Performance of the 7th and 8th Editions of the American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging System in Patients with Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm - Associated PDAC: A Multi-Institutional Analysis
Margonis, Georgios Antonios; Pulvirenti, Alessandra; Morales-Oyarvide, Vicente; Buettner, Stefan; Andreatos, Nikolaos; Kamphues, Carsten; Beyer, Katharina; Wang, Jane; Kreis, Martin E; Cameron, John L; Weiss, Matthew J; Soares, Kevin; Castillo, Carlos FernÃ¡ndez-Del; Allen, Peter J; Wolfgang, Christopher L
OBJECTIVE:To validate the 7th and 8th editions of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system for patients with invasive carcinomas arising in association with IPMN (IPMN-associated PDAC). BACKGROUND DATA/BACKGROUND:Although several studies have validated AJCC systems in patients with conventional PDAC, their applicability to IPMN-associated PDAC has not been assessed. METHODS:275 patients who underwent resection for IPMN-associated PDAC between 1996 and 2015 at three tertiary centers and had data on the size of the invasive component and lymph node status were identified. Concordance probability estimates (CPE) were calculated and recursive partitioning analysis was employed to identify optimal prognostic cutoffs for T and N. RESULTS:The CPE for both the 7th and 8th editions of the AJCC schema was relatively good (0.64 in both) and similar for colloid and tubular subtypes (0.64 in both). The 8th edition introduced T1a sub-staging and a new distinction between N1 and N2. The utility of the former was confirmed, although the latter did not improve prognostic discrimination. The successful validation of the 8th edition of the AJCC criteria in patients with tubular and colloid subtypes allowed us to compare these patients in early vs late T and N stages which showed that when there is advanced disease, the prognostic superiority of colloid tumors over their tubular counterparts diminishes. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings support the use of the AJCC 8th edition in the IPMN-associated PDAC population, but suggest that certain cutoffs may need to be revisited. In advanced AJCC stages, patients with colloid vs tubular subtype have comparable prognosis.
Resected Early-Onset Pancreatic Cancer: Practices and Outcomes in an International Dual-Center Study
Leonhardt, Carl-Stephan; Kinny-Köster, Benedict; Hank, Thomas; Habib, Joseph R; Shoucair, Sami; Klaiber, Ulla; Cameron, John L; Hackert, Thilo; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Büchler, Markus W; He, Jin; Strobel, Oliver
BACKGROUND:Early-onset pancreatic cancer (EOPC), defined as age ≤ 45 years at diagnosis, accounts for 3% of all pancreatic cancer cases. Although differences in tumor biology have been suggested, available data are sparse and specific treatment recommendations are lacking. This study explores the clinicopathological features and oncologic outcomes of resected EOPC. PATIENTS AND METHODS/METHODS:Patients with EOPC undergoing resection between 2002 and 2018 were identified from the Heidelberg University Hospital and Johns Hopkins University registries. Median overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were analyzed, and prognostic factors were identified. RESULTS:The final cohort included 164 patients, most of whom had pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC, n = 136; 82.9%) or IPMN-associated pancreatic cancer (n = 17; 10.4%). Twenty (12.1%) patients presented with stage 1 disease, 42 (25.6%) with stage 2, 75 (45.7%) with stage 3, and 22 (13.4%) with oligometastatic stage 4 disease. Most patients underwent upfront resection (n = 113, 68.9%), whereas 51 (31.1%) individuals received preoperative treatment. Median OS and RFS were 26.0 and 12.4 months, respectively. Stage-specific median survival was 70.6, 41.8, 23.8, and 16.9 months for stage 1, 2, 3, and 4 tumors, respectively. Factors independently associated with shorter OS and RFS were R1 resections and AJCC stages 3 and 4. Notably, AJCC 3-N2 and AJCC 3-T4 tumors had a median OS of 20 months versus 29.5 months, respectively. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Despite frequently presenting with advanced disease, oncologic outcomes in EOPC patients are satisfactory even in locally advanced cancers, justifying aggressive surgical approaches. Further research is needed to tailor current guidelines to this rare population.
ASO Visual Abstract: Resected Early-Onset Pancreatic Cancer-Practices and Outcomes in an International Dual-Center Study
Leonhardt, Carl-Stephan; Kinny-Köster, Benedict; Hank, Thomas; Habib, Joseph R; Shoucair, Sami; Klaiber, Ulla; Cameron, John L; Hackert, Thilo; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Büchler, Markus W; He, Jin; Strobel, Oliver
Utility of promoter hypermethylation in malignant risk stratification of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms
Chhoda, Ankit; Sharma, Anup; Sailo, Bethsebie; Tang, Haoyu; Ruzgar, Nensi; Tan, Wan Ying; Ying, Lee; Khatri, Rishabh; Narayanan, Anand; Mane, Shrikant; De Kumar, Bony; Wood, Laura D; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Kunstman, John W; Salem, Ronald R; Farrell, James J; Ahuja, Nita
BACKGROUND:Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs), a type of cystic pancreatic cancer (PC) precursors, are increasingly identified on cross-sectional imaging and present a significant diagnostic challenge. While surgical resection of IPMN-related advanced neoplasia, i.e., IPMN-related high-grade dysplasia or PC, is an essential early PC detection strategy, resection is not recommended for IPMN-low-grade dysplasia (LGD) due to minimal risk of carcinogenesis, and significant procedural risks. Based on their promising results in prior validation studies targeting early detection of classical PC, DNA hypermethylation-based markers may serve as a biomarker for malignant risk stratification of IPMNs. This study investigates our DNA methylation-based PC biomarker panel (ADAMTS1, BNC1, and CACNA1G genes) in differentiating IPMN-advanced neoplasia from IPMN-LGDs. METHODS:Our previously described genome-wide pharmaco-epigenetic method identified multiple genes as potential targets for PC detection. The combination was further optimized and validated for early detection of classical PC in previous case-control studies. These promising genes were evaluated among micro-dissected IPMN tissue (IPMN-LGD: 35, IPMN-advanced neoplasia: 35) through Methylation-Specific PCR. The discriminant capacity of individual and combination of genes were delineated through Receiver Operating Characteristics curve analysis. RESULTS:As compared to IPMN-LGDs, IPMN-advanced neoplasia had higher hypermethylation frequency of candidate genes: ADAMTS1 (60% vs. 14%), BNC1 (66% vs. 3%), and CACGNA1G (25% vs. 0%). We observed Area Under Curve (AUC) values of 0.73 for ADAMTS1, 0.81 for BNC1, and 0.63 for CACNA1G genes. The combination of the BNC1/ CACNA1G genes resulted in an AUC of 0.84, sensitivity of 71%, and specificity of 97%. Combining the methylation status of the BNC1/CACNA1G genes, blood-based CA19-9, and IPMN lesion size enhanced the AUC to 0.92. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:DNA-methylation based biomarkers have shown a high diagnostic specificity and moderate sensitivity for differentiating IPMN-advanced neoplasia from LGDs. Addition of specific methylation targets can improve the accuracy of the methylation biomarker panel and enable the development of noninvasive IPMN stratification biomarkers.
Cancer-cell-derived sialylated IgG as a novel biomarker for predicting poor pathological response to neoadjuvant therapy and prognosis in pancreatic cancer
Cui, Ming; Shoucair, Sami; Liao, Quan; Qiu, Xiaoyan; Kinny-Köster, Benedict; Habib, Joseph R; Ghabi, Elie M; Wang, Junke; Shin, Eun Ji; Leng, Sean X; Ali, Syed Z; Thompson, Elizabeth D; Zimmerman, Jacquelyn W; Shubert, Christopher R; Lafaro, Kelly J; Burkhart, Richard A; Burns, William R; Zheng, Lei; He, Jin; Zhao, Yupei; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Yu, Jun
BACKGROUND:Neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) is increasingly applied in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC); however, accurate prediction of therapeutic response to NAT remains a pressing clinical challenge. Cancer-cell-derived sialylated immunoglobulin G (SIA-IgG) was previously identified as a prognostic biomarker in PDAC. This study aims to explore whether SIA-IgG expression in treatment-naïve fine needle aspirate (FNA) biopsy specimens could predict the pathological response (PR) to NAT for PDAC. METHODS:Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided FNA biopsy specimens prior to NAT were prospectively obtained from 72 patients with PDAC at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. SIA-IgG expression of PDAC specimens was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Associations between SIA-IgG expression and PR, as well as patient prognosis, were analyzed. A second cohort enrolling surgically resected primary tumor specimens from 79 patients with PDAC was used to validate the prognostic value of SIA-IgG expression. RESULTS:SIA-IgG was expressed in 58.3% of treatment-naïve FNA biopsies. Positive SIA-IgG expression at diagnosis was associated with unfavorable PR and can serve as an independent predictor of PR. The sensitivity and specificity of SIA-IgG expression in FNA specimens in predicting an unfavorable PR were 63.9% and 80.6%, respectively. Both positive SIA-IgG expression in treatment-naïve FNA specimens and high SIA-IgG expression in surgically resected primary tumor specimens were significantly associated with shorter survival. CONCLUSIONS:Assessment of SIA-IgG on FNA specimens prior to NAT may help predict PR for PDAC. Additionally, SIA-IgG expression in treatment-naïve FNA specimens and surgically resected primary tumor specimens were predictive of the prognosis for PDAC.
Oncologic resection of pancreatic cancer with isolated liver metastasis: Favorable outcomes in select patients
Nagai, Minako; Wright, Michael J; Ding, Ding; Thompson, Elizabeth D; Javed, Ammar A; Weiss, Matthew J; Hruban, Ralph H; Yu, Jun; Burkhart, Richard A; He, Jin; Cameron, John L; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Burns, William R
BACKGROUND:Patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and liver metastasis are treated with palliative chemotherapy, whereas similar patients with metastatic colorectal cancer are considered for aggressive surgery. METHODS:Using an institutional database, PDAC patients undergoing liver resection for isolated metastasis were identified. Their overall survival (OS), treatment factors, and clinicopathological variables associated with survival were also evaluated. RESULTS:Forty-seven patients underwent curative-intent surgery for metastatic PDAC to the liver between 2000 and 2019. Median OS was 21.9 months from diagnosis. Fourteen patients underwent unplanned resection of radiographically occult liver metastasis during pancreatectomy with median OS of 8.7 months. On the other hand, 29 patients received systemic chemotherapy followed by planned resection; this cohort had the most favorable prognosis following aggressive surgery with median OS being 38.1 months from diagnosis and 24.1 months from surgery. Preoperative chemotherapy (HR = 7.1; p = .002) and moderate to well differentiation of the primary tumor (HR = 3.7; p = .003) were associated with prolonged survival in multivariate analysis, whereas lymph node metastases, response to preoperative therapy, number of liver metastasis, and extent of liver surgery were not. CONCLUSIONS:In select patients with PDAC and isolated liver metastasis, curative-intent surgery can result in meaningful survival. This aggressive approach seems most beneficial in patients following induction chemotherapy.
Surgical Decision Making in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma: Modeling Prognosis Following Pancreatectomy in the Era of Induction and Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy
Habib, Joseph R; Kinny-Köster, Benedict; Bou-Samra, Patrick; Alsaad, Ranim; Sereni, Elisabetta; Javed, Ammar A; Ding, Ding; Cameron, John L; Lafaro, Kelly J; Burns, William R; He, Jin; Yu, Jun; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Burkhart, Richard A
OBJECTIVE:To develop a predictive model of oncologic outcomes for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) undergoing resection after neoadjuvant or induction chemotherapy use. BACKGROUND:Early recurrence following surgical resection for PDAC is common. The use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to resection may increase the likelihood of long-term systemic disease control. Accurately characterizing an individual's likely oncologic outcome in the perioperative setting remains challenging. METHODS:Data from patients with PDAC who received chemotherapy prior to pancreatectomy at a single high-volume institution between 2007-2018 were captured in a prospectively collected database. Core clinicopathologic data were reviewed for accuracy and survival data were abstracted from the electronic medical record and national databases. Cox-proportional regressions were used to model outcomes and develop an interactive prognostic tool for clinical decision-making. RESULTS:A total of 581 patients were included with a median OS and RFS of 29.5 (26.5-32.5) and 16.6 (15.8-17.5) months, respectively. Multivariable analysis demonstrates OS and RFS were associated with type of chemotherapeutic used and the number of chemotherapy cycles received preoperatively. Additional factors contributing to survival models included: tumor grade, histopathologic response to therapy, nodal status, and administration of adjuvant chemotherapy. The models were validated using an iterative bootstrap method and with randomized cohort splitting. The models were well calibrated with concordance indices of 0.68 and 0.65 for the final OS and RFS models, respectively. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:We developed an intuitive and dynamic decision-making tool that can be useful in estimating OS, RFS and location-specific disease recurrence rates. This prognostic tool may add value to patient care in discussing the benefits associated with surgical resection for PDAC.
Development, validation, and comparison of a nomogram based on radiologic findings for predicting malignancy in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas: An international multicenter study
Kim, Hyeong Seok; Song, Wookyeong; Choo, Wonho; Lee, Sungyoung; Han, Youngmin; Bassi, Claudio; Salvia, Roberto; Marchegiani, Giovanni; Wolfgang, Christopher L; He, Jin; Blair, Alex B; Kluger, Michael D; Su, Gloria H; Kim, Song Cheol; Song, Ki-Byung; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Hatori, Takashi; Yang, Ching-Yao; Yamaue, Hiroki; Hirono, Seiko; Satoi, Sohei; Fujii, Tsutomu; Hirano, Satoshi; Lou, Wenhui; Hashimoto, Yasushi; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Del Chiaro, Marco; Valente, Roberto; Lohr, Matthias; Choi, Dong Wook; Choi, Seong Ho; Heo, Jin Seok; Motoi, Fuyuhiko; Matsumoto, Ippei; Lee, Woo Jung; Kang, Chang Moo; Shyr, Yi-Ming; Wang, Shin-E; Han, Ho-Seong; Yoon, Yoo-Seok; Besselink, Marc G; van Huijgevoort, Nadine C M; Sho, Masayuki; Nagano, Hiroaki; Kim, Sang Geol; Honda, Goro; Yang, Yinmo; Yu, Hee Chul; Yang, Jae Do; Chung, Jun Chul; Nagakawa, Yuichi; Seo, Hyung Il; Lee, Seungyeoun; Kim, Hongbeom; Kwon, Wooil; Park, Taesung; Jang, Jin-Young
BACKGROUND:Although we previously proposed a nomogram to predict malignancy in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) and validated it in an external cohort, its application is challenging without data on tumor markers. Moreover, existing nomograms have not been compared. This study aimed to develop a nomogram based on radiologic findings and to compare its performance with previously proposed American and Korean/Japanese nomograms. METHODS:We recruited 3708 patients who underwent surgical resection at 31 tertiary institutions in eight countries, and patients with main pancreatic ductÂ >10Â mm were excluded. To construct the nomogram, 2606 patients were randomly allocated 1:1 into training and internal validation sets, and area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) was calculated using 10-fold cross validation by exhaustive search. This nomogram was then validated and compared to the American and Korean/Japanese nomograms using 1102 patients. RESULTS:Among the 2606 patients, 90 had main-duct type, 900 had branch-duct type, and 1616 had mixed-type IPMN. Pathologic results revealed 1628 low-grade dysplasia, 476 high-grade dysplasia, and 502 invasive carcinoma. Location, cyst size, duct dilatation, and mural nodule were selected to construct the nomogram. AUC of this nomogram was higher than the American nomogram (0.691 vs 0.664, PÂ =Â .014) and comparable with the Korean/Japanese nomogram (0.659 vs 0.653, PÂ =Â .255). CONCLUSIONS:A novel nomogram based on radiologic findings of IPMN is competitive for predicting risk of malignancy. This nomogram would be clinically helpful in circumstances where tumor markers are not available. The nomogram is freely available at http://statgen.snu.ac.kr/software/nomogramIPMN.
Prospective, Multi-Institutional, Real-Time Next-Generation Sequencing of Pancreatic Cyst Fluid Reveals Diverse Genomic Alterations That Improve the Clinical Management of Pancreatic Cysts
Paniccia, Alessandro; Polanco, Patricio M; Boone, Brian A; Wald, Abigail I; McGrath, Kevin; Brand, Randall E; Khalid, Asif; Kubiliun, Nisa; O'Broin-Lennon, Anne Marie; Park, Walter G; Klapman, Jason; Tharian, Benjamin; Inamdar, Sumant; Fasanella, Kenneth; Nasr, John; Chennat, Jennifer; Das, Rohit; DeWitt, John; Easler, Jeffrey J; Bick, Benjamin; Singh, Harkirat; Fairley, Kimberly J; Sarkaria, Savreet; Sawas, Tarek; Skef, Wasseem; Slivka, Adam; Tavakkoli, Anna; Thakkar, Shyam; Kim, Victoria; Vanderveldt, Hendrikus Dutch; Richardson, Allyson; Wallace, Michael B; Brahmbhatt, Bhaumik; Engels, Megan; Gabbert, Charles; Dugum, Mohannad; El-Dika, Samer; Bhat, Yasser; Ramrakhiani, Sanjay; Bakis, Gennadiy; Rolshud, Daniil; Millspaugh, Gordon; Tielleman, Thomas; Schmidt, Carl; Mansour, John; Marsh, Wallis; Ongchin, Melanie; Centeno, Barbara; Monaco, Sara E; Ohori, N Paul; Lajara, Sigfred; Thompson, Elizabeth D; Hruban, Ralph H; Bell, Phoenix D; Smith, Katelyn; Permuth, Jennifer B; Vandenbussche, Christopher; Ernst, Wayne; Grupillo, Maria; Kaya, Cihan; Hogg, Melissa; He, Jin; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Lee, Kenneth K; Zeh, Herbert; Zureikat, Amer; Nikiforova, Marina N; Singhi, Aatur D
BACKGROUND AND AIMS/OBJECTIVE:Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of pancreatic cyst fluid is a useful adjunct in the assessment of patients with pancreatic cyst. However, previous studies have been retrospective or single institutional experiences. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate NGS on a multi-institutional cohort of patients with pancreatic cyst in real time. METHODS:The performance of a 22-gene NGS panel (PancreaSeq) was first retrospectively confirmed and then within a 2-year timeframe, PancreaSeq testing was prospectively used to evaluate endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration pancreatic cyst fluid from 31 institutions. PancreaSeq results were correlated with endoscopic ultrasound findings, ancillary studies, current pancreatic cyst guidelines, follow-up, and expanded testing (Oncomine) of postoperative specimens. RESULTS:Among 1933 PCs prospectively tested, 1887 (98%) specimens from 1832 patients were satisfactory for PancreaSeq testing. Follow-up was available for 1216 (66%) patients (median, 23 months). Based on 251 (21%) patients with surgical pathology, mitogen-activated protein kinase/GNAS mutations had 90% sensitivity and 100% specificity for a mucinous cyst (positive predictive value [PPV], 100%; negative predictive value [NPV], 77%). On exclusion of low-level variants, the combination of mitogen-activated protein kinase/GNAS and TP53/SMAD4/CTNNB1/mammalian target of rapamycin alterations had 88% sensitivity and 98% specificity for advanced neoplasia (PPV, 97%; NPV, 93%). Inclusion of cytopathologic evaluation to PancreaSeq testing improved the sensitivity to 93% and maintained a high specificity of 95% (PPV, 92%; NPV, 95%). In comparison, other modalities and current pancreatic cyst guidelines, such as the American Gastroenterology Association and International Association of Pancreatology/Fukuoka guidelines, show inferior diagnostic performance. The sensitivities and specificities of VHL and MEN1/loss of heterozygosity alterations were 71% and 100% for serous cystadenomas (PPV, 100%; NPV, 98%), and 68% and 98% for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PPV, 85%; NPV, 95%), respectively. On follow-up, serous cystadenomas with TP53/TERT mutations exhibited interval growth, whereas pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors with loss of heterozygosity of â‰¥3 genes tended to have distant metastasis. None of the 965 patients who did not undergo surgery developed malignancy. Postoperative Oncomine testing identified mucinous cysts with BRAF fusions and ERBB2 amplification, and advanced neoplasia with CDKN2A alterations. CONCLUSIONS:PancreaSeq was not only sensitive and specific for various pancreatic cyst types and advanced neoplasia arising from mucinous cysts, but also reveals the diversity of genomic alterations seen in pancreatic cysts and their clinical significance.
Classification of pancreatic cystic neoplasms using radiomic feature analysis is equivalent to an experienced academic radiologist: a step toward computer-augmented diagnostics for radiologists
Chu, Linda C; Park, Seyoun; Soleimani, Sahar; Fouladi, Daniel F; Shayesteh, Shahab; He, Jin; Javed, Ammar A; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Vogelstein, Bert; Kinzler, Kenneth W; Hruban, Ralph H; Afghani, Elham; Lennon, Anne Marie; Fishman, Elliot K; Kawamoto, Satomi
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:A wide array of benign and malignant lesions of the pancreas can be cystic and these cystic lesions can have overlapping imaging appearances. The purpose of this study is to compare the diagnostic accuracy of a radiomics-based pancreatic cyst classifier to an experienced academic radiologist. METHODS:In this IRB-approved retrospective single-institution study, patients with surgically resected pancreatic cysts who underwent preoperative abdominal CT from 2003 to 2016 were identified. Pancreatic cyst(s) and background pancreas were manually segmented, and 488 radiomics features were extracted. Random forest classification based on radiomics features, age, and gender was evaluated with fourfold cross-validation. An academic radiologist blinded to the final pathologic diagnosis reviewed each case and provided the most likely diagnosis. RESULTS:214 patients were included (64 intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, 33 mucinous cystic neoplasms, 60 serous cystadenomas, 24 solid pseudopapillary neoplasms, and 33 cystic neuroendocrine tumors). The radiomics-based machine learning approach showed AUC of 0.940 in pancreatic cyst classification, compared with AUC of 0.895 for the radiologist. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Radiomics-based machine learning achieved equivalent performance as an experienced academic radiologist in the classification of pancreatic cysts. The high diagnostic accuracy can potentially maximize the efficiency of healthcare utilization by maximizing detection of high-risk lesions.