is largely heterogeneous across all studies evaluated. Herein we propose an inclusive definition of remnant pancreatic lesions to guide future prospective efforts for reporting the natural history and long-term outcomes of these patients.
Characterisation of medical conditions of children with sickle cell disease in the USA: findings from the 2007-2018 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS)
Gyamfi, Joyce; Tampubolon, Siphra; Lee, Justin Tyler; Islam, Farha; Ojo, Temitope; Opeyemi, Jumoke; Qiao, Wanqiu; Mai, Andi; Wang, Cong; Vieira, Dorice; Ryan, Nessa; Osei-Tutu, Nana H; Adenikinju, Deborah; Meda, Shreya; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Peprah, Emmanuel
OBJECTIVES:We used the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data set to examine the prevalence of comorbid medical conditions; explore barriers to accessing healthcare and special educational services; and assess the associations between sickle cell disease (SCD) status and demographics/socioeconomic status (SES), and social determinants of health (SDoH) on comorbidities among children in the USA. DESIGN:Cross-sectional. SETTING:NHIS Sample Child Core questionnaire 2007-2018 data set. PARTICIPANTS:133 481 children; presence of SCD was determined by an affirmative response from the adult or guardian of the child. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Multivariate logistic regression was used to compare the associations between SCD status, SES and SDoH for various medical conditions for all races and separately for black children at p<0.05. RESULTS:133 481 children (mean age 8.5 years, SD: 0.02), 215 had SCD and ~82% (weighted) of the children with SCD are black. Children with SCD were more likely to suffer from comorbid conditions, that is, anaemia (adjusted OR: 27.1, p<0.001). Furthermore, children with SCD had at least two or more emergency room (ER) visits (p<0.001) and were more likely to have seen a doctor 1-15 times per year (p<0.05) compared with children without SCD. Household income (p<0.001) and maternal education were lower for children with SCD compared with children without SCD (52.4% vs 63.5% (p<0.05)). SCD children with a maternal parent who has < / > High School degree were less likely to have no ER visits or 4-5 ER visits, and more likely to have 2-3 ER visits within 12 months. CONCLUSION:Children with SCD experienced significant comorbid conditions and have high healthcare usage, with black children being disproportionately affected. Moreover, maternal education status and poverty level illustrates how impactful SES can be on healthcare seeking behaviour for the SCD population. SDoH have significant implications for managing paediatric patients with SCD in clinical settings.
An Evolving HIV Epidemic in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region: A Scoping Review
Karbasi, Arvin; Fordjuoh, Judy; Abbas, Mentalla; Iloegbu, Chukwuemeka; Patena, John; Adenikinju, Deborah; Vieira, Dorice; Gyamfi, Joyce; Peprah, Emmanuel
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is severely understudied despite the region's increase in new HIV infections since 2010. A key population that is particularly affected, due to the lack of adequate knowledge and proper interventional implementation, includes people who inject drugs (PWID). Furthermore, the paucity of HIV data (prevalence and trends) worsens an already critical situation in this region. A scoping review was conducted to address the scarcity of information and to synthesize the available data on HIV prevalence rates within the key population of PWID throughout the MENA region. Information was sourced from major public health databases and world health reports. Of the 1864 articles screened, 40 studies discussed the various factors contributing to the under-reporting of HIV data in the MENA region among PWID. High and overlapping risk behaviors were cited as the most prevalent reason why HIV trends were incomprehensible and hard to characterize among PWID, followed by lack of service utilization, lack of intervention-based programs, cultural norms, lack of advanced HIV surveillance systems, and protracted humanitarian emergencies. Overall, the lack of reported information limits any adequate response to the growing and unknown HIV trends throughout the region.
Narrative review of migraine management in patients with renal or hepatic disease
Stern, Jennifer I; Datta, Shae; Chiang, Chia-Chun; Garza, Ivan; Vieira, Dorice L; Robertson, Carrie E
OBJECTIVES/BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE:Treatment of migraine in the setting of either renal or hepatic disease can be daunting for clinicians. Not only does the method of metabolism have to be considered, but also the method of elimination/excretion of the parent drug and any active or toxic metabolites. Furthermore, it is difficult to think about liver or kidney disease in isolation, as liver disease can sometimes contribute to impaired renal function and renal disease can sometimes impair hepatic metabolism, through the cytochrome P450 system. METHODS:A detailed search for terms related to liver disease, renal disease, and migraine management was performed in PubMed, Ovid Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library.For each medication, product labels were retrieved and reviewed using the US FDA website, with additional review of IBM Micromedex, LiverTox, and the Renal Drug Handbook. RESULTS:This manuscript provides an overview of migraine drug metabolism and how it can be affected by liver and renal impairment. It reviews the standard terminology recommended by the US Food and Drug Administration for the different stages of hepatic and renal failure. The available evidence regarding the use of abortive and preventative medicines in the setting of organ failure is discussed in detail, including more recent therapies such as lasmiditan, gepants, and calcitonin gene-related peptide antibodies. CONCLUSIONS:For acute therapy, the use of NSAIDS should be limited, as these carry risk for both severe hepatic and renal disease. Triptans can be selectively used, often with dose guideline adjustments. Ubrogepant may be used in severe hepatic disease with dose adjustment and lasmiditan can be used in end stage renal disease. Though non-medicine strategies may be the most reasonable initial approach, many preventative medications can be used in the setting of hepatic and renal disease, often with dose adjustment. This review provides tables of guidelines, including reduced dosing recommendations, for the use of abortive and preventative migraine medications in hepatic and renal failure.
Why are Black individuals disproportionately burdened with uterine fibroids and how are we examining this disparity? A systematic review
Charifson, Mia A.; Vieira, Dorice; Shaw, Jacquelyn; Kehoe, Siobhan; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.
Objective: To systematically review and summarize the literaure on nongenetic risk factors that may contribute to the racial disparity in uterine fibroids (UF) that disproportionality impacts Black individuals at 2-3 times the rate of White individuals and how the racial disparity has been studied to date. Evidence Review: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis Protocol checklist guided the systematic review process. From January 1 to June 1, 2021, relevant articles were retrieved from PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library. Multiple investigators screened, assessed, extracted, and critically appraised the data. Results: A total of 44 articles examined the relationship among UFs, race/ethnicity, and nongenetic risk factors, including cardiometabolic features, comorbidities, diet, chemical exposures, vitamin D levels, reproductive characteristics and socioeconomic factors, and life experiences. Most studies reported on the same 3 cohort study populations, and there was inconsistent statistical reporting of the race/ethnicity, risk factors, and UF relationship. Conclusion: Many potential risk factors related to the racial disparity in UF have been studied thus far. There is still little conclusive evidence regarding which risk factors are the greatest contributors to racial disparities in UF. Promising areas of research deserve greater attention and a greater diversity of study populations and analytical methods.
Examining alcohol interventions across the lifespan among the African diaspora: A systematic review
Marshall, Vanessa; Vieira, Dorice; McLaurin-Jones, TyWanda; Lashley, Maudry-Beverley
AIMS/OBJECTIVE:Racial/ethnic and cultural identity influences alcohol use consumption and help-seeking behaviors. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess alcohol prevention programs and interventions targeting African Americans/Blacks among the African Diaspora across the lifespan. METHODS:According to PRISMA guidelines, literature searches were conducted via electronic databases, grey literature, and hand searches of relevant journal articles evaluating primary outcome data to reduce alcohol use. To be included in this systematic review, intervention and prevention studies required a population of more than 50% African descent and provided information about statistical significance (pÂ <Â .05) indicating changes in alcohol as a primary outcome. RESULTS:Search strategy identified 5691 citations and the full-text of 148 studies were screened. A total of 23 articles met the inclusion criteria. Studies were geographically located in the United States and African countries. Interventions were implemented in community, patient-care, school, and workplace settings. Adult studies evaluated pharmacological and/or behavioral interventions while utilizing validated instruments and procedures to assess alcohol outcomes. Strategies to change alcohol behavior included psychotherapy, brief motivational interviewing (BMI), and counseling. Adolescent studies utilized family-based, computer-assisted technology, and career development interventions to reduce alcohol use. CONCLUSIONS:The systematic review identified a range of intervention articles addressing the reduction of alcohol use for African Americans/Blacks that may be used in various settings and by different age groups. Best practices and strategies designed to address socio-cultural factors by promoting protective and risk-reducing factors of alcohol use and successful alcohol interventions are needed.
Navigating parent-child disagreement about fertility preservation in minors: scoping review and ethical considerations
Bayefsky, Michelle; Vieira, Dorice; Caplan, Arthur; Quinn, Gwendolyn
BACKGROUND:Offering fertility preservation (FP) prior to gonadotoxic therapy, including cancer care and gender-affirming treatment, is now considered standard of care. Periodically, parents and children disagree about whether to pursue FP. However, it is unknown how often this occurs and how disagreement is handled when it arises. Moreover, there is no clear guidance on how to resolve these difficult situations. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE/OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this scoping review is to provide an overview of available research evidence about parent-child disagreement regarding FP in order to establish that disagreement occurs in practice, understand the basis for disagreement and explore suggestions for how such disputes could be resolved. Based on our findings, we offer a discussion of the ethical principles at stake when disagreement occurs, which can be used to guide clinicians' approaches when these challenging scenarios present. SEARCH METHODS/METHODS:A comprehensive literature search was run in several databases, including PubMed/Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library. The search was performed in February 2021 and updated in August 2021. Articles were included in the final review if they discussed how parents or children wanted their views on FP taken into account, presented evidence that parent-child discordance regarding FP exists, discussed how to handle disagreement in a particular case or offered general suggestions for how to approach parent-child discordance about FP. Studies were excluded if the patients were adult only (age 18â€‰years and older), pertained to fertility-sparing treatments (e.g. gonad shielding, gonadopexy) rather than fertility-preserving treatments (e.g. testicular tissue cryopreservation, ovarian tissue cryopreservation, oocyte cryopreservation or sperm cryopreservation) or explored the views of clinicians but not patients or parents. Meta-synthesis was used to synthesize and interpret data across included studies and thematic analysis was used to identify common patterns and themes. OUTCOMES/RESULTS:In total, 755 publications were screened, 118 studies underwent full-text review and 35 studies were included in the final review. Of these studies, 7 discussed how parents or children wanted their opinions to be incorporated, 11 presented evidence that discordance exists between parents and children regarding FP, 4 discussed how disagreement was handled in a particular case and 21 offered general suggestions for how to approach parent-child disagreement. There was a range of study designs, including quantitative and qualitative studies, case studies, ethical analyses and commentaries. From the thematic analysis, four general themes regarding FP disagreement emerged, and four themes relating to the ethical principles at stake in parent-child disagreement were identified. The general themes were: adolescents typically desire to participate in FP decision-making; some parents prefer not to involve their children; minors may feel more favorably about FP than their parents; and transgender minors and their parents may have unique reasons for disagreement. The ethical principles that were identified were: minor's best interest; right to an open future; minor's autonomy; and parental autonomy. WIDER IMPLICATIONS/CONCLUSIONS:This study offers an overview of available research on the topic of parent-child disagreement regarding FP and discusses the ethical considerations at stake when disagreement occurs. The findings can be used to inform guidance for clinicians presented with FP disagreement in practice.
Systematic review of sleep and sleep disorders among prostate cancer patients and caregivers: a call to action for using validated sleep assessments during prostate cancer care
Robbins, Rebecca; Cole D O, Renee; Ejikeme, Chidera; Orstad, Stephanie L; Porten, Sima; Salter, Carolyn A; Sanchez Nolasco, Tatiana; Vieira, Dorice; Loeb, Stacy
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE:To examine the impact of prostate cancer (PCa) on sleep health for patients and caregivers. We hypothesized that sleep disturbances and poor sleep quality would be prevalent among patients with PCa and their caregivers. PATIENTS/METHODS/METHODS:A systematic literature search was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis guidelines. To be eligible for this systematic review, studies had to include: (1) patients diagnosed with PCa and/or their caregivers; and (2) objective or subjective data on sleep. 2431 articles were identified from the search. After duplicates were removed, 1577 abstracts were screened for eligibility, and 315 underwent full-text review. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS/CONCLUSIONS:Overall, 83 articles met inclusion criteria and were included in the qualitative synthesis. The majority of papers included patients with PCa (98%), who varied widely in their treatment stage. Only 3 studies reported on sleep among caregivers of patients with PCa. Most studies were designed to address a different issue and examined sleep as a secondary endpoint. Commonly used instruments included the Insomnia Severity Index and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaires (EORTC-QLQ). Overall, patients with PCa reported a variety of sleep issues, including insomnia and general sleep difficulties. Both physical and psychological barriers to sleep are reported in this population. There was common use of hypnotic medications, yet few studies of behavioral interventions to improve sleep for patients with PCa or their caregivers. Many different sleep issues are reported by patients with PCa and caregivers with diverse sleep measurement methods and surveys. Future research may develop consensus on validated sleep assessment tools for use in PCa clinical care and research to promote facilitate comparison of sleep across PCa treatment stages. Also, future research is needed on behavioral interventions to improve sleep among this population.
Development of the ASSESS tool: a comprehenSive tool to Support rEporting and critical appraiSal of qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods implementation reSearch outcomes
Ryan, Nessa; Vieira, Dorice; Gyamfi, Joyce; Ojo, Temitope; Shelley, Donna; Ogedegbe, Olugbenga; Iwelunmor, Juliet; Peprah, Emmanuel
BACKGROUND:Several tools to improve reporting of implementation studies for evidence-based decision making have been created; however, no tool for critical appraisal of implementation outcomes exists. Researchers, practitioners, and policy makers lack tools to support the concurrent synthesis and critical assessment of outcomes for implementation research. Our objectives were to develop a comprehensive tool to (1) describe studies focused on implementation that use qualitative, quantitative, and/or mixed methodologies and (2) assess risk of bias of implementation outcomes. METHODS:A hybrid consensus-building approach combining Delphi Group and Nominal Group techniques (NGT) was modeled after comparative methodologies for developing health research reporting guidelines and critical appraisal tools. First, an online modified NGT occurred among a small expert panel (n = 5), consisting of literature review, item generation, round robin with clarification, application of the tool to various study types, voting, and discussion. This was followed by a larger e-consensus meeting and modified Delphi process with implementers and implementation scientists (n = 32). New elements and elements of various existing tools, frameworks, and taxonomies were combined to produce the ASSESS tool. RESULTS:The 24-item tool is applicable to a broad range of study designs employed in implementation science, including qualitative studies, randomized-control trials, non-randomized quantitative studies, and mixed methods studies. Two key features are a section for assessing bias of the implementation outcomes and sections for describing the implementation strategy and intervention implemented. An accompanying explanation and elaboration document that identifies and describes each of the items, explains the rationale, and provides examples of reporting and appraising practice, as well as templates to allow synthesis of extracted data across studies and an instructional video, has been prepared. CONCLUSIONS:The comprehensive, adaptable tool to support both reporting and critical appraisal of implementation science studies including quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods assessment of intervention and implementation outcomes has been developed. This tool can be applied to a methodologically diverse and growing body of implementation science literature to support reviews or meta-analyses that inform evidence-based decision-making regarding processes and strategies for implementation.
Disparities in allostatic load, telomere length and chronic stress burden among African American adults: A systematic review
Murkey, Jamie A; Watkins, Beverly-Xaviera; Vieira, Dorice; Boden-Albala, Bernadette
BACKGROUND:The chronic disease burden among African Americans has continued to rise. Although racial disparities in chronic disease risk are well documented, the role of chronic stress in risk disparities among racial and ethnic minorities is not well understood. This systematic review of studies reporting on the relationship between chronic stress, education, and/or income, and biomarkers of chronic stress (allostatic load and telomere length) longitudinally among African Americans, seeks to contribute to this knowledge gap. OBJECTIVE:To use the existing literature to both examine the strength of two objective biomarkers--telomere length and allostatic load--as measures of the overactivation of physiological stress processes in African American adults; and determine if existing studies used these two biomarkers to assess the relationship between chronic stress, income and level of educational attainment among African Americans longitudinally. METHODS:In order to identify English-language articles published prior to October 11, 2021, a comprehensive search strategy was developed using five databases: PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science Plus, Global Health (Ovid), and PsycINFO. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) method was used to record progress on the comprehensive search for studies reporting on allostatic load and/or telomere length biomarkers longitudinally within all bodily fluids and chronic stress among African American adults. RESULTS:In total, 7 studies met the search criteria; 902 were excluded. Thus, less than 1% of all studies reporting on biomarkers of chronic stress longitudinally included African Americans. Each of the 7 studies described the relationship between telomere length and/or allostatic load among African Americans and chronic stress, education, and/or income. Higher chronic stress levels and experiences of racial discrimination were associated with telomere shortening while lower income and higher chronic stress levels were associated with an increase in allostatic load among African Americans. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:Given the limited number of studies reporting on the association between allostatic load, telomere length, and/or the relationship between both in assessing chronic stress severity longitudinally among African American populations, it is impossible to determine whether one biomarker has greater predictive value than the other. However, based on the literature included in this review, higher chronic stress levels and experiences of racial discrimination were associated with shorter telomere length, while lower income and higher chronic stress levels are associated with an increase in allostatic load among African Americans. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:These data illustrate a gap in the literature on the relationship between the biomarkers of telomere length and allostatic load combined as a potential measure for chronic stress among African Americans. To our knowledge, none the current literature describes the relationship between telomere length and allostatic load longitudinally among African American adults. As the field strives to develop a "gold standard" for measuring chronic stress, the combination of these biomarkers needs to be the subject of scientific inquiry and thus, fully examined. Future longitudinal studies among African Americans are needed to better understand which biomarker, or combination of biomarkers will provide the most accurate measure of physiological stress processes.