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Stroke Treatment Delay Limits Outcome After Mechanical Thrombectomy: Stratification by Arrival Time and ASPECTS

Snyder, Thomas; Agarwal, Shashank; Huang, Jeffrey; Ishida, Koto; Flusty, Brent; Frontera, Jennifer; Lord, Aaron; Torres, Jose; Zhang, Cen; Rostanski, Sara; Favate, Albert; Lillemoe, Kaitlyn; Sanger, Matthew; Kim, Sun; Humbert, Kelley; Scher, Erica; Dehkharghani, Seena; Raz, Eytan; Shapiro, Maksim; K Nelson, Peter; Gordon, David; Tanweer, Omar; Nossek, Erez; Farkas, Jeffrey; Liff, Jeremy; Turkel-Parrella, David; Tiwari, Ambooj; Riina, Howard; Yaghi, Shadi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Mechanical thrombectomy (MT) has helped many patients achieve functional independence. The effect of time-to-treatment based in specific epochs and as related to Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) has not been established. The goal of the study was to evaluate the association between last known normal (LKN)-to-puncture time and good functional outcome. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective cohort study of prospectively collected acute ischemic stroke patients undergoing MT for large vessel occlusion. We used binary logistic regression models adjusted for age, Modified Treatment in Cerebral Ischemia score, initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, and noncontrast CT ASPECTS to assess the association between LKN-to-puncture time and favorable outcome defined as Modified Rankin Score 0-2 on discharge. RESULTS:Among 421 patients, 328 were included in analysis. Increased LKN-to-puncture time was associated with decreased probability of good functional outcome (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] ratio per 15-minute delay = .98; 95% confidence interval [CI], .97-.99; P = .001). This was especially true when LKN-puncture time was 0-6 hours (aOR per 15-minute delay = .94; 95% CI, .89-.99; P = .05) or ASPECTS 8-10 (aOR = .98; 95% CI, .97-.99; P = .002) as opposed to when LKN-puncture time was 6-24 hours (aOR per 15-minute delay = .99; 95% CI, .97-1.00; P = .16) and ASPECTS <8 (aOR = .98; 95% CI, .93-1.03; P = .37). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Decreased LKN-groin puncture time improves outcome particularly in those with good ASPECTS presenting within 6 hours. Strategies to decrease reperfusion times should be investigated, particularly in those in the early time window and with good ASPECTS.
PMID: 32592619
ISSN: 1552-6569
CID: 4503652

Endarterectomy for symptomatic internal carotid artery web

Haynes, Joseph; Raz, Eytan; Tanweer, Omar; Shapiro, Maksim; Esparza, Rogelio; Zagzag, David; Riina, Howard A; Henderson, Christine; Lillemoe, Kaitlyn; Zhang, Cen; Rostanski, Sara; Yaghi, Shadi; Ishida, Koto; Torres, Jose; Mac Grory, Brian; Nossek, Erez
OBJECTIVE:The carotid web (CW) is an underrecognized source of cryptogenic, embolic stroke in patients younger than 55 years of age, with up to 37% of these patients found to have CW on angiography. Currently, there are little data detailing the best treatment practices to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke in these patients. The authors describe their institutional surgical experience with patients treated via carotid endarterectomy (CEA) for a symptomatic internal carotid artery web. METHODS:A retrospective, observational cohort study was performed including all patients presenting to the authors' institution with CW. All patients who were screened underwent either carotid artery stenting (CAS) or CEA after presentation with ischemic stroke from January 2019 to February 2020. From this sample, patients with suggestive radiological features and pathologically confirmed CW who underwent CEA were identified. Patient demographics, medical histories, radiological images, surgical results, and clinical outcomes were collected and described using descriptive statistics. RESULTS:A total of 45 patients with symptomatic carotid lesions were treated at the authors' institution during the time period. Twenty patients underwent CAS, 1 of them for a CW. Twenty-five patients were treated via CEA, and of these, 6 presented with ischemic strokes ipsilateral to CWs, including 3 patients who presented with recurrent strokes. The mean patient age was 55 ± 12.6 years and 5 of 6 were women. CT angiography or digital subtraction angiography demonstrated the presence of CWs ipsilateral to the stroke in all patients. All patients underwent resection of CWs using CEA. There were no permanent procedural complications and no patients had stroke recurrence following intervention at the latest follow-up (mean 6.1 ± 4 months). One patient developed mild tongue deviation most likely related to retraction, with complete recovery at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS:CEA is a safe and feasible treatment for symptomatic carotid webs and should be considered a viable alternative to CAS in this patient population.
PMID: 32858515
ISSN: 1933-0693
CID: 4574202

Multiple Administrations of Intravenous Thrombolytic Therapy to a Stroke Mimic

Liberman, Ava L; Antoniello, Daniel; Tversky, Steven; Fara, Michael G; Zhang, Cen; Gurin, Lindsey; Rostanski, Sara K
BACKGROUND:Patients who present emergently with focal neurological deficits concerning for acute ischemic stroke can be extremely challenging to diagnose and treat. Unnecessary administration of thrombolytics to potential stroke patients whose symptoms are not caused by an acute ischemic stroke-stroke mimics-may result in patient harm, although the overall risk of hemorrhagic complications among stroke mimics is low. CASE REPORT/METHODS:We present a case of a stroke mimic patient with underlying psychiatric disease who was treated with intravenous alteplase on four separate occasions in four different emergency departments in the same city. Although he did not suffer hemorrhagic complications, this case highlights the importance of rapid exchange of health information across institutions to improve diagnostic quality and safety. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Increased awareness of stroke mimics by emergency physicians may improve diagnostic safety for a subset of high-risk patients. Establishing rapid cross-institutional communication pathways that are integrated into provider's workflows to convey essential patient health information has potential to improve stroke diagnostic decision-making and thus represents an important topic for health systems research in emergency medicine.
PMID: 31806434
ISSN: 0736-4679
CID: 4218892

Redefined Measure of Early Neurological Improvement Shows Treatment Benefit of Alteplase Over Placebo

Agarwal, Shashank; Scher, Erica; Lord, Aaron; Frontera, Jennifer; Ishida, Koto; Torres, Jose; Rostanski, Sara; Mistry, Eva; Mac Grory, Brian; Cutting, Shawna; Burton, Tina; Silver, Brian; Liberman, Ava L; Lerario, Mackenzie P; Furie, Karen; Grotta, James; Khatri, Pooja; Saver, Jeffrey; Yaghi, Shadi
Background and Purpose- The first of the 2 NINDS (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke) Study trials did not show a significant increase in early neurological improvement, defined as National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) improvement by ≥4, with alteplase treatment. We hypothesized that early neurological improvement defined as a percentage change in NIHSS (percent change NIHSS) at 24 hours is superior to other definitions in predicting 3-month functional outcomes and using this definition there would be treatment benefit of alteplase over placebo at 24 hours. Methods- We analyzed the NINDS rt-PA Stroke Study (Parts 1 and 2) trial data. Percent change NIHSS was defined as ([admission NIHSS score-24-hour NIHSS score]×100/admission NIHSS score] and delta NIHSS as (admission NIHSS score-24-hour NIHSS score). We compared early neurological improvement using these definitions between alteplase versus placebo patients. We also used receiver operating characteristic curve to determine the predictive association of early neurological improvement with excellent 3-month functional outcomes (Barthel Index score of 95-100 and modified Rankin Scale score of 0-1), good 3-month functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale score of 0-2), and 3-month infarct volume. Results- There was a significantly greater improvement in the 24-hour median percent change NIHSS among patients treated with alteplase compared with the placebo group (28% versus 15%; P=0.045) but not median delta NIHSS (3 versus 2; P=0.471). Receiver operating characteristic curve comparison showed that percent change NIHSS (ROCpercent) was better than delta NIHSS (ROCdelta) and admission NIHSS (ROCadmission) with regards to excellent 3-month Barthel Index (ROCpercent, 0.83; ROCdelta, 0.76; ROCadmission, 0.75), excellent 3-month modified Rankin Scale (ROCpercent, 0.83; ROCdelta, 0.74; ROCadmission, 0.78), and good 3-month modified Rankin Scale (ROCpercent, 0.83; ROCdelta, 0.76; ROCadmission, 0.78). Conclusions- In the NINDS rt-PA trial, alteplase was associated with a significant percent change improvement in NIHSS at 24 hours. Percent change in NIHSS may be a better surrogate marker of thrombolytic activity and 3-month outcomes.
PMID: 32102629
ISSN: 1524-4628
CID: 4323492

Education Research: Teaching and assessing communication and professionalism in neurology residency with simulation

Kurzweil, Arielle M; Lewis, Ariane; Pleninger, Perrin; Rostanski, Sara K; Nelson, Aaron; Zhang, Cen; Zabar, Sondra; Ishida, Koto; Balcer, Laura J; Galetta, Steven L
PMID: 31959708
ISSN: 1526-632x
CID: 4272802

Identifying Predictors for Final Diagnosis of Ischemic Events in an Emergency Department Observation Unit [Meeting Abstract]

Kumar, Arooshi; Zhang, Cen; Liberman, Ava; Ishida, Koto; Torres, Jose; Rostanski, Sara
ISSN: 0028-3878
CID: 4561822

TIME IS BRAIN in mechanical thrombectomy Particularly in Those Arriving within 6 hours and have good ASPECTS score [Meeting Abstract]

Snyder, Thomas; Agarwal, Shashank; Flusty, Brent; Kim, Sun; Frontera, Jennifer; Lord, Aaron; Favate, Albert; Humbert, Kelley; Torres, Jose; Sanger, Matthew; Zhang, Cen; Ishida, Koto; Rostanski, Sara; Yaghi, Shadi
ISSN: 0028-3878
CID: 4561342

Diagnostic Evaluation of Patients Admitted to Emergency Department Observation Unit for Suspected TIA [Meeting Abstract]

Kumar, Arooshi; Ishida, Koto; Liberman, Ava; Zhang, Cen; Yaghi, Shadi; Torres, Jose; Rostanski, Sara
ISSN: 0028-3878
CID: 4561622

Stroke Simulation during a Neurology Bootcamp [Meeting Abstract]

Kvernland, Alexandra; Giglio, Brandon; Russo, Marco; Rostanski, Sara
ISSN: 0028-3878
CID: 4561882

Association Between Functional Outcomes of Stroke Patients Receiving Mechanical Thrombectomy and CT Perfusion Imaging Acquisition [Meeting Abstract]

Agarwal, Shashank; Mistry, Eva; Scher, Erica; Kim, Sun; Sanger, Matthew; Humbert, Kelley; Ishida, Koto; Torres, Jose; Rostanski, Sara; Zhang, Cen; Arcot, Karthikeyan; Turkel-Parrella, David; Farkas, Jeffrey; Raz, Eytan; Gordon, David; Riina, Howard; Shapiro, Maksim; Tanweer, Omar; Nossek, Erez; Nelson, Peter; Lord, Aaron; Frontera, Jennifer; Yaghi, Shadi
ISSN: 0028-3878
CID: 4561212