The Role of Amino Acid Supplementation in Orthopaedic Surgery
The nutritional status of patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery has started to garner increasing attention in published literature. Notable previous evidence has demonstrated the negative effect of malnutrition on outcomes after orthopaedic procedures. Although there has been increased recognition of malnutrition as a risk factor for suboptimal outcomes, the use of nutritional supplementation to mitigate those risks is not well understood. The purpose of this review of most current literature on the topic is to introduce and elucidate the role of amino acid supplementation as a countermeasure to muscle loss and improvement of nutritional status in orthopaedic patients to improve results and outcomes after orthopaedic surgery.
Surgery and the Aging Orthopaedic Surgeon
➤ Aging is associated with well-documented neurocognitive and psychomotor changes.➤ These changes can be expected to impact the skill with which orthopaedic surgeons continue to perform surgical procedures.➤ Currently, there is no standardized approach for assessing the changes in surgical skills and clinical judgment that may occur with aging.➤ Oversight by the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, the impact of the Age Discrimination in Employment Act, and the current legal climate make it difficult to institute a mandatory assessment program.➤ The regularly scheduled credentialing process that occurs at each institution can be the most effective time to assess for these changes because it utilizes an established process that occurs at regularly scheduled intervals.➤ Each department of orthopaedic surgery and institution should determine an approach that can be utilized when there is concern that a surgeon's surgical skills have shown signs of deterioration.
Impact of Accumulating Risk Factors on the Incidence of Dislocation After Primary Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty Using a Medial Glenoid Lateral Humerus Onlay Prosthesis
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:The aim of this study is to facilitate preoperative identification of patients at-risk for dislocation after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (rTSA) using the Equinoxe rTSA prosthesis (medialized glenoid, lateralized onlay humerus with a 145° neck angle) and quantify the impact of accumulating risk factors on the occurrence of dislocation. METHODS:We retrospectively analyzed 10,023 primary rTSA patients from an international multi-center database of a single platform shoulder prosthesis and quantified the dislocation rate associated with multiple combinations of previously identified risk factors. To adapt our statistical results for prospective identification of patients most at-risk for dislocation, we stratified our dataset by multiple risk factor combinations and calculated the odds ratio for each cohort to quantify the impact of accumulating risk factors on dislocation. RESULTS:136 (52F/83M/1UNK) of 10,023 primary rTSA patients were reported to have a dislocation for a rate of 1.4%. Patients with zero risk factors were rare, where only 12.7% of patients (1,268 of 10,023) had no risk factors, and only 0.5% of these (6 of 1,268) had a report of dislocation. The dislocation rate increased in patient cohorts with an increasing number of risk factors. Specifically, the dislocation rate increased from 0.9% for a patient cohort with 1 risk factor to 1.0% for 2 risk factors, 1.6% for 3 risk factors, 2.7% for 4 risk factors, 5.3% for 5 risk factors, and 7.3% for 6 risk factors. Stratifying dislocation rate by multiple risk factor combinations identified numerous cohorts with either an elevated risk or a diminished risk for dislocation. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:This 10,023 rTSA multi-center study demonstrated that 1.4% of rTSA patients experienced dislocation with one specific medialized glenoid/lateralized humerus onlay rTSA prosthesis. Stratifying patients by multiple combinations of risk factors demonstrated the impact of accumulating risk factors on incidence of dislocation. rTSA patients with the greatest risk of dislocation were: male gender, age ≤67 years at the time of surgery, patients with BMI ≥31, patients who received cemented humeral stems, patients who received glenospheres having a diameter >40mm, and/or patients who received expanded/laterally offset glenospheres. Patients with these risk factors who are considering rTSA using a medial glenoid/lateral humerus, should be made aware of their elevated dislocation risk profile.
Trends in the treatment of proximal humerus fractures from 2010 to 2020
BACKGROUND:The incidence of proximal humerus fractures (PHF) is continuing to rise due to shifts towards a more aged population as well as advancements in surgical treatment options. The purpose of this study is to examine and compare trends in the treatment of PHFs (nonoperative vs. operative; different surgical treatments) across different age groups over the last decade (2010-2020). METHODS:The New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) database was queried using International Classification of Diseases and Current Procedural Terminology codes to identify all patients presenting with or undergoing surgery for PHF between 2010 and 2020. Treatment trends, demographics, and insurance information were analyzed during the study period. Comparisons were made between operative and nonoperative trends with respect to the number and type of surgeries performed among 3 age groups: ≤49 years, 50-64 years, and ≥65 years. The rate of postoperative complications and reoperations was evaluated and compared among different surgical treatments for patients with a minimum 1-year postoperative follow-up. RESULTS: = 0.112, P = .730). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Nonsurgical treatment remains the mainstay treatment of PHFs. Although there is no increase in the prevalence of operative treatment in patients ≥50 years in the last decade, there is an exponential increase in the use of rTSA with a corresponding decrease in HA and IF, a trend more substantial in patients ≥65 years compared with patients between 50 and 64 years.
Comparison of Multiple Surgical Treatments for Massive Irreparable Rotator Cuff Tears in Patients Younger Than 70 Years of Age: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:Massive irreparable rotator cuff tears (MIRCTs) remain a challenging treatment paradigm, particularly for nonelderly patients without pseudoparalysis or arthritis. PURPOSE/UNASSIGNED:To use a network meta-analysis to analyze comparative studies of surgical treatment options for MIRCTs in patients <70 years of age for several patient-reported outcomes, range of motion (ROM), and acromiohumeral distance (AHD). STUDY DESIGN/UNASSIGNED:Network meta-analysis of comparative studies; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:package Version 0.9-6 in R. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:= .024). CONCLUSION/UNASSIGNED:For patients <70 years with MIRCT without significant arthritis or pseudoparalysis, it appears that graft interposition repair techniques, superior capsular reconstruction using the long head of the biceps tendon, arthroscopic debridement, and balloon arthroplasty provide superiority in various outcome domains, while RSA provides the least benefit in forward flexion.
Two-year minimum survivorship and radiographic analysis of a pressfit short humeral stem for total shoulder arthroplasty
Background: Newer generation humeral stem designs in total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) are trending towards shorter lengths and uncemented fixation. The goal of this study is to report a 2-yr minimum clinical and radiographic outcomes of an uncemented short-stem press-fit humeral stem in anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty (ATSA) and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA). Methods: A retrospective multicenter database review was performed of all patients who received an uncemented short-length press-fit humeral stem (Equinoxe Preserve humeral stem, Exactech, Inc., Gainesville, FL, USA) in ATSA and RTSA with a minimum two-year follow-up. The primary outcome was the prevalence of humeral stems at risk of radiographic loosening. Secondary outcomes included evaluation of functional outcome scores and prevalence of revision TSA for humeral stem loosening. Two blinded observers performed radiographic analyses, which included humeral stem alignment, canal filling ratio, radiolucent lines, stress shielding (calcar and greater tuberosity), and changes in component position (subsidence and stem shift). At risk stems were defined by the presence of one or more of the following: humeral stem with shifting or subsidence, scalloping of the humeral cortex, or radiolucent lines measuring 2 mm or greater in 3 or more zones. Results: 287 patients (97 ATSA and 190 RTSA) were included in this study. The mean follow-up was 35.9 (±6.1) months. There were significant improvements for all functional outcome scores (P < .05), range of motion (P < .05), and visual analogue pain scale pain (P < .05). The prevalence of humeral stem at risk of radiographic loosening was 1% in the ATSA group (1/97) and 18.4% in the RTSA group (35/190). Calcar resorption was seen in 34% of ATSA and 19% of RTSA, with severe resorption in 12.4% of ATSA and only 3.2% of RTSA. Greater tuberosity resorption was present in 3.1% of ATSA and 7.9% of RTSA. The mean canal filling ratio was 50.2% (standard deviation 11.2%). Using logistic regression, a significant positive correlation between canal filling ratio and stress shielding (P < .01) was seen for both calcar and tuberosity stress shielding. The revision surgery rate was 0% in ATSA compared to 1.6% in RTSA. Conclusion: This retrospective study demonstrates a low revision rate and low prevalence of humeral stems at risk of radiographic loosening at two years with a press-fit short-stem humeral design in ATSA. Physiologic subsidence of humeral stems can account for higher prevalence of humeral stems at radiographic risk of loosening in RTSA compared to ATSA
Two-year minimum survivorship and radiographic analysis of a pressfit short humeral stem for total shoulder arthroplasty
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:Newer generation humeral stem designs in total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) are trending towards shorter lengths and uncemented fixation. The goal of this study is to report a 2-yr minimum clinical and radiographic outcomes of an uncemented short-stem press-fit humeral stem in anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty (ATSA) and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA). METHODS/UNASSIGNED:A retrospective multicenter database review was performed of all patients who received an uncemented short-length press-fit humeral stem (Equinoxe Preserve humeral stem, Exactech, Inc., Gainesville, FL, USA) in ATSA and RTSA with a minimum two-year follow-up. The primary outcome was the prevalence of humeral stems at risk of radiographic loosening. Secondary outcomes included evaluation of functional outcome scores and prevalence of revision TSA for humeral stem loosening. Two blinded observers performed radiographic analyses, which included humeral stem alignment, canal filling ratio, radiolucent lines, stress shielding (calcar and greater tuberosity), and changes in component position (subsidence and stem shift). At risk stems were defined by the presence of one or more of the following: humeral stem with shifting or subsidence, scalloping of the humeral cortex, or radiolucent lines measuring 2 mm or greater in 3 or more zones. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED: < .01) was seen for both calcar and tuberosity stress shielding. The revision surgery rate was 0% in ATSA compared to 1.6% in RTSA. CONCLUSION/UNASSIGNED:This retrospective study demonstrates a low revision rate and low prevalence of humeral stems at risk of radiographic loosening at two years with a press-fit short-stem humeral design in ATSA. Physiologic subsidence of humeral stems can account for higher prevalence of humeral stems at radiographic risk of loosening in RTSA compared to ATSA.
Analysis of factors associated with patient-reported outcome (PRO) score completion rate one year after shoulder surgeries
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:Patient-reported outcome measurements (PROMs) are important metrics for monitoring improvements following shoulder surgery. Despite the easy accessibility of electronic PROM surveys, completion rates vary, and factors predictive of survey completion for patients enrolled in medical survey follow-up after shoulder surgery remain largely unknown. The purpose of this study is to investigate survey completion rates for common shoulder procedures and identify factors predictive of PROM completion at one-year postoperatively. We hypothesize that the response rate to shoulder PROMs may vary by the shoulder procedure type after surgery. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:Patients undergoing total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA), rotator cuff repair (RCR), and instability surgery (Latarjet procedure [LP], and arthroscopic Bankart repair [ABR]) from 2019 to 2021 were prospectively enrolled. Each patient was administered PROM surveys via email preoperatively and at 2-weeks, 6-weeks, 3-months, 6-months, and 12-months following surgery. Demographics and socioeconomic characteristics were collected from our institutional database. The primary outcome studied was survey completion rate by procedure. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors predictive of completing 12-month follow-up. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED: = .001]. CONCLUSION/UNASSIGNED:Postoperative PROM survey completion rates vary significantly among commonly performed shoulder procedures during the first year after surgery. Hispanic ethnicity and younger age were all predictive of a lower propensity, and the TSA procedure is predictive of higher odds for PROM survey completion at the 12-month follow-up.
Prognostic value of the Walch classification for patients before and after shoulder arthroplasty performed for osteoarthritis with an intact rotator cuff
BACKGROUND:The Walch classification is commonly used by surgeons when determining the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). However, its utility in prognosticating patient clinical state before and after TSA remains unproven. We assessed the prognostic value of the modified Walch glenoid classification on preoperative clinical state and postoperative clinical and radiographic outcomes in total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA). METHODS:A prospectively collected, multicenter database for a single-platform TSA system was queried for patients with rotator cuff-intact OA and minimum 2 year follow-up after anatomic (aTSA) and reverse TSA (rTSA). Differences in patient-reported outcome scores (Simple Shoulder Test, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Standardized Shoulder Assessment Form, Shoulder Pain and Disability Index, visual analog scale for pain, Shoulder Function score), combined patient-reported and clinical-input scores (Constant, University of California-Los Angeles shoulder score, Shoulder Arthroplasty Smart Score), active range of motion values (forward elevation [FE], abduction, external rotation [ER], internal rotation [IR], and radiographic outcomes (humeral and glenoid radiolucency line rates, scapula notching rate) were stratified and compared by glenoid deformity type per the Walch classification for aTSA and rTSA cohorts. Comparisons were performed to assess the ability of the Walch classification to predict the preoperative, postoperative, and improved state after TSA. RESULTS:1008 TSAs were analyzed including 576 aTSA and 432 rTSA. Comparison of outcomes between Walch glenoid types resulted in 15 pairwise comparisons of 12 clinical outcome metrics, yielding 180 total Walch glenoid pairwise comparisons for each clinical state (preoperative, postoperative, improvement). Of the 180 possible pairwise Walch glenoid type and metric comparisons studied for aTSA and rTSA cohorts, <6% and <2% significantly differed in aTSA and rTSA cohorts, respectively. Significant differences based on Walch type were seen after adjustment for multiple pairwise comparisons in the aTSA cohort for FE and ER preoperatively, the Constant score postoperatively, and for abduction, FE, ER, Constant score, and SAS score for pre- to postoperative improvement. In the rTSA cohort, significant differences were only seen in abduction and Constant score both postoperatively and for pre- to postoperative improvement. There were no statistically significant differences in humeral lucency rate, glenoid lucency rate (aTSA), scapular notching rate (rTSA), complication rates, or revision rates between Walch glenoid types after TSA. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Although useful for describing degenerative changes to the glenohumeral joint, we demonstrate a weak association between preoperative glenoid morphology according to the Walch classification and clinical state when evaluating patients undergoing TSA for rotator cuff-intact OA. Alternative glenoid classification systems or predictive models should be considered to provide more precise prognoses for patients undergoing TSA for rotator cuff-intact OA.
Why has reverse total shoulder arthroplasty become the procedure of choice for primary shoulder arthroplasty? [Editorial]