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Nonsurgical treatment of skin cancer with local delivery of bioadhesive nanoparticles
Keratinocyte-derived carcinomas, including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), comprise the most common malignancies. Surgical excision is the therapeutic standard but is not always clinically feasible, and currently available alternatives are limited to superficial tumors. To address the need for a nonsurgical treatment for nodular skin cancers like SCC, we developed a bioadhesive nanoparticle (BNP) drug delivery system composed of biodegradable polymer, poly(lactic acid)-hyperbranched polyglycerol (PLA-HPG), encapsulating camptothecin (CPT). Nanoparticles (NPs) of PLA-HPG are nonadhesive NPs (NNPs), which are stealthy in their native state, but we have previously shown that conversion of the vicinal diols of HPG to aldehydes conferred NPs the ability to form strong covalent bonds with amine-rich surfaces. Herein, we show that these BNPs have significantly enhanced binding to SCC tumor cell surfaces and matrix proteins, thereby significantly enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of intratumoral drug delivery. Tumor injection of BNP-CPT resulted in tumor retention of CPT at âˆ¼50% at 10 d postinjection, while CPT was undetectable in NNP-CPT or free (intralipid) CPT-injected tumors at that time. BNP-CPT also significantly reduced tumor burden, with a portion (âˆ¼20%) of BNP-CPT-treated established tumors showing histologic cure. Larger, more fully established PDV SCC tumors treated with a combination of BNP-CPT and immunostimulating CpG oligodeoxynucleotides exhibited enhanced survival relative to controls, revealing the potential for BNP delivery to be used along with local tumor immunotherapy. Taken together, these results indicate that percutaneous delivery of a chemotherapeutic agent via BNPs, with or without adjuvant immunostimulation, represents a viable, nonsurgical alternative for treating cutaneous malignancy.
Second-Hit, Postzygotic PMVK and MVD Mutations in Linear Porokeratosis
Importance:Linear porokeratosis features linear and whorled configurations of keratotic papules and plaques, with coronoid lamellae present on histologic examination. Because linear porokeratosis manifests in the lines of Blaschko representing the dorsoventral migration patterns of keratinocyte precursors, it has been suggested that postzygotic somatic mutation underlies the disease. However, no genetic evidence has supported this hypothesis to date. Objective:To identify genetic mutations associated with linear porokeratosis. Design, Setting, and Participants:Paired whole-exome sequencing of affected skin and blood/saliva samples from 3 participants from 3 academic medical centers with clinical and histologic diagnoses of linear porokeratosis. Interventions or Exposures:Whole-exome sequencing of paired blood/saliva and affected tissue samples isolated from linear porokeratosis lesions. Main Outcomes and Measures:Germline and somatic genomic characteristics of participants with linear porokeratosis. Results:Of the 3 participants, 2 were male. Participant ages ranged from 5 to 20 years old. We found a combination of a novel germline mutation and a novel somatic mutation within affected tissue in all cases. One participant had a germline heterozygous PMVK c.329G>A mutation and a somatic copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity confined to the lesional skin, while a second had a germline heterozygous PMVK c.79G>T mutation and an additional PMVK c.379C>T mutation in the lesional skin. In a third participant, there was a germline splice-site mutation in MVD (c.70â€‰+â€‰5G>A) and a somatic deletion in MVD causing frameshift and premature codon termination within the lesional skin (c.811_815del, p.F271Afs*33 frameshift). Conclusions and Relevance:Our findings suggest that linear porokeratosis is associated with the presence of second-hit postzygotic mutations in the genes that encode enzymes within the mevalonate biosynthesis pathway, and provide further evidence that the mevalonate pathway may be a potential target for therapeutic intervention in porokeratosis.
Biodegradable bioadhesive nanoparticle incorporation of broad-spectrum organic sunscreen agents
Conventional emulsion-based sunscreen formulations are limited by postapplication epicutaneous penetration that increases the risk of allergic dermatitis, cellular damage, and filter photodegradation upon ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure. Encapsulation of the UVB filter padimate O within bioadhesive biodegradable nanoparticles (BNPs) composed of poly(d,l-lactic acid)-hyperbranched polyglycerol was previously shown to enhance UVR protection while preventing skin absorption. Herein, we assess the capacity of BNP co-incorporation of avobenzone and octocrylene to provide broad-spectrum UVR protection. The ratio of UV filters within nanoparticles (NPs) was optimized for filter-filter stabilization upon UV irradiation and maximum drug loading. In vitro water-resistance test showed significant particle retention at 85% over 3 hr. In a pilot clinical study, protection against UVR-induced erythema of BNPs was found to be comparable to the FDA standard P2. Thus, sunscreen formulations utilizing BNP incorporation of a combination of organic filters may offer key safety and performance advantages.
Subclinical extension of nail unit squamous cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in situ detected with Mohs micrographic surgery [Meeting Abstract]
Speed of Adoption of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors of Programmed Cell Death 1 Protein and Comparison of Patient Ages in Clinical Practice vs Pivotal Clinical Trials
Importance:The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is increasing its pace of approvals for novel cancer therapeutics, including for immune checkpoint inhibitors of programmed cell death 1 protein (anti-PD-1 agents). However, little is known about how quickly anti-PD-1 agents agents reach eligible patients in practice or whether such patients differ from those studied in clinical trials that lead to FDA approval (pivotal clinical trials). Objectives:To assess the speed with which anti-PD-1 agents agents reached eligible patients in practice and to compare the ages of patients treated in clinical practice with the ages of those treated in pivotal clinical trials. Design, Setting, and Participants:This retrospective cohort study, performed from January 1, 2011, through August 31, 2016, included patients from the Flatiron Health Network who were eligible for anti-PD-1 agents treatment of selected cancer types, which included melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Main Outcomes and Measures:Cumulative proportions of eligible patients receiving anti-PD-1 agents treatment and their age distributions. Results:The study identified 3089 patients who were eligible for anti-PD-1 agents treatment (median age, 66 [interquartile range, 56-75] years for patients with melanoma, 66 [interquartile range, 58-72] years for patients with RCC, and 67 [interquartile range, 59-74] years for patients with NSCLC; 1742 male [56.4%] and 1347 [43.6%] female; 2066 [66.9%] white). Of these patients, 2123 (68.7%) received anti-PD-1 agents treatment, including 439 eligible patients with melanoma (79.1%), 1417 eligible patients with NSCLC (65.6%), and 267 eligible patients with RCC (71.2%). Within 4 months after FDA approval, greater than 60% of eligible patients in each cohort had received anti-PD-1 agents treatment. Overall, similar proportions of older and younger patients received anti-PD-1 agents treatment during the first 9 months after FDA approval. However, there were significant differences in age between clinical trial participants and patients receiving anti-PD-1 agents treatment in clinical practice, with more patients being older than 65 years in clinical practice (range, 327 of 1365 [60.6%] to 46 of 72 [63.9%]) than in pivotal clinical trials (range, 38 of 120 [31.7%] to 223 of 544 [41.0%]; all Pâ€‰<â€‰.001). Conclusions and Relevance:Anti-PD-1 agents rapidly reached patients in clinical practice, and patients treated in clinical practice differed significantly from patients treated in pivotal clinical trials. Future actions are needed to ensure that rapid adoption occurs on the basis of representative trial evidence.
Transparency and Dermatologic Device Approval by the US Food and Drug Administration
Importance:The US Food and Drug Administration approves Class III medical devices via the premarket approval pathway, often requiring clinical data on safety and efficacy. Manufacturers can submit incremental device changes via supplemental applications, which are not subjected to such vetting measures and can cause understudied changes that lead to drift from a device's original design. Objectives:To characterize the postapproval changes to Class III dermatologic devices and to evaluate inconsistencies in the use of the premarket approval pathway. Design, Setting, and Participants:This study was a cross-sectional retrospective cohort analysis of a public US Food and Drug Administration database for premarket approval of devices. Included were dermatologic devices approved by the US Food and Drug Administration between January 1, 1980, and November 1, 2016, through the premarket pathway for device approval. Main Outcomes and Measures:Original devices were identified, and their supplements were characterized chronologically, by review track, and by modification category. Results:The 27 dermatologic devices studied consisted of 14 injectables, 11 photodynamic therapies, a dermal replacement matrix, and a diagnostic imaging instrument. Supplemental applications are increasingly used: the data-requiring panel-track pathway was the least common approach (2.8% [16 of 562 supplements]), while the 30-day track, which does not require clinical data, was most frequently used (42.5% [239 of 562 supplements]). Four devices (14.8%) underwent low-risk recalls (Class II or Class III), and 10 devices (37.0%) were voluntarily withdrawn. Conclusions and Relevance:As manufacturers make increasing use of supplemental applications, minor device changes may occur without supporting clinical data, which could pose a safety risk to patients.
Violaceous plaques and papulonodules on the umbilicus [Case Report]
The skin as a window to the blood: Cutaneous manifestations of myeloid malignancies
Cutaneous manifestations of myeloid malignancies are common and have a broad range of presentations. These skin findings are classified as specific, due to direct infiltration by malignant hematopoietic cells, or non-specific. Early recognition and diagnosis can have significant clinical implications, as skin manifestations may be the first indication of underlying hematologic malignancy, can reflect the immune status and stage of disease, and cutaneous reactions may occur from conventional and targeted agents used to treat myeloid disease. In addition, infections with cutaneous involvement are common in immunocompromised patients with myeloid disease. Given the varying presentations, dermatologic findings associated with myeloid malignancies can pose diagnostic challenges for hematologists and dermatologists. In this clinical review intended for the practicing hematologist/oncologist, we discuss the presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prognostic value of the most common cutaneous manifestations associated with myeloid malignancies using illustrative macro- and microscopic figures and with a special emphasis on practical considerations.
Topical Corticosteroid Phobia in Atopic Dermatitis: A Systematic Review
Importance:Topical corticosteroid (TCS) phobia refers to the negative feelings and beliefs related to TCSs experienced by patients and patients' caregivers. This phenomenon may be a major contributing factor in treatment failure in patients with atopic dermatitis, yet it has been sparsely described in the literature. Objective:To systematically assess the nomenclature, prevalence, origins, and effect on treatment adherence of TCS phobia in atopic dermatitis. Evidence Review:A literature search was conducted using specific eligibility criteria across electronic databases, including Ovid (MEDLINE, EMBASE), PubMed, and Web of Science, for articles published from January 1, 1946, to October 31, 2016. Included articles must have assessed TCS phobia in patients with atopic dermatitis or their caregivers. Quality ratings of studies were based on a modified version of the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine quality rating scheme for individual studies. Findings:Of the 490 articles identified by literature search, 16 met the eligibility criteria. All studies were cross-sectional. Topical corticosteroid phobia prevalence ranged from 21.0% (95% CI, 15.8%-26.2%) to 83.7% (95% CI, 81.9%-85.5%). There was significant variation in how phobia was defined, ranging from concern to irrational fear. Questionnaires used to assess for TCS phobia included 1 to 69 questions. In the 2 studies that compared nonadherence between a phobia group and a nonphobia group, patients in both phobia groups were found to have a significantly higher rate of nonadherence (49.4% vs 14.1% and 29.3% vs 9.8%). The sources from which patients were receiving information about corticosteroids included physicians, friends and relatives, broadcast media, print media, and the internet. Conclusions and Relevance:Features of TCS phobia are commonly reported by patients across cultures and may be associated with a higher rate of nonadherence. Patients with TCS phobia and the sources from which patients are receiving information about corticosteroids may be targetable for intervention to increase adherence to treatment regimens. The nomenclature and assessment methods for TCS phobia used in studies, however, lack standardization, precluding quantitative comparison and extrapolation of data. Additional research, using standardized definitions and methods of assessment, is needed to better characterize this phenomenon and evaluate the efficacy of potential interventions.