Recognizing Cutibacterium acnes as a cause of infectious pericarditis: A case report and review of literature [Case Report]
Li-Geng, Tony; Geraci, Travis C; Narula, Navneet; Zervou, Fainareti N; Prasad, Prithiv J; Decano, Arnold G; Sterling, Stephanie; Zacharioudakis, Ioannis M
Cutibacterium acnes is an anaerobic bacterium commonly thought of as a culture contaminant rather than a pathogen. We present a case of Cutibacterium acnes pericarditis in a 22-year-old immunocompetent woman managed with surgical pericardial window and a 4-week course of penicillin G and review related literature on Cutibacterium acnes pericarditis.
Rate and consequences of missed Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection diagnosis from nonreporting of Clostridioides difficile results of the multiplex GI PCR panel: experience from two-hospitals
Zacharioudakis, Ioannis M; Zervou, Fainareti N; Phillips, Michael S; Aguero-Rosenfeld, Maria E
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:It is common among microbiology laboratories to blind the Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile) BioFire FilmArray GI Panel result in fear of overdiagnosis. METHODS:We examined the rate of missed community-onset C. difficile infection (CDI) diagnosis and associated outcomes. Adult patients with FilmArray GI Panel positive for C. difficile on hospital admission who lacked dedicated C. difficile testing were included. RESULTS:Among 144 adults with a FilmArray Panel positive for C. difficile, 18 did not have concurrent dedicated C. difficile testing. Eight patients were categorized as possible, 5 as probable and 4 as definite cases of missed CDI diagnosis. We observed associated delays in initiation of appropriate therapy, intensive care unit admissions, hospital readmissions, colorectal surgery and death/discharge to hospice. Five out of 17 lacked risk factors for CDI. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The practice of concealing C. difficile FilmArray GI Panel results needs to be reconsidered in patients presenting with community-onset colitis.
Defining the Breakpoint Duration of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia Predictive of Poor Outcomes
Zacharioudakis, Ioannis M; Zervou, Fainareti N
Evaluation of a Multiplex PCR Panel for the Microbiologic Diagnosis of Pneumonia in Hospitalized Patients: Experience from an Academic Medical Center
Zacharioudakis, Ioannis M; Zervou, Fainareti N; Yanina, Dubrovskaya; Inglima, Kenneth; See, Benjamin; Aguero-Rosenfeld, Maria
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:We evaluated the value of BioFireÂ® FilmArrayÂ® pneumonia panel in establishing a microbiologic diagnosis of pneumonia. We evaluated opportunities for antimicrobial optimization from its use. METHODS:We included adult patients with pneumonia between May 2019-January 2020. The pneumonia panel was performed on high-quality sputum specimens and the results were prospectively compared with sputum cultures and other tests performed per standard of care. RESULTS:Seventy patients were included, sixty-nine of whom completed a 5-day antimicrobial course for pneumonia and 14.3% died during hospitalization. There was a trend of higher rate of microbiologic diagnosis among the patients with culture submitted before antimicrobial administration (9/15 vs. 20/55; pâ€‰=â€‰0.09). The panel increased the microbiologic diagnosis from 29/70 to 59/70 (pâ€‰<â€‰0.001) patients. The per isolate analysis revealed an increase in the isolation of Haemophilus influenzae (pâ€‰=â€‰0.002) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (pâ€‰=â€‰0.05). On review of empiric antimicrobials, there was potential for antimicrobial optimization in 56/70 patients, including 9 bacteria among 9 patients, not covered by empiric treatment and another 70 antimicrobials in 49 patients that could have been stopped. CONCLUSIONS:Incorporation of the pneumonia panel in the diagnostic work-up of pneumonia substantially increased the rate of microbiologic diagnosis and revealed abundant opportunities for antimicrobial optimization.
Is Early Clearance of Blood Cultures the Be-All and End-All Outcome? [Letter]
Zacharioudakis, I M; Zervou, F N
Evaluation of a multiplex PCR panel for the microbiologic diagnosis of pneumonia in hospitalized patients: a retrospective analysis from an academic medical center [Meeting Abstract]
Zacharioudakis, I; Zervou, F; Inglima, K; See, B; Aguero-Rosenfeld, M E
Background: Pneumonia is a leading cause of hospitalization and mortality. Due to the low yield of available diagnostic tests, ATS/IDSA pneumonia guidelines recommend a microbiologic work-up only for hospitalized patients with severe pneumonia.
Method(s): From 5/2019 to 1/2020, we selected adult patients with clinical and radiographic findings highly suggestive of pneumonia. The BioFire FilmArray pneumonia panel was performed on sputum specimens that met quality microbiologic criteria and the results were compared to those of sputum cultures and other tests sent per standard of care. A limit of 105 copies/mL was used for positivity in semi-quantitative bacterial targets. The empiric antimicrobial regimen was reviewed to quantify the potential for antimicrobial optimization.
Result(s): Seventy patients were included in the analysis. Median age was 70 (IQR 53.5-81.75), and the majority (43 patients, 61.4%) were classified as Class IV and V using the pneumonia severity index, indicating severe cases of pneumonia. Sixty-nine patients completed at least a 5-day course for pneumonia and 14.3% died during their hospitalization. The fifteen patients (21.4%) that submitted a sputum culture before the initiation of antimicrobial therapy, had a trend towards a positive sputum culture (60% (9/15) vs 36.4% (20/55)) (p=0.09). The BioFire FilmArray pneumonia Panel increased the number of patients who received a microbiologic diagnosis from 29 (41%) to 59 (84.3%) (p< 0.001). The per isolate analysis revealed significantly more targets detected for Haemophilus influenzae (p=0.002) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (p=0.05). On review of empiric antimicrobial treatment, there was possibility for antimicrobial optimization in 80% of patients, including 9 cases of pathogens (4 MRSA, 3 Legionella pneumophila, 2 CTX-M gram-negative rods) where the pathogens were not covered and another 70 antimicrobials in 49 patients that could be stopped. Flow chart Bacterial Pathogens Detected in Standard of Care Alone Testing and with the Addition of Pneumonia Panel. Potential for Antimicrobial Optimization Using the Pneumonia Panel
Conclusion(s): Incorporation of the pneumonia panel in the diagnostic work-up of patients hospitalized with pneumonia substantially increased the rate of microbiologic diagnosis and had the potential to guide appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Future studies to quantify the effects on clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness from tailored therapy are needed
Association of SARS-CoV-2 genomic load in nasopharyngeal samples with adverse COVID-19 patient outcomes: A retrospective analysis from an academic hospital center in New York City [Meeting Abstract]
Zacharioudakis, I; Prasad, P; Zervou, F; Basu, A; Inglima, K; Weisenberg, S; Aguero-Rosenfeld, M E
Background: SARS-CoV-2, the cause of COVID-19 pneumonia, is associated with heterogenous presentations ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe respiratory failure. We explored the association of SARS-CoV-2 genomic load as a risk factor for adverse patient outcomes.
Method(s): We included adult patients admitted to the hospital with clinical and radiographic findings of pneumonia and a confirmatory polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test of SARS-CoV-2 within 24 hours of admission. We segregated patients into 3 genomic load status groups: low (Cycle threshold (Ct) >=35) intermediate (25< Ct< 35) and high (Ct <=25) using real-time PCR. The primary outcome was a composite outcome of death, intubation and/or use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Secondary outcomes included severity of pneumonia on admission, as measured by the Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI). Sensitivity analyses were performed to include Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) in the composite outcome and varying Ct classification breakpoints.
Result(s): Of 457 patients positive for SARS-CoV-2 assay from March 31st to April 10th 2020, 316 met inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. Included patients were followed for a median of 25 days (IQR 21-28). High genomic load at presentation was associated with higher Charlson Comorbidity Index scores (p=0.005), transplant recipient status (p< 0.001) and duration of illness less than 7 days (p=0.005). Importantly, patients with high genomic load were more likely to reach the primary endpoint (p=0.001), and had higher PSI scores on admission (p=0.03). In multivariate analysis, high genomic load remained an independent predictor of primary outcome. Results remained significant in sensitivity analyses.
Conclusion(s): High genomic load of SARS-CoV-2 in nasopharyngeal samples at the time of admission is independently associated with mortality and intubation. This finding should prompt further research on the role of viral load as a clinical predictor and possible modifiable risk factor for adverse outcomes as treatment strategies evolve in this global pandemic. (Table Presented)
Association of SARS-CoV-2 genomic load trends with clinical status in COVID-19:A retrospective analysis from an academic hospital center in New York City [Meeting Abstract]
Zacharioudakis, I; Zervou, F; Prasad, P; Shao, Y; Basu, A; Inglima, K; Weisenberg, S; Aguero-Rosenfeld, M E
Background: The Infectious Diseases Society of America has identified the potential use of SARS-CoV-2 genomic load for prognostication purposes as a key research question.
Method(s): We designed a retrospective cohort study that included adult patients with COVID-19 pneumonia who had at least 2 positive nasopharyngeal tests at least 24 hours apart to study the correlation between the change in the genomic load of SARS-CoV-2 in nasopharyngeal samples, as reflected by the Cycle threshold (Ct) value of the real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay, with change in clinical status. The Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score was used as a surrogate for patients' clinical status. A linear mixed-effects regression analysis was performed.
Result(s): Among 457 patients who presented to the emergency department between 3/31/2020- 4/10/2020, we identified 42 patients who met the inclusion criteria. The median initial SOFA score was 2 (IQR 2-3). 20 out of 42 patients had a lower SOFA score on their subsequent tests. We identified a statistically significant inverse correlation between the change in SOFA score and change in the Ct value with a decrease in SOFA score by 0.05 (SE 0.02; p < 0.05) for an increase in Ct values by 1. This correlation was independent of the duration of symptoms.
Conclusion(s): Our findings suggest that an increasing Ct value in sequential tests may be of prognostic value for patients diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia. Before repeat testing can be recommended routinely in clinical practice as a predictor of disease outcomes, prospective studies with a standardized interval between repeat tests should confirm our findings. (Table Presented)
Outcomes among HIV-positive patients hospitalized with COVID-19
Karmen-Tuohy, Savannah; Carlucci, Philip M; Zervou, Fainareti N; Zacharioudakis, Ioannis M; Rebick, Gabriel; Klein, Elizabeth; Reich, Jenna; Jones, Simon; Rahimian, Joseph
BACKGROUND:SARS-CoV-2 infection continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Preliminary data on SARS-CoV-2 infection suggests that some immunocompromised hosts experience worse outcomes. We performed a retrospective matched cohort study to characterize outcomes in HIV-positive patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS:Leveraging data collected from electronic medical records for all patients hospitalized at NYU Langone Health with COVID-19 between March 2, 2020 and April 23, 2020, we matched 21 HIV-positive patients to 42 non-HIV patients using a greedy nearest neighbor algorithm. Admission characteristics, laboratory results, and hospital outcomes were recorded and compared between the two groups. RESULTS:While there was a trend toward increased rates of ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and mortality in HIV-positive patients, these differences were not statistically significant. Rates for these outcomes in our cohort are similar to those previously published for all patients hospitalized with COVID-19. HIV-positive patients had significantly higher admission and peak CRP values. Other inflammatory markers did not differ significantly between groups, though HIV-positive patients tended to have higher peak values during their clinical course. Three HIV-positive patients had superimposed bacterial pneumonia with positive sputum cultures, and all three patients expired during hospitalization. There was no difference in frequency of thrombotic events or myocardial infarction between these groups. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:This study provides evidence that HIV coinfection does not significantly impact presentation, hospital course, or outcomes of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, when compared to matched non-HIV patients. A larger study is required to determine if the trends we observed apply to all HIV-positive patients.
Association of SARS-CoV-2 Genomic Load with COVID-19 Patient Outcomes
Zacharioudakis, Ioannis M; Prasad, Prithiv J; Zervou, Fainareti N; Atreyee Basu; Inglima, Kenneth; Weisenberg, Scott A; Aguero-Rosenfeld, Maria E