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Non-Pharmacologic Interventions for Hispanic Caregivers of Persons with Dementia: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Dessy, Alexa; Zhao, Amanda J; Kyaw, Kay; Vieira, Dorice; Salinas, Joel
BACKGROUND:As the Hispanic/Latino (HL) population grows, so too does the need for HL family caregivers for persons with dementia. HL caregivers tend to have less education, lower health literacy, and lower income, each uniquely compounding burden. Research is needed to appropriately tailor interventions for this population. OBJECTIVE:A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to 1) provide an updated review of non-pharmacologic intervention studies for HL dementia caregivers, 2) characterize promising interventions, and 3) highlight opportunities for future research. METHODS:Databases were searched for articles evaluating non-pharmacologic interventions for HL dementia caregivers. Studies were excluded if target populations did not include HLs or if no intervention was delivered. Data were extracted and random effects meta-analysis was performed on two primary outcomes: caregiver depression and burden. Effect sizes were calculated as pre- and post-intervention standardized mean differences (SMD), and further depression subgroup meta-analysis was performed. Other secondary outcome measures (e.g., perceived social support, caregiver knowledge, anxiety) were evaluated qualitatively. RESULTS:Twenty-three studies were identified. Most included multiple components pertaining to psychosocial support, caregiver education, and community resource facilitation. Many studies were successful in improving caregiver outcomes, though intervention design varied. Meta-analysis revealed minimal to moderate heterogeneity and small effect size in improving depressive symptoms (SMD = -0.31, 95% CI -0.46 to -0.16; I2 = 50.16%) and burden (SMD = -0.28, 95% CI -0.37 to -0.18; I2 = 11.06%). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Although intervention components varied, many reported outcome improvements. Future studies may benefit from targeting physical health, addressing sociocultural and economic contexts of caregivers, and leveraging technology.
PMID: 35938246
ISSN: 1875-8908
CID: 5286552


Bayefsky, M; Vieira, D; Caplan, A L; Quinn, G P
OBJECTIVE: Offering fertility preservation (FP) prior to gonadotoxic therapy is standard of care. Periodically, parents and children disagree about whether to pursue FP for the minor. This study reviews existing literature on parent-child disagreements regarding FP, weighs relevant rights and interests, and offers recommendations for how to navigate these ethically challenging situations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The scoping review follows the PRISMA-ScR checklist and is registered with the Open Science Framework. A comprehensive literature search was performed in February 2021. Abstracts were screened using Covidence based on predefined criteria. Full-text articles were assessed for: 1) evidence that parentchild discordance about FP exists, 2) data on how parents or children want their views incorporated, 3) examples of how discord has been resolved, or 4) suggestions for how to handle discordance. For the ethical analysis, rights and interests identified in the review were explored and recommendations for resolving disagreement were developed.
RESULT(S): 689 abstracts were screened, 109 were selected for full-text review and 29 papers were included in the final analysis. Studies emphasized that parents and adolescent minors desire information about FP, and there was broad consensus that the views' of minors nearing adulthood should be more heavily weighted.1 However, there was a range in parent comfort with allowing minor participation in FP decision-making.2 Some authors highlighted the default stance that minors must assent to FP, while others argued that older adolescents may be able to fully consent.3 Some posit that if parents decline FP, the physician should persuade them to reconsider,4 while others proposed that parents should be able to decline, especially given the high cost.5 The ethical analysis weighs rights and interests including: minor's autonomy, minor's best interest, right to an open future, and parental autonomy. It concludes that when medically appropriate, FP is generally in a minor's best interest because it promotes future choice. Therefore, both parents and minors should be encouraged to pursue FP. If a younger minor refuses, whether FP is performed should depend on the minor's maturity, reason for refusing, and whether FP is likely to provide significant benefit. Older adolescents should be able to refuse out of respect for their autonomy. Special application of these recommendations is needed for transgender minors because of their unique concerns, including the possibility of FP inducing gender dysphoria.
CONCLUSION(S): This scoping review supports the conclusions that minors should be included in FP discussions and should have increasing decision- making authority as they near adulthood. When parents and minors disagree about FP, who should ultimately decide depends on the minor's age, maturity, whether the minor or parent declines FP, and whether FP is likely to provide significant benefit. IMPACT STATEMENT: This study offers a rigorous scoping review, ethical analysis and recommendations for navigating parent-child disagreement regarding FP in minors
ISSN: 1556-5653
CID: 5250712

A Systematic Review of Workplace-Based Employee Health Interventions and Their Impact on Sleep Duration Among Shift Workers

Robbins, Rebecca; Underwood, Phoenix; Jackson, Chandra L; Jean-Louis, Giradin; Madhavaram, Shreya; Kuriakose, Shiana; Vieira, Dorice; Buxton, Orfeu M
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:Shift work is associated with long-term health risks. Workplace-based health interventions hold promise for improving or maintaining the health of shift workers; yet, the impact of workplace-based interventions on shift worker sleep duration has not been assessed. We conducted a systematic review of workplace interventions on shift worker sleep. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:= 6,868 records) of all studies published through May 15, 2019. Eligibility criteria included the following: (a) individuals aged ≥18 years; (b) a workplace-based employee intervention; (c) an employee population comprised predominantly of shift workers (>50%); and (d) sleep duration as a study outcome. FINDINGS/UNASSIGNED:= 7%). A majority of the studies found that a workplace-based health intervention was associated with a desirable increase in 24-hour total sleep duration (55%). The overall average increase in daily employee sleep duration achieved by interventions ranged for RCT studies from 0.34 to 0.99 hours and for non-RCT studies from 0.02 to 1.15 hours. CONCLUSIONS/APPLICATIONS TO PRACTICE/UNASSIGNED:More than half of the employee health interventions, especially yoga or mindfulness interventions, resulted in a desirable increase in sleep duration. Workplaces hold promise as an avenue? for delivering programs and policies that aim to improve sleep duration among shift workers.
PMID: 34284682
ISSN: 2165-0969
CID: 4979632

Adolescent Peer Influence on Eating Behaviors via Social Media: Scoping Review

Chung, Alicia; Vieira, Dorice; Donley, Tiffany; Tan, Nicholas; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Kiely Gouley, Kathleen; Seixas, Azizi
BACKGROUND:The influence of social media among adolescent peer groups can be a powerful change agent. OBJECTIVE:Our scoping review aimed to elucidate the ways in which social media use among adolescent peers influences eating behaviors. METHODS:A scoping review of the literature of articles published from journal inception to 2019 was performed by searching PubMed (ie, MEDLINE), Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and other databases. The review was conducted in three steps: (1) identification of the research question and clarification of criteria using the population, intervention, comparison, and outcome (PICO) framework; (2) selection of articles from the literature using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines; and (3) charting and summarizing information from selected articles. PubMed's Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and Embase's Emtree subject headings were reviewed along with specific keywords to construct a comprehensive search strategy. Subject headings and keywords were based on adolescent age groups, social media platforms, and eating behaviors. After screening 1387 peer-reviewed articles, 37 articles were assessed for eligibility. Participant age, gender, study location, social media channels utilized, user volume, and content themes related to findings were extracted from the articles. RESULTS:Six articles met the final inclusion criteria. A final sample size of 1225 adolescents (aged 10 to 19 years) from the United States, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Portugal, Brazil, and Australia were included in controlled and qualitative studies. Instagram and Facebook were among the most popular social media platforms that influenced healthful eating behaviors (ie, fruit and vegetable intake) as well as unhealthful eating behaviors related to fast food advertising. Online forums served as accessible channels for eating disorder relapse prevention among youth. Social media influence converged around four central themes: (1) visual appeal, (2) content dissemination, (3) socialized digital connections, and (4) adolescent marketer influencers. CONCLUSIONS:Adolescent peer influence in social media environments spans the spectrum of healthy eating (ie, pathological) to eating disorders (ie, nonpathological). Strategic network-driven approaches should be considered for engaging adolescents in the promotion of positive dietary behaviors.
PMID: 34081018
ISSN: 1438-8871
CID: 4891762

A systematic review of randomized controlled trials examining workplace wellness interventions

Murphy, Bridget; Parekh, Niyati; Vieira, Dorice L; O'Connor, Joyce A
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:One of the influencing factors associated with weight gain is overeating as a maladaptive coping strategy to process or avoid the emotional impact of psychological stress. Psychological stress is chronically and pervasively associated with stress stemming from the workplace environment. Workplace wellness interventions have a unique opportunity to change environmental factors impacting psychological stress, which can improve individual food choice and weight management efforts. AIM/UNASSIGNED:To synthesize evidence from randomized controlled trials on workplace wellness interventions that impact employee psychological stress and food choice or weight management. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:A systematic review was completed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Selected studies were limited to English-language articles exploring randomized interventions at workplaces among adult employees and included measurements of psychometric stress and food choice (qualitative or quantitative) or biometric weight management. From the search, 10 studies were included in the final review. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:Results were inconsistent across studies. There was no observable association between psychological stress reduction and food choice or weight management. Mid-length interventions (ranging from 6 to 9 months) had more consistent associations between intervention program implementation, reduced psychological stress, and improved food choice or weight management. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:The studies examining employee food choices and weight management efforts remained very heterogeneous, indicating that more research is needed in this specific area of employee wellness program planning and measurement. Consistent research methodology and assessment tools are needed to measure dietary intake.
PMID: 33821687
ISSN: 0260-1060
CID: 4875602

Systematic Review: Medication Effects on Brain Intrinsic Functional Connectivity in Patients With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Pereira-Sanchez, Victor; Franco, Alexandre R; Vieira, Dorice; de Castro-Manglano, Pilar; Soutullo, Cesar; Milham, Michael P; Castellanos, Francisco X
OBJECTIVE:Resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI) studies of the neural correlates of medication treatment in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have not been systematically reviewed. Systematically identify, assess and summarize within-patient R-fMRI studies of pharmacological-induced changes in patients with ADHD. We critically appraised strengths and limitations, and provide recommendations for future research. METHOD/METHODS:Systematic review of published original reports in English meeting criteria in pediatric and adult patients with ADHD up to July 1, 2020. A thorough search preceded selection of studies matching prespecified criteria. Strengths and limitations of selected studies, regarding design and reporting, were identified based on current best practices. RESULTS:We identified and reviewed 9 studies (5 pediatric and 4 adult studies). Sample sizes were small-medium (16-38 patients), and included few female participants. Medications were methylphenidate, amphetamines, and atomoxetine. Wide heterogeneity was observed in designs, analyses and results, which could not be combined quantitatively. Qualitatively, the multiplicity of brain regions and networks identified, some of which correlated with clinical improvements, do not support a coherent mechanistic hypothesis of medication effects. Overall, reports did not meet current standards to ensure reproducibility. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:In this emerging field, the few studies using R-fMRI to analyze the neural correlates of medications in patients with ADHD suggest a potential modulatory effect of stimulants and atomoxetine on several intrinsic brain activity metrics. However, methodological heterogeneity and reporting issues need to be addressed in future research to validate findings which may contribute to clinical care. Such a goal is not yet at hand.
PMID: 33137412
ISSN: 1527-5418
CID: 4655932

Stress interventions and hypertension in Black women

Kalinowski, Jolaade; Kaur, Kiran; Newsome-Garcia, Valerie; Langford, Aisha; Kalejaiye, Ayoola; Vieira, Dorice; Izeogu, Chigozirim; Blanc, Judite; Taylor, Jacquelyn; Ogedegbe, Olugbenga; Spruill, Tanya
Hypertension is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Black women have high rates of hypertension compared to women of other racial or ethnic groups and are disproportionately affected by psychosocial stressors such as racial discrimination, gender discrimination, and caregiving stress. Evidence suggests that stress is associated with incident hypertension and hypertension risk. Stress management is associated with improvements improved blood pressure outcomes. The purpose of this review is to synthesize evidence on effects of stress management interventions on blood pressure in Black women. A comprehensive search of scientific databases was conducted. Inclusion criteria included studies that were: (1) primary research that tested an intervention; (2) in the English language; (3) included African-American women; (4) incorporated stress in the intervention; (5) included blood pressure as an outcome; and (6) were US based. Eighteen studies met inclusion criteria. Ten (56%) studies tested meditation-based interventions, two (11%) tested coping and affirmation interventions, and six (33%) tested lifestyle modification interventions that included stress management content. Thirteen of the studies were randomized controlled trials. Reductions in blood pressure were observed in all of the meditation-based interventions, although the magnitude and statistical significance varied. Comprehensive lifestyle interventions were also efficacious for reducing blood pressure, although the relative contribution of stress management versus behavior modification could not be evaluated. Coping and affirmation interventions did not affect blood pressure. Most of the reviewed studies included small numbers of Black women and did not stratify results by race and gender, so effects remain unclear. This review highlights the urgent need for studies specifically focusing on Black women. Given the extensive disparities in cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality, whether stress management can lower blood pressure and improve primary and secondary cardiovascular disease prevention among Black women is an important question for future research.
PMID: 34254559
ISSN: 1745-5065
CID: 4938362

Assess: A comprehensive tool to support reporting and critical appraisal of qualitative, quantitative, and/or mixed methods implementation research outcomes [Meeting Abstract]

Ryan, Nessa; Vieira, Dorice; Gyamfi, Joyce; Ojo, Temitope; Peprah, Emmanuel
ISSN: 1748-5908
CID: 4894032

Evidence-based interventions implemented in low-and middle-income countries for sickle cell disease management: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials

Gyamfi, Joyce; Ojo, Temitope; Epou, Sabrina; Diawara, Amy; Dike, Lotanna; Adenikinju, Deborah; Enechukwu, Scholastica; Vieira, Dorice; Nnodu, Obiageli; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Peprah, Emmanuel
BACKGROUND:Despite ~90% of sickle cell disease (SCD) occurring in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs), the vast majority of people are not receiving evidence-based interventions (EBIs) to reduce SCD-related adverse outcomes and mortality, and data on implementation research outcomes (IROs) and SCD is limited. This study aims to synthesize available data on EBIs for SCD and assess IROs. METHODS:We conducted a systematic review of RCTs reporting on EBIs for SCD management implemented in LMICs. We identified articles from PubMed/Medline, Global Health, PubMed Central, Embase, Web of Science medical subject heading (MeSH and Emtree) and keywords, published from inception through February 23, 2020, and conducted an updated search through December 24, 2020. We provide intervention characteristics for each study, EBI impact on SCD, and evidence of reporting on IROs. MAIN RESULTS/RESULTS:29 RCTs were analyzed. EBIs identified included disease modifying agents, supportive care agents/analgesics, anti-malarials, systemic treatments, patient/ provider education, and nutritional supplements. Studies using disease modifying agents, nutritional supplements, and anti-malarials reported improvements in pain crisis, hospitalization, children's growth and reduction in severity and prevalence of malaria. Two studies reported on the sustainability of supplementary arginine, citrulline, and daily chloroquine and hydroxyurea for SCD patients. Only 13 studies (44.8%) provided descriptions that captured at least three of the eight IROs. There was limited reporting of acceptability, feasibility, fidelity, cost and sustainability. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:EBIs are effective for SCD management in LMICs; however, measurement of IROs is scarce. Future research should focus on penetration of EBIs to inform evidence-based practice and sustainability in the context of LMICs. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION/BACKGROUND:This review is registered in PROSPERO #CRD42020167289.
PMID: 33596221
ISSN: 1932-6203
CID: 4806662

Implementation outcomes of policy and programme innovations to prevent obstetric haemorrhage in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review

Ryan, Nessa; Vieira, Dorice; Goffman, Dena; Bloch, Evan M; Akaba, Godwin O; D'mello, Brenda S; Egekeze, Chioma; Snyder, Anya; Lyimo, Magdalena; Nnodu, Obiageli; Peprah, Emmanuel
Globally, obstetric haemorrhage (OH) remains the leading cause of maternal mortality. Much of the associated mortality is ascribed to challenges surrounding deployment of innovations rather than lack of availability. In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where the burden is highest, there is a growing interest in implementation research as a means to bridge the 'know-do' gap between proven interventions and their reliable implementation at scale. In this systematic review, we identified and synthesized qualitative and quantitative data across the implementation outcomes of OH prevention innovations in LMICs using a taxonomy developed by Proctor et al. We also identified service outcomes for the included innovations, as well as implementation strategies and implementation facilitators and barriers. Eligible studies were empirical, focused on the implementation of OH prevention programmes or policies and occurred in an LMIC. Eight databases were searched. Two authors independently assessed studies for selection and extracted data; the first author resolved discrepancies. Narrative synthesis was used to analyse and interpret the findings. Studies were predominantly focused in Africa and on primary prevention. Interventions included prophylactic use of uterotonics (n = 7), clinical provider skills training (n = 4) and provision of clinical guidelines (n = 1); some (n = 3) were also part of a multi-component quality improvement bundle. Various barriers were reported, including challenges among intervention beneficiaries, providers and within the health system; however, studies reported the development and testing of practical implementation solutions. These included training and monitoring of implementers, community and stakeholder engagement and guidance by external mentors. Some studies linked successful delivery to implementation outcomes, most commonly adoption and acceptability, but also feasibility, penetration and sustainability. Findings suggest that innovations to prevent OH can be acceptable, appropriate and feasible in LMIC settings; however, more research is needed to better evaluate these and other under-reported implementation outcomes.
PMID: 32995854
ISSN: 1460-2237
CID: 4798382