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Implementation of non-insulin-dependent diabetes self-management education (DSME) in LMICs: a systematic review of cost, adoption, acceptability, and fidelity in resource-constrained settings

Fitzpatrick, Reilly; Pant, Shubhra; Li, Jamie; Ritterman, Rebecca; Adenikinju, Deborah; Iloegbu, Chukwuemeka; Pateña, John; Vieira, Dorice; Gyamfi, Joyce; Peprah, Emmanuel
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:Type II diabetes (T2D), is a serious health issue accounting for 10.7% of mortality globally. 80% of cases worldwide are found in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), with rapidly increasing prevalence. Diabetes-self management education (DSME) is a cost-effective program that provides at-risk individuals with the knowledge and skills they need to adopt lifestyle changes that will improve their health and well-being. This systematic review examined the application of DSME in LMICs and identified the corresponding implementation results (cost, fidelity, acceptance, and adoption) associated with successful implementation in low-resource settings. METHODS AND ANALYSIS/UNASSIGNED:The available research on T2D and the use of DSME in LMIC were systematically searched for using six electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, Web of Science, Google Scholar, PAIS, and EBSCO Discovery) between the months of October and November of 2022. The articles that met the search criteria were subsequently imported into EndNote and Covidence for analysis. The Cochrane RoB methodology for randomized trials was used to evaluate the risk of bias (RoB) in the included studies. A narrative synthesis was used to summarize the results. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED: = 12). CONCLUSION/UNASSIGNED:Our systemic review found that DSME can be an acceptable and cost-effective solution in LMIC. While we intended to analyze cost, adoption, acceptability, and fidelity, our investigation revealed a gap in the literature on those areas, with most studies focusing on acceptability and cost and no studies identifying fidelity or adoption. To further evaluate the efficacy of DSME and enhance health outcomes for T2D in LMICs, more research is needed on its application. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION/
PMID: 37383485
ISSN: 2813-0146
CID: 5540442

Evidence-based interventions to reduce maternal malnutrition in low and middle-income countries: a systematic review

Shenoy, Shivani; Sharma, Priyanka; Rao, Aishwarya; Aparna, Nusrat; Adenikinju, Deborah; Iloegbu, Chukwuemeka; Pateña, John; Vieira, Dorice; Gyamfi, Joyce; Peprah, Emmanuel
INTRODUCTION/UNASSIGNED:Despite remarkable strides in global efforts to reduce maternal mortality, low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) continue to grapple with a disproportionate burden of maternal mortality, with malnutrition emerging as a significant contributing factor to this enduring challenge. Shockingly, malnourished women face a mortality risk that is twice as high as their well-nourished counterparts, and a staggering 95% of maternal deaths in 2020 occurred within LMICs. The critical importance of addressing maternal malnutrition in resource-constrained settings cannot be overstated, as compelling research studies have demonstrated that such efforts could potentially save thousands of lives. However, the landscape is marred by a scarcity of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) specifically tailored for pregnant individuals aimed at combatting maternal malnutrition and reducing mortality rates. It is against this backdrop that our study endeavors to dissect the feasibility, adoption, sustainability, and cost-effectiveness of EBIs designed to combat maternal malnutrition. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:Our comprehensive search encompassed eight prominent databases covering the period from 2003 to 2022 in LMICs. We began our study with a comprehensive search across multiple databases, yielding a total of 149 studies. From this initial pool, we eliminated duplicate entries and the remaining studies underwent a thorough screening process resulting in the identification of 63 full-text articles that aligned with our predefined inclusion criteria. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:The meticulous full-text review left us with a core selection of six articles that shed light on interventions primarily centered around supplementation. They underscored a critical issue -the limited understanding of effective implementation in these countries, primarily attributed to inadequate monitoring and evaluation of interventions and insufficient training of healthcare professionals. Moreover, our findings emphasize the pivotal role of contextual factors, such as cultural nuances, public trust in healthcare, the prevalence of misinformation, and concerns regarding potential adverse effects of interventions, which profoundly influence the successful implementation of these programs. DISCUSSION/UNASSIGNED:While the EBIs have shown promise in reducing maternal malnutrition, their true potential for feasibility, adoption, cost-effectiveness, and sustainability hinges on their integration into comprehensive programs addressing broader issues like food insecurity and the prevention of both communicable and non-communicable diseases.
PMID: 37954061
ISSN: 2813-0146
CID: 5610972

Why are Black individuals disproportionately burdened with uterine fibroids and how are we examining this disparity? A systematic review

Charifson, Mia A.; Vieira, Dorice; Shaw, Jacquelyn; Kehoe, Siobhan; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.
Objective: To systematically review and summarize the literaure on nongenetic risk factors that may contribute to the racial disparity in uterine fibroids (UF) that disproportionality impacts Black individuals at 2-3 times the rate of White individuals and how the racial disparity has been studied to date. Evidence Review: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis Protocol checklist guided the systematic review process. From January 1 to June 1, 2021, relevant articles were retrieved from PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library. Multiple investigators screened, assessed, extracted, and critically appraised the data. Results: A total of 44 articles examined the relationship among UFs, race/ethnicity, and nongenetic risk factors, including cardiometabolic features, comorbidities, diet, chemical exposures, vitamin D levels, reproductive characteristics and socioeconomic factors, and life experiences. Most studies reported on the same 3 cohort study populations, and there was inconsistent statistical reporting of the race/ethnicity, risk factors, and UF relationship. Conclusion: Many potential risk factors related to the racial disparity in UF have been studied thus far. There is still little conclusive evidence regarding which risk factors are the greatest contributors to racial disparities in UF. Promising areas of research deserve greater attention and a greater diversity of study populations and analytical methods.
ISSN: 2666-5719
CID: 5349272

Examining alcohol interventions across the lifespan among the African diaspora: A systematic review

Marshall, Vanessa; Vieira, Dorice; McLaurin-Jones, TyWanda; Lashley, Maudry-Beverley
AIMS/OBJECTIVE:Racial/ethnic and cultural identity influences alcohol use consumption and help-seeking behaviors. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess alcohol prevention programs and interventions targeting African Americans/Blacks among the African Diaspora across the lifespan. METHODS:According to PRISMA guidelines, literature searches were conducted via electronic databases, grey literature, and hand searches of relevant journal articles evaluating primary outcome data to reduce alcohol use. To be included in this systematic review, intervention and prevention studies required a population of more than 50% African descent and provided information about statistical significance (p < .05) indicating changes in alcohol as a primary outcome. RESULTS:Search strategy identified 5691 citations and the full-text of 148 studies were screened. A total of 23 articles met the inclusion criteria. Studies were geographically located in the United States and African countries. Interventions were implemented in community, patient-care, school, and workplace settings. Adult studies evaluated pharmacological and/or behavioral interventions while utilizing validated instruments and procedures to assess alcohol outcomes. Strategies to change alcohol behavior included psychotherapy, brief motivational interviewing (BMI), and counseling. Adolescent studies utilized family-based, computer-assisted technology, and career development interventions to reduce alcohol use. CONCLUSIONS:The systematic review identified a range of intervention articles addressing the reduction of alcohol use for African Americans/Blacks that may be used in various settings and by different age groups. Best practices and strategies designed to address socio-cultural factors by promoting protective and risk-reducing factors of alcohol use and successful alcohol interventions are needed.
PMID: 35811146
ISSN: 1943-4693
CID: 5279662

Navigating parent-child disagreement about fertility preservation in minors: scoping review and ethical considerations

Bayefsky, Michelle; Vieira, Dorice; Caplan, Arthur; Quinn, Gwendolyn
BACKGROUND:Offering fertility preservation (FP) prior to gonadotoxic therapy, including cancer care and gender-affirming treatment, is now considered standard of care. Periodically, parents and children disagree about whether to pursue FP. However, it is unknown how often this occurs and how disagreement is handled when it arises. Moreover, there is no clear guidance on how to resolve these difficult situations. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE/OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this scoping review is to provide an overview of available research evidence about parent-child disagreement regarding FP in order to establish that disagreement occurs in practice, understand the basis for disagreement and explore suggestions for how such disputes could be resolved. Based on our findings, we offer a discussion of the ethical principles at stake when disagreement occurs, which can be used to guide clinicians' approaches when these challenging scenarios present. SEARCH METHODS/METHODS:A comprehensive literature search was run in several databases, including PubMed/Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library. The search was performed in February 2021 and updated in August 2021. Articles were included in the final review if they discussed how parents or children wanted their views on FP taken into account, presented evidence that parent-child discordance regarding FP exists, discussed how to handle disagreement in a particular case or offered general suggestions for how to approach parent-child discordance about FP. Studies were excluded if the patients were adult only (age 18 years and older), pertained to fertility-sparing treatments (e.g. gonad shielding, gonadopexy) rather than fertility-preserving treatments (e.g. testicular tissue cryopreservation, ovarian tissue cryopreservation, oocyte cryopreservation or sperm cryopreservation) or explored the views of clinicians but not patients or parents. Meta-synthesis was used to synthesize and interpret data across included studies and thematic analysis was used to identify common patterns and themes. OUTCOMES/RESULTS:In total, 755 publications were screened, 118 studies underwent full-text review and 35 studies were included in the final review. Of these studies, 7 discussed how parents or children wanted their opinions to be incorporated, 11 presented evidence that discordance exists between parents and children regarding FP, 4 discussed how disagreement was handled in a particular case and 21 offered general suggestions for how to approach parent-child disagreement. There was a range of study designs, including quantitative and qualitative studies, case studies, ethical analyses and commentaries. From the thematic analysis, four general themes regarding FP disagreement emerged, and four themes relating to the ethical principles at stake in parent-child disagreement were identified. The general themes were: adolescents typically desire to participate in FP decision-making; some parents prefer not to involve their children; minors may feel more favorably about FP than their parents; and transgender minors and their parents may have unique reasons for disagreement. The ethical principles that were identified were: minor's best interest; right to an open future; minor's autonomy; and parental autonomy. WIDER IMPLICATIONS/CONCLUSIONS:This study offers an overview of available research on the topic of parent-child disagreement regarding FP and discusses the ethical considerations at stake when disagreement occurs. The findings can be used to inform guidance for clinicians presented with FP disagreement in practice.
PMID: 35468184
ISSN: 1460-2369
CID: 5205482

Systematic review of sleep and sleep disorders among prostate cancer patients and caregivers: a call to action for using validated sleep assessments during prostate cancer care

Robbins, Rebecca; Cole D O, Renee; Ejikeme, Chidera; Orstad, Stephanie L; Porten, Sima; Salter, Carolyn A; Sanchez Nolasco, Tatiana; Vieira, Dorice; Loeb, Stacy
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE:To examine the impact of prostate cancer (PCa) on sleep health for patients and caregivers. We hypothesized that sleep disturbances and poor sleep quality would be prevalent among patients with PCa and their caregivers. PATIENTS/METHODS/METHODS:A systematic literature search was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis guidelines. To be eligible for this systematic review, studies had to include: (1) patients diagnosed with PCa and/or their caregivers; and (2) objective or subjective data on sleep. 2431 articles were identified from the search. After duplicates were removed, 1577 abstracts were screened for eligibility, and 315 underwent full-text review. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS/CONCLUSIONS:Overall, 83 articles met inclusion criteria and were included in the qualitative synthesis. The majority of papers included patients with PCa (98%), who varied widely in their treatment stage. Only 3 studies reported on sleep among caregivers of patients with PCa. Most studies were designed to address a different issue and examined sleep as a secondary endpoint. Commonly used instruments included the Insomnia Severity Index and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaires (EORTC-QLQ). Overall, patients with PCa reported a variety of sleep issues, including insomnia and general sleep difficulties. Both physical and psychological barriers to sleep are reported in this population. There was common use of hypnotic medications, yet few studies of behavioral interventions to improve sleep for patients with PCa or their caregivers. Many different sleep issues are reported by patients with PCa and caregivers with diverse sleep measurement methods and surveys. Future research may develop consensus on validated sleep assessment tools for use in PCa clinical care and research to promote facilitate comparison of sleep across PCa treatment stages. Also, future research is needed on behavioral interventions to improve sleep among this population.
PMID: 35489117
ISSN: 1878-5506
CID: 5217772

Development of the ASSESS tool: a comprehenSive tool to Support rEporting and critical appraiSal of qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods implementation reSearch outcomes

Ryan, Nessa; Vieira, Dorice; Gyamfi, Joyce; Ojo, Temitope; Shelley, Donna; Ogedegbe, Olugbenga; Iwelunmor, Juliet; Peprah, Emmanuel
BACKGROUND:Several tools to improve reporting of implementation studies for evidence-based decision making have been created; however, no tool for critical appraisal of implementation outcomes exists. Researchers, practitioners, and policy makers lack tools to support the concurrent synthesis and critical assessment of outcomes for implementation research. Our objectives were to develop a comprehensive tool to (1) describe studies focused on implementation that use qualitative, quantitative, and/or mixed methodologies and (2) assess risk of bias of implementation outcomes. METHODS:A hybrid consensus-building approach combining Delphi Group and Nominal Group techniques (NGT) was modeled after comparative methodologies for developing health research reporting guidelines and critical appraisal tools. First, an online modified NGT occurred among a small expert panel (n = 5), consisting of literature review, item generation, round robin with clarification, application of the tool to various study types, voting, and discussion. This was followed by a larger e-consensus meeting and modified Delphi process with implementers and implementation scientists (n = 32). New elements and elements of various existing tools, frameworks, and taxonomies were combined to produce the ASSESS tool. RESULTS:The 24-item tool is applicable to a broad range of study designs employed in implementation science, including qualitative studies, randomized-control trials, non-randomized quantitative studies, and mixed methods studies. Two key features are a section for assessing bias of the implementation outcomes and sections for describing the implementation strategy and intervention implemented. An accompanying explanation and elaboration document that identifies and describes each of the items, explains the rationale, and provides examples of reporting and appraising practice, as well as templates to allow synthesis of extracted data across studies and an instructional video, has been prepared. CONCLUSIONS:The comprehensive, adaptable tool to support both reporting and critical appraisal of implementation science studies including quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods assessment of intervention and implementation outcomes has been developed. This tool can be applied to a methodologically diverse and growing body of implementation science literature to support reviews or meta-analyses that inform evidence-based decision-making regarding processes and strategies for implementation.
PMID: 35346390
ISSN: 2662-2211
CID: 5219862

Disparities in allostatic load, telomere length and chronic stress burden among African American adults: A systematic review

Murkey, Jamie A; Watkins, Beverly-Xaviera; Vieira, Dorice; Boden-Albala, Bernadette
BACKGROUND:The chronic disease burden among African Americans has continued to rise. Although racial disparities in chronic disease risk are well documented, the role of chronic stress in risk disparities among racial and ethnic minorities is not well understood. This systematic review of studies reporting on the relationship between chronic stress, education, and/or income, and biomarkers of chronic stress (allostatic load and telomere length) longitudinally among African Americans, seeks to contribute to this knowledge gap. OBJECTIVE:To use the existing literature to both examine the strength of two objective biomarkers--telomere length and allostatic load--as measures of the overactivation of physiological stress processes in African American adults; and determine if existing studies used these two biomarkers to assess the relationship between chronic stress, income and level of educational attainment among African Americans longitudinally. METHODS:In order to identify English-language articles published prior to October 11, 2021, a comprehensive search strategy was developed using five databases: PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science Plus, Global Health (Ovid), and PsycINFO. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) method was used to record progress on the comprehensive search for studies reporting on allostatic load and/or telomere length biomarkers longitudinally within all bodily fluids and chronic stress among African American adults. RESULTS:In total, 7 studies met the search criteria; 902 were excluded. Thus, less than 1% of all studies reporting on biomarkers of chronic stress longitudinally included African Americans. Each of the 7 studies described the relationship between telomere length and/or allostatic load among African Americans and chronic stress, education, and/or income. Higher chronic stress levels and experiences of racial discrimination were associated with telomere shortening while lower income and higher chronic stress levels were associated with an increase in allostatic load among African Americans. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:Given the limited number of studies reporting on the association between allostatic load, telomere length, and/or the relationship between both in assessing chronic stress severity longitudinally among African American populations, it is impossible to determine whether one biomarker has greater predictive value than the other. However, based on the literature included in this review, higher chronic stress levels and experiences of racial discrimination were associated with shorter telomere length, while lower income and higher chronic stress levels are associated with an increase in allostatic load among African Americans. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:These data illustrate a gap in the literature on the relationship between the biomarkers of telomere length and allostatic load combined as a potential measure for chronic stress among African Americans. To our knowledge, none the current literature describes the relationship between telomere length and allostatic load longitudinally among African American adults. As the field strives to develop a "gold standard" for measuring chronic stress, the combination of these biomarkers needs to be the subject of scientific inquiry and thus, fully examined. Future longitudinal studies among African Americans are needed to better understand which biomarker, or combination of biomarkers will provide the most accurate measure of physiological stress processes.
PMID: 35338946
ISSN: 1873-3360
CID: 5200762

HIV, Tuberculosis, and Food Insecurity in Africa-A Syndemics-Based Scoping Review

Ojo, Temitope; Ruan, Christina; Hameed, Tania; Malburg, Carly; Thunga, Sukruthi; Smith, Jaimie; Vieira, Dorice; Snyder, Anya; Tampubolon, Siphra Jane; Gyamfi, Joyce; Ryan, Nessa; Lim, Sahnah; Santacatterina, Michele; Peprah, Emmanuel
The double burden of HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis (TB), coupled with endemic and problematic food insecurity in Africa, can interact to negatively impact health outcomes, creating a syndemic. For people living with HIV/AIDS (PWH), food insecurity is a significant risk factor for acquiring TB due to the strong nutritional influences and co-occurring contextual barriers. We aim to synthesize evidence on the syndemic relationship between HIV/AIDS and TB co-infection and food insecurity in Africa. We conducted a scoping review of studies in Africa that included co-infected adults and children, with evidence of food insecurity, characterized by insufficient to lack of access to macronutrients. We sourced information from major public health databases. Qualitative, narrative analysis was used to synthesize the data. Of 1072 articles screened, 18 articles discussed the syndemic effect of HIV/AIDS and TB co-infection and food insecurity. Reporting of food insecurity was inconsistent, however, five studies estimated it using a validated scale. Food insecure co-infected adults had an average BMI of 16.5-18.5 kg/m2. Negative outcomes include death (n = 6 studies), depression (n = 1 study), treatment non-adherence, weight loss, wasting, opportunistic infections, TB-related lung diseases, lethargy. Food insecurity was a precursor to co-infection, especially with the onset/increased incidence of TB in PWH. Economic, social, and facility-level factors influenced the negative impact of food insecurity on the health of co-infected individuals. Nutritional support, economic relief, and psychosocial support minimized the harmful effects of food insecurity in HIV-TB populations. Interventions that tackle one or more components of a syndemic interaction can have beneficial effects on health outcomes and experiences of PWH with TB in Africa.
PMID: 35162131
ISSN: 1660-4601
CID: 5163342

Assessing descriptions of scalability for hypertension control interventions implemented in low-and middle-income countries: A systematic review

Gyamfi, Joyce; Vieira, Dorice; Iwelunmor, Juliet; Watkins, Beverly Xaviera; Williams, Olajide; Peprah, Emmanuel; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Allegrante, John P
BACKGROUND:The prevalence of hypertension continues to rise in low- and middle-income- countries (LMICs) where scalable, evidence-based interventions (EBIs) that are designed to reduce morbidity and mortality attributed to hypertension have yet to be fully adopted or disseminated. We sought to evaluate evidence from published randomized controlled trials using EBIs for hypertension control implemented in LMICs, and identify the WHO/ExpandNet scale-up components that are relevant for consideration during "scale-up" implementation planning. METHODS:Systematic review of RCTs reporting EBIs for hypertension control implemented in LMICs that stated "scale-up" or a variation of scale-up; using the following data sources PubMed/Medline, Web of Science Biosis Citation Index (BCI), CINAHL, EMBASE, Global Health, Google Scholar, PsycINFO; the grey literature and from inception through June 2021 without any restrictions on publication date. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion, conducted data extraction using the WHO/ExpandNet Scale-up components as a guide and assessed the risk of bias using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. We provide intervention characteristics for each EBI, BP results, and other relevant scale-up descriptions. MAIN RESULTS/RESULTS:Thirty-one RCTs were identified and reviewed. Studies reported clinically significant differences in BP, with 23 studies reporting statistically significant mean differences in BP (p < .05) following implementation. Only six studies provided descriptions that captured all of the nine WHO/ExpandNet components. Multi-component interventions, including drug therapy and health education, provided the most benefit to participants. The studies were yet to be scaled and we observed limited reporting on translation of the interventions into existing institutional policy (n = 11), cost-effectiveness analyses (n = 2), and sustainability measurements (n = 3). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:This study highlights the limited data on intervention scalability for hypertension control in LMICs and demonstrates the need for better scale-up metrics and processes for this setting. TRIAL REGISTRATION/BACKGROUND:Registration PROSPERO (CRD42019117750).
PMID: 35901114
ISSN: 1932-6203
CID: 5276772