Digital measurement and analysis of the distal femur in adults with secondary knee valgus deformity. [Chinese]
BACKGROUND: The surgical method for knee valgus deformity is osteotomy around the knee joint or total knee arthroplasty. Osteotomy around the knee joint needs three-dimensional shaping. The type of artificial total knee arthroplasty prosthesis and the degree of matching with the knee joint affect the long-term effect after arthroplasty. Femoral condyle osteotomy shaping usually requires the support of femoral condyle data. Nowadays, prosthesis systems designed by westerners have a relatively high usage rate in China, but cannot achieve the best results in the Chinese.
OBJECTIVE(S): To explore the anatomical abnormalities of the femoral condyle, and provide anatomical data for total knee arthroplasty or osteotomy of knee valgus deformity.
METHOD(S): Totally 41 adult patients (53 knees) with knee valgus deformity were detected with CT scan. The obtained images were imported into Mimics 17.0 software, and digital three-dimensional model was established. The anatomical parameters were measured, and the distribution and correlation were analyzed. The knee joint parameters between knee valgus deformity patients and healthy normal knee in single deformity patients (control group, n=29) were compared. RESULTS AND
CONCLUSION(S): (1) Compared with the control group, epicondylar angle was not significantly different in the valgus group (P > 0.05). Medial mechanical femoral angle, distal condylar angle, and poster condylar angle were significantly increased in the valgus group (P < 0.05). (2) Measurement results of the surface profile of the femoral condyle showed that femoral condyle data were significantly lower in the valgus group than that in the control group (P < 0.05). No significant difference in femoral medial condyle data was found between the valgus and control groups (P > 0.05). (3) The distance between the center of the femoral condyle and the condyle line of the femoral condyle was significantly lower in the valgus group than that in the control group (P < 0.05). (4) These findings indicate that the morphological changes of the femoral lateral condyle of adult secondary knee valgus deformity are more significant, but the morphological changes of the femoral medial condyle are not obvious. The femoral condyle axis is used as a reference for adult secondary valgus total knee arthroplasty. The data obtained can help intraoperative positioning and improve the treatment effect.
Vitamin B6 catabolism and lung cancer risk: results from the Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium (LC3)
Background/UNASSIGNED:Increased vitamin B6 catabolism related to inflammation, as measured by the PAr index (the ratio of 4-pyridoxic acid over the sum of pyridoxal and pyridoxal -5'-phosphate), has been positively associated with lung cancer risk in two prospective European studies. However, the extent to which this association translates to more diverse populations is not known. Materials and methods/UNASSIGNED:For this study, we included 5,323 incident lung cancer cases and 5,323 controls individually matched by age, sex, and smoking status within each of 20 prospective cohorts from the Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium. Cohort-specific odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between PAr and lung cancer risk were calculated using conditional logistic regression and pooled using random-effects models. Results/UNASSIGNED:PAr was positively associated with lung cancer risk in a dose-response fashion. Comparing the fourth versus first quartiles of PAr resulted in an OR of 1.38 (95% CI: 1.19-1.59) for overall lung cancer risk. The association between PAr and lung cancer risk was most prominent in former smokers (OR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.36-2.10), men (OR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.28-2.00), and for cancers diagnosed within 3 years of blood draw (OR: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.34-2.23). Conclusion/UNASSIGNED:Based on pre-diagnostic data from 20 cohorts across 4 continents, this study confirms that increased vitamin B6 catabolism related to inflammation and immune activation is associated with a higher risk of developing lung cancer. Moreover, PAr may be a pre-diagnostic marker of lung cancer rather than a causal factor.
Intra-abdominal aortic graft infection: complete or partial graft preservation in patients at very high risk
BACKGROUND: Total graft excision with in situ or extra-anatomic revascularization is considered mandatory to treat infection involving the body of aortic grafts. We present a series of nine patients with this complication and such severe comorbid medical illnesses or markedly hostile abdomens that traditional treatments were precluded. In these patients selective complete or partial graft preservation was used. METHODS: Over the past 20 years we have treated nine infected infrarenal aortic prosthetic grafts with complete or partial graft preservation, because excision of the graft body was not feasible. In all nine patients infection of the main body of the aortic graft was documented at computed tomography or surgery. Essential adjuncts included percutaneous or operative drain placement into retroperitoneal abscess cavities and along the graft, with instillation of antibiotics three times daily, repeated debridement of infected groin wounds, and intravenous antibiotic therapy for at least 6 weeks. RESULTS: One patient with purulent groin drainage treated with complete graft preservation died of sepsis. One patient with groin infection treated with complete graft preservation initially did well, but ultimately required total graft excision 5 months later, after clinical improvement. In four patients complete graft preservation was successful; two patients required excision of an occluded infected limb of the graft; and one patient underwent subtotal graft excision, leaving a graft remnant on the aorta, and axillopopliteal bypass. In summary, seven of nine patients survived hospitalization after complete or partial graft preservation; amputation was avoided in all but one patient; and no recurrent infection developed over mean follow-up of 7.6 years (range, 2-15 years). CONCLUSIONS: Although contrary to conventional concepts, partial or complete graft preservation combined with aggressive drainage and groin wound debridement is an acceptable option for treatment of infection involving an entire aortic graft in selected patients with prohibitive risks for total graft excision. This treatment may be compatible with long-term survival and protracted absence of signs or symptoms of infection
The effect of nonporous PTFE-covered stents on intimal hyperplasia following balloon arterial injury in minipigs
PURPOSE: To report an experimental study investigating the ability of nonporous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) covering on a metallic stent to retard the development of neointimal hyperplasia (NIH). METHODS: Three groups of Hanford miniature swine underwent standardized balloon injury to both external iliac arteries. Group I animals (control) received balloon injuries only. Group II had the site of balloon injury supported by a properly sized, balloon-expandable Palmaz stent placed directly over the injury site. Group III animals received a Palmaz stent covered with PTFE graft. All animals underwent arteriography immediately after intervention and again prior to sacrifice and specimen harvest at 4 weeks. The specimens were examined grossly and histologically at the proximal, middle, and distal segments for NIH development. RESULTS: Uncovered stents developed significantly more NIH (p < 0.0001) and greater luminal narrowing (p < 0.001) than the controls. PTFE-covered stents (group III) exhibited less NIH (p < 0.001) and luminal reduction (p < 0.01) than bare stents (group II) at the middle portion of the stent-graft, but the PTFE cover had no effect on NIH and lumen reduction at the proximal or distal ends of the prosthesis. CONCLUSIONS: PTFE-covered stents retarded NIH at 4 weeks, but only at the midportion of the devices; the covering did not prevent neointimal pannus ingrowth at the proximal and distal ends
Atrophin-1, the DRPLA gene product, interacts with two families of WW domain-containing proteins
Atrophin-1 contains a polyglutamine repeat, expansion of which is responsible for dentatorubral and pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA). The normal function of atrophin-1 is unknown. We have identified five atrophin-1 interacting proteins (AIPs) which bind to atrophin-1 in the vicinity of the polyglutamine tract using the yeast two-hybrid system. Four of the interactions were confirmed using in vitro binding assays. All five interactors contained multiple WW domains. Two are novel. The AIPs can be divided into two distinct classes. AIP1 and AIP3/WWP3 are MAGUK-like multidomain proteins containing a number of protein-protein interaction modules, namely a guanylate kinase-like region, two WW domains, and multiple PDZ domains. AIP2/WWP2, AIP4, and AIP5/WWP1 are highly homologous, each having four WW domains and a HECT domain characteristic of ubiquitin ligases. These interactors are similar to recently isolated huntingtin-interacting proteins, suggesting possible commonality of function between two proteins responsible for very similar diseases.
Ex vivo human carotid artery bifurcation stenting: correlation of lesion characteristics with embolic potential
PURPOSE: To develop an ex vivo human carotid artery stenting model that can be used for the quantitative analysis of risk for embolization associated with balloon angioplasty and stenting and to correlate this risk with lesion characteristics to define lesions suitable for balloon angioplasty and stenting. METHODS: Specimens of carotid plaque (n = 24) were obtained circumferentially intact from patients undergoing standard carotid endarterectomy. Carotid lesions were prospectively characterized on the basis of angiographic and duplex findings before endarterectomy and clinical findings. Specimens were encased in a polytetrafluoroethylene wrap and mounted in a flow chamber that allowed access for endovascular procedures and observations. Balloon angioplasty and stenting were performed under fluoroscopic guidance with either a Palmaz stent or a Wallstent endoprosthesis. Ex vivo angiograms were obtained before and after intervention. Effluent from each specimen was filtered for released embolic particles, which were microscopically examined, counted, and correlated with various plaque characteristics by means of multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Balloon angioplasty and stenting produced embolic particles that consisted of atherosclerotic debris, organized thrombus, and calcified material. The number of embolic particles detected after balloon angioplasty and stenting was not related to preoperative symptoms, sex, plaque ulceration or calcification, or artery size. However, echolucent plaques generated a higher number of particles compared with echogenic plaques (p < 0.01). In addition, increased lesion stenosis also significantly correlated with the total number of particles produced by balloon angioplasty and stenting (r = 0.55). Multivariate analysis revealed that these two characteristics were independent risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Echolucent plaques and plaques with stenosis > or = 90% produced a higher number of embolic particles and therefore may be less suitable for balloon angioplasty and stenting. This ex vivo model can be used to identify high-risk lesions for balloon angioplasty and stenting and can aid in the evaluation of new devices being considered for carotid balloon angioplasty and stenting
Accuracy of duplex ultrasound in evaluating carotid artery anatomy before endarterectomy
PURPOSE: Anatomic features, such as a high carotid bifurcation (< 1.5 cm from the angle of the mandible), excessive distal extent of plaque (> 2.0 cm above the carotid bifurcation), or a small diameter (< or = 0.5 cm) redundant or kinked internal carotid artery can complicate carotid endarterectomy. In the past, arteriography was the only preoperative study capable of imaging these features. This study assessed the ability of duplex ultrasound to evaluate their presence before surgery. METHODS: A consecutive series of 20 patients who underwent 21 carotid endarterectomies had preoperative duplex ultrasound evaluations of these anatomic features. These evaluations were correlated with operative measurements from an observer blinded to the duplex findings. RESULTS: The mean difference between duplex and operative measurements for the distance between the carotid bifurcation and the angle of the mandible, the distal extent of plaque, and the internal carotid artery diameter was 0.9 cm, 0.3 cm, and 0.8 mm, respectively. The correlation coefficient between the two methods was 0.86, 0.75, and 0.59, respectively. Duplex ultrasound predicted a high carotid bifurcation, excessive distal extent of plaque, or a redundant or kinked internal carotid artery with 100% sensitivity (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, and p < 0.001, respectively). The sensitivity of duplex ultrasound in predicting a small internal carotid artery diameter was 80%. The specificity of duplex ultrasound for predicting excessive distal extent of plaque, small internal carotid artery diameter, high carotid bifurcation, and a coiled or kinked carotid artery was 92%, 56%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Duplex ultrasound can predict the presence of anatomic features that may complicate carotid endarterectomy. Preoperative duplex imaging of these features may be helpful in patients who undergo carotid endarterectomy without preoperative arteriography
Endoleaks after endovascular graft treatment of aortic aneurysms: classification, risk factors, and outcome
PURPOSE: Incomplete endovascular graft exclusion of an abdominal aortic aneurysm results in an endoleak. To better understand the pathogenesis, significance, and fate of endoleaks, we analyzed our experience with endovascular aneurysm repair. METHODS: Between November 1992 and May 1997, 47 aneurysms were treated. In a phase I study, patients received either an endovascular aortoaortic graft (11) or an aortoiliac, femorofemoral graft (8). In phase II, procedures and grafts were modified to include aortofemoral, femorofemoral grafts (28) that were inserted with juxtarenal proximal stents, sutured endovascular distal anastomoses within the femoral artery, and hypogastric artery coil embolization. Endoleaks were detected by arteriogram, computed tomographic scan, or duplex ultrasound. Classification systems to describe anatomic, chronologic, and physiologic endoleak features were developed, and aortic characteristics were correlated with endoleak incidence. RESULTS: Endoleaks were discovered in 11 phase I patients (58%) and only six phase II patients (21%; p < 0.05). Aneurysm neck lengths 2 cm or less increased the incidence of endoleaks (p < 0.05). Although not significant, aneurysms with patent side branches or severe neck calcification had a higher rate of endoleaks than those without these features (47% vs 29% and 57% vs 33%, respectively), and patients with iliac artery occlusive disease had a lower rate of endoleaks than those without occlusive disease (18% vs 42%). Endoleak classifications revealed that most endoleaks were immediate, without outflow, and persistent (71% each), proximal (59%), and had aortic inflow (88%). One patient with a persistent endoleak had aneurysm rupture and died. CONCLUSIONS: Endoleaks complicate a significant number of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repairs and may permit aneurysm growth and rupture. The type of graft used, the technique of graft insertion, and aortic anatomic features all affect the rate of endoleaks. Anatomic, chronologic, and physiologic classifications can facilitate endoleak reporting and improve understanding of their pathogenesis, significance, and fate
Endovascular grafts for noninfected aortoiliac anastomotic aneurysms
PURPOSE: This report describes our experience with endovascular repair of aortic and iliac anastomotic aneurysms. METHODS: Between June 1994 and March 1996, 12 noninfected aortic or iliac anastomotic aneurysms in 10 patients who had serious comorbid medical conditions that precluded or made difficult standard operative repair were treated using endovascular grafts. No patient in this study had a history of fever, leukocytosis, or computed tomographic evidence of a periprosthetic fluid collection that was suggestive of infection of the original graft. Endovascular grafts composed of polytetrafluoroethylene and balloon-expandable stents were introduced through a femoral arteriotomy and were placed using over-the-wire techniques under C-arm fluoroscopic guidance. RESULTS: Endovascular grafts were successfully inserted in all patients with aortic or iliac anastomotic aneurysms. There were no procedure-related deaths, and complications included one postprocedure wound hematoma and one perioperative myocardial infarction. Graft patency has been maintained for a mean of 16.1 months, with no computed tomographic evidence of aneurysmal enlargement or perigraft leakage. CONCLUSIONS: Endovascular grafts appear to be a safe and effective technique for excluding some noninfected aortoiliac anastomotic aneurysms in high-risk patients and may become a treatment option in all patients who have clinically significant lesions
Anastomotic intimal hyperplasia: a comparison between conventional and endovascular stent graft techniques
Endovascular grafts (EVGs) have been proposed as a treatment for a variety of vascular diseases; however, the impact of EVGs on graft healing has not been fully evaluated. The aim of this study is to compare anastomotic intimal hyperplasia (AIH) and endothelialization in EVGs and conventional bypass grafts (CGs). Seven mongrel dogs received an EVG in one iliac artery and a CG in the other iliac artery using a 5 mm x 4 cm polytetrafluoroethylene graft. The EVG was secured to the native vessel wall, with balloon expandable stents at either ends of the graft. CGs were anastomosed using running sutures. Intravascular ultrasound was performed at the time of sacrifice (8 weeks) to determine percentage of stenosis at the distal anastomosis. Specimens were divided longitudinally for light microscopic analysis (thickness of distal AIH) and scanning electron microscopic studies (percentage of endothelial coverage of the graft). Percentage of stenosis at the distal anastomosis was significantly higher in EVGs compared with CGs (28.2 +/- 18.2% versus 1.8 +/- 2.8%; P < 0.01) due to significantly greater mean intimal thickness in the EVGs (441.1 +/- 101.1 microns versus 82.4 +/- 41.9 microns; P < 0.01). The total percentage of area covered by endothelial cells was also significantly greater in EVGs compared with CGs (80.5 +/- 37.5% versus 30.3 +/- 37.1%; P < 0.05). Intraluminal location enhanced endothelialization of the polytetrafluoroethylene graft; however, it also resulted in greater AIH. Further device refinements including stent design may be required to maximize the potential of these endovascular procedures