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Developmental coupling of brain iron and intrinsic activity in infants during the first 150 days

Ji, Lanxin; Yoon, Youngwoo Bryan; Hendrix, Cassandra L; Kennelly, Ellyn C; Majbri, Amyn; Bhatia, Tanya; Taylor, Alexis; Thomason, Moriah E
Brain iron is vital for core neurodevelopmental processes including myelination and neurotransmitter synthesis and, accordingly, iron accumulates in the brain with age. However, little is known about the association between brain iron and neural functioning and how they evolve with age in early infancy. This study investigated brain iron in 48 healthy infants (22 females) aged 64.00 ± 33.28 days by estimating R2 * relaxometry from multi-echo functional MRI (fMRI). Linked independent component analysis was performed to examine the association between iron deposition and spontaneous neural activity, as measured by the amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF) by interrogating shared component loadings across modalities. Further, findings were validated in an independent dataset (n = 45, 24 females, 77.93 ± 26.18 days). The analysis revealed developmental coupling between the global R2 * and ALFF within the default mode network (DMN). Furthermore, we observed that this coupling effect significantly increased with age (r = 0.78, p = 9.2e-11). Our results highlight the importance of iron-neural coupling during early development and suggest that the neural maturation of the DMN may correspond to growth in distributed brain iron.
PMID: 37979299
ISSN: 1878-9307
CID: 5608142

In vivo gamma-aminobutyric acid-A/benzodiazepine receptor availability and genetic liability in asymptomatic individuals with high genetic loading of schizophrenia: A [11C]flumazenil positron emission tomography study

Lee, Junhee; Yoon, Youngwoo Bryan; Cho, Kang Ik Kevin; Seo, Seongho; Lee, Jae Sung; Jeong, Jae Min; Kim, Euitae; Kim, Minah; Lee, Tae Young; Kwon, Jun Soo
OBJECTIVES:Whilst reduced signalling and gene expression related to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) play a role in the presumed pathophysiology of schizophrenia, its origin is unclear. Studying asymptomatic individuals with high genetic liability to schizophrenia (AIs) would provide insights. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the role of genetic liability in GABAergic dysfunction of schizophrenia by exploring in vivo GABA-A/benzodiazepine receptor (GABAR) availability in AIs. METHODS:A total of 10 AIs with multiple relatives diagnosed as schizophrenia and 11 healthy controls underwent [11C]flumazenil positron emission tomography and neurocognitive function tests. RESULTS:There was no significant difference in [11C]flumazenil availability based on the groups. GABAR availability in caudate nuclei had positive correlations with genetic liability of AIs. GABAR availability in caudate nuclei and verbal memory measures of AIs revealed positive correlations. Only the correlation between right caudate and short-term verbal memory survived multiple-comparison correction (p = 0.030). CONCLUSIONS:This study, for the first time, reports correlations between the genetic liability of schizophrenia and GABAR availability. Correlations between [11C]flumazenil binding in caudate of individuals with high genetic liability to schizophrenia suggests that the GABAergic dysfunction may arise from shared genetic factors and also that it may be responsible for cognitive impairment of AIs.
PMID: 33184922
ISSN: 1099-1077
CID: 5345152

Distinct neural networks associated with obsession and delusion: a connectome-wide association study

Lee, Tae Young; Jung, Wi Hoon; Kwak, Yoo Bin; Yoon, Youngwoo B; Lee, Junhee; Kim, Minah; Kim, Euitae; Kwon, Jun Soo
BACKGROUND:Obsession and delusion are theoretically distinct from each other in terms of reality testing. Despite such phenomenological distinction, no extant studies have examined the identification of common and distinct neural correlates of obsession and delusion by employing biologically grounded methods. Here, we investigated dimensional effects of obsession and delusion spanning across the traditional diagnostic boundaries reflected upon the resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) using connectome-wide association studies (CWAS). METHODS:Our study sample comprised of 96 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder, 75 patients with schizophrenia, and 65 healthy controls. A connectome-wide analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between obsession and delusion severity and RFSC using multivariate distance-based matrix regression. RESULTS:Obsession was associated with the supplementary motor area, precentral gyrus, and superior parietal lobule, while delusion was associated with the precuneus. Follow-up seed-based RSFC and modularity analyses revealed that obsession was related to aberrant inter-network connectivity strength. Additional inter-network analyses demonstrated the association between obsession severity and inter-network connectivity between the frontoparietal control network and the dorsal attention network. CONCLUSIONS:Our CWAS study based on the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) provides novel evidence for the circuit-level functional dysconnectivity associated with obsession and delusion severity across diagnostic boundaries. Further refinement and accumulation of biomarkers from studies embedded within the RDoC framework would provide useful information in treating individuals who have some obsession or delusion symptoms but cannot be identified by the category of clinical symptoms alone.
PMID: 31997729
ISSN: 1469-8978
CID: 5345342

Functional connectivity of the raphe nucleus as a predictor of the response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in obsessive-compulsive disorder

Kim, Minah; Kwak, Seoyeon; Yoon, Youngwoo Bryan; Kwak, Yoo Bin; Kim, Taekwan; Cho, Kang Ik K; Lee, Tae Young; Kwon, Jun Soo
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are first-line pharmacological agents for treating obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, because nearly half of patients show insufficient SSRI responses, serotonergic dysfunction in heterogeneous OCD patients should be investigated for precision medicine. We aimed to determine whether functional connectivity (FC) of the raphe nucleus (RN), the major source of most serotonergic neurons, was altered in OCD patients and could predict the SSRI response. A total of 102 medication-free OCD patients and 101 matched healthy control (HC) subjects participated in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Among them, 54 OCD patients were treated with SSRIs for 16 weeks, resulting in 26 responders and 28 nonresponders. Seed-based whole brain FC with the RN as a seed region was compared between the OCD and HC groups, as well as between SSRI responders and nonresponders. FC cluster values showing significant group differences were used to investigate factors correlated with symptomatic severity before treatment and predictive of SSRI response. Compared to HCs, OCD patients exhibited significantly larger FC between the RN and temporal cortices including the middle temporal gyrus (MTG), paracingulate gyrus, amygdala, hippocampus, putamen, thalamus, and brain stem. Greater RN-left MTG FC was positively correlated with OC symptom severity at baseline. In addition, larger FC of the RN-left MTG was also found in SSRI nonresponders compared to responders, which was a significant predictor of SSRI response after 16 weeks. The FC of RN may reflect the neurobiological underpinning of OCD and could aid future precision medicine as a differential brain-based biomarker.
PMID: 31189178
ISSN: 1740-634x
CID: 5345332

Disturbed thalamocortical connectivity in unaffected relatives of schizophrenia patients with a high genetic loading

Cho, Kang Ik K; Kim, Minah; Yoon, Youngwoo Bryan; Lee, Junhee; Lee, Tae Young; Kwon, Jun Soo
OBJECTIVES:Alterations in thalamocortical anatomical connectivity, specifically the connection between the orbitofrontal cortex and thalamus, have been frequently reported in schizophrenia and are suggested to contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The connectivity of the thalamocortical white matter in unaffected relatives of schizophrenia patients was compared to that of healthy controls. METHODS:The unaffected relative group was defined as asymptomatic family members who had at least one first-degree relative with schizophrenia and one or more other affected first- to third-degree relatives. A total of 35 unaffected relatives and 34 healthy controls underwent diffusion-weighted and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to examine the white matter connectivity between the thalamus and orbitofrontal cortex using probabilistic tractography. RESULTS: = 0.10. However, there was no association between the Genetic Liability Score and fractional anisotropy in the left thalamo-orbitofrontal tracts. CONCLUSION:Our findings in the unaffected relatives of schizophrenia patients, which are in line with the alterations reported in schizophrenia, first-episode psychosis and clinical high risk for psychosis, highlight a possible genetic contribution to the proposed biomarker of altered thalamocortical connectivity.
PMID: 30722672
ISSN: 1440-1614
CID: 5345302

Adjunctive use of anti-inflammatory drugs for schizophrenia: A meta-analytic investigation of randomized controlled trials

Cho, Myeongju; Lee, Tae Young; Kwak, Yoo Bin; Yoon, Youngwoo Brian; Kim, Minah; Kwon, Jun Soo
OBJECTIVE:Recent evidence suggests that adjuvant anti-inflammatory agents could improve the symptoms of patients with schizophrenia. However, the effects of the adjuvant anti-inflammatory agents on cognitive function, general functioning and side effects have not yet been systematically investigated. The present meta-analysis aimed to explore the effects of anti-inflammatory agents in patients with schizophrenia comprehensively. METHOD:-acetylcysteine, minocycline, davunetide and erythropoietin. RESULTS:Sixty-two double-blind randomized clinical trials studying 2914 patients with schizophrenia met the inclusion criteria for quantitative analysis. Significant overall effects were found for anti-inflammatory agents for reducing total, positive and negative symptom scores in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Cognitive improvements were significant with minocycline and pregnenolone augmentation therapy. General functioning was significantly enhanced by overall anti-inflammatory agents. There were no significant differences in side effects compared with placebo. Baseline total Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale score and illness duration were identified as moderating factors in the effects of anti-inflammatory augmentation on psychiatric symptom improvements. CONCLUSION:The comparative evaluation of efficacy and safety supported the use of anti-inflammatory adjuvant therapy over the use of antipsychotics alone. However, future studies could focus on patients with homogeneous clinical profile to figure out more detailed effects of anti-inflammatory therapy.
PMID: 30864461
ISSN: 1440-1614
CID: 5345322

Effect of tDCS on Aberrant Functional Network Connectivity in Refractory Hallucinatory Schizophrenia: A Pilot Study

Yoon, Youngwoo Bryan; Kim, Minah; Lee, Junhee; Cho, Kang Ik K; Kwak, Seoyeon; Lee, Tae Young; Kwon, Jun Soo
We aim to investigate the effect of fronto-temporal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on the interactions among functional networks and its association with psychotic symptoms. In this pilot study, we will determine possible candidate functional networks and an adequate sample size for future research. Seven schizophrenia patients with treatment-refractory auditory hallucinations underwent tDCS twice daily for 5 days. Resting-state fMRI data and measures of the severity of psychotic symptoms were acquired at baseline and after completion of the tDCS sessions. At baseline, decreased functional network interaction was negatively correlated with increased hallucinatory behavior. After tDCS, the previously reduced functional network connectivity significantly increased. Our results showed that fronto-temporal tDCS could possibly remediate aberrant hallucination-related functional network interactions in patients with schizophrenia.
PMID: 30836741
ISSN: 1738-3684
CID: 5345312

Functional and Structural Connectivity of the Cerebellar Nuclei With the Striatum and Cerebral Cortex in First-Episode Psychosis

Lee, Kwang-Hyuk; Oh, Hyerim; Suh, Jee-Hyung S; Cho, Kang Ik K; Yoon, Youngwoo Bryan; Shin, Won-Gyo; Lee, Tae Young; Kwon, Jun Soo
OBJECTIVE:This study provides evidence of disordered RSFC of cerebellar output nuclei to the striatum and neocortex at the early stage of schizophrenia. Furthermore, dysfunctional cerebellar influences on fronto-parietal areas that are independent of striatal dysfunction in patients with FEP were observed. The results suggest that cortico-striatal abnormalities in patients with FEP are produced by abnormal cerebellar influences.
PMID: 30561280
ISSN: 1545-7222
CID: 5345292

Plastic Changes in the White Matter Induced by Templestay, a 4-Day Intensive Mindfulness Meditation Program

Yoon, Youngwoo Bryan; Bae, Dahye; Kwak, Seoyeon; Hwang, Wu Jeong; Cho, Kang Ik K.; Lim, Kyung-Ok; Park, Hye Yoon; Lee, Tae Young; Kim, Sung Nyun; Kwon, Jun Soo
ISSN: 1868-8527
CID: 5345432

Lower glutamate level in temporo-parietal junction may predict a better response to tDCS in schizophrenia [Letter]

Lee, Junhee; Yoon, Youngwoo Bryan; Wijtenburg, S Andrea; Rowland, Laura M; Chen, Hongji; Gaston, Frank E; Song, In Chan; Cho, Kang Ik K; Kim, Minah; Lee, Tae Young; Kwon, Jun Soo
PMID: 29859857
ISSN: 1573-2509
CID: 5345272